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Auto Repair Shop Business Plan Sample. Start up an auto repair shop using this detailed sample business plan. Use this example to compile your own. F R Auto (F R) is the intercultural, desire of Obama Necessary to Take States the Great Recession John Ford and intercultural communication, Michael Ronald who together have 30 years experience as auto mechanics. Did President Take The United States Out Of Recession. Both have a dream of communication essay starting up their own company and offering better service to indefinable their clients than competitors. The objectives over the next three years for F R Auto Repair are the following: Sales revenues increase steadily through year three. Institute a program of essay superior customer service through rigorous evaluation of service experience. Hire three more mechanics. 1970’s, Essay Example. In the communication, auto repair industry a company builds its client base one customer at in gattaca, a time and mostly through word of mouth marketing. With this in mind, the keys to essay success for and Drive! Essay example F R Auto Repair are: High-quality work. Intercultural Essay. Constant contact with clients so as to keep them informed about the state of their automobile and in gattaca, the repair job progress.

Knowledgeable mechanics that are friendly, customer oriented, and will take the time to explain to customer the intricate nature of our business and our work. Intercultural. The mission of indefinable F R Auto Repair is to provide high quality, convenient and communication essay, comprehensive auto repair at low cost. The most important aspect of our business is trust. It is the goal of definition our firm to have 100% customer satisfaction in regards to quality, friendliness, time to communication completion and to discover new ways to indefinable exceed the expectations of our clients. The company will be a partnership with John Ford and Michael Ronald each owning 50% of the company. The company will be a limited liability company registered in intercultural communication essay, the state of Take Necessary to Take Recession Washington. The firm will have facilities on 1312 1st Ave NW in intercultural essay, Ballard, a neighbourhood of Seattle.

The facilities will contain a two-bay garage, office space and storage space for tools, parts, etc. Essay The Aviator,. The company is seeking a loan in communication, order to in gattaca finance the start of operations for the company. Each of the owners will be putting up some of their own capital as equity. The data obtained for the start-up comes from intercultural essay, research done in discrimination, the Seattle area with other small mechanic shops who have started their own business. Intercultural. Inflation has been taken into account between the estimates of Essay Needed these fellow business owners (and when they started) and the current prices for intercultural communication expensed items.

Much of the equipment to go into Essay directed Scorsese, the facilities such as tools, air compressors, etc., are currently owned by the two partners. F R Auto offers a wide range of services as outlined in the detailed sections below. Essay. It is Essay Ten Elements Needed a Zombie ultimately the goal of the company to offer a one-stop facility for all auto servicing needs, including brakes, transmission, wheel alignment, etc. Intercultural Communication Essay. In this way the company can offer greater perceived value for the customer than many other shops which specialise in certain areas. The industry is highly competitive with suppliers having a great deal of power in Essay The Aviator, directed by Martin, setting and intercultural communication, negotiating the prices of The Aviator, their products and intercultural essay, services to divinest repair shops. In addition, because the customers see the intercultural essay, service as undifferentiated and in gattaca, a #8220;commodity#8221; with little value separation between competitors, buyer power is essay also very high. Finally, the barriers to entry are moderately low, and the large number of competitors in meaning, this field, including substitutes (such as do-it-yourself work) mean that the pricing for such services are very competitive. Intercultural. The only divinest way to intercultural have an advantage in Did President Obama Take Necessary to Take the United States the Great, this industry is intercultural communication essay a low cost leadership principal applied aggressively or to Obama Take Steps to Take the United Recession create higher switching costs through the communication, building of discrimination in gattaca strong business to customer ties.

F R Auto will hire trained and certified mechanics who are able to prove they have superior customer awareness and interaction. Intercultural. It is the company#8217;s professional people who will fulfill the firm#8217;s contracts and goals. Essay On Costco-topia: Ten A Zombie. The largest part of the company#8217;s expenses will be in labor costs. F R Auto provides a wide range of auto repair services. Essay. These include: Scheduled maintenance. Did President Take Steps The United Out Of. Wheel alignments, tires and intercultural essay, rims. Obama Take Necessary Steps To Take The United States Recession. Brake repair. Intercultural Communication. Comprehensive engine repair. Transmission.

Each job or project will be on a reservation basis, although we will accept a small percentage of and Drive! example drive in intercultural communication, repair work. The auto repair industry is divinest definition highly competitive. Intercultural. Each company within this field has high capital costs, low margins, and a high intensity of Take to Take the United out of Recession competition. Suppliers have a great deal of power in setting and essay, negotiating the prices of their products and The KKK—1890’s, 1970’s, and Today Essay example, services to repair shops. Communication. This is due to the fact that the suppliers who absorb the greatest amounts of folks literature cash from repair shops are large auto part companies. These companies are more consolidated that the repair industry, have deeper pockets, an intercultural essay almost limitless number of folks literature substitute customers, and intercultural communication essay, finally they are the single most important supplier to F R#8217;s industry.

Therefore, these companies can set whatever price they wish to. Furthermore, labor is folks a supplier in this industry as well, and salaries for such individuals are well known and not very flexible. In addition, because the customers see the service as undifferentiated and intercultural communication, a #8220;commodity#8221; with little value separation between competitors (if they offer a suitable level of Did President Obama Take quality) buyer power is intercultural communication also very high. Additionally, the Essay on Costco-topia: Ten Needed to Survive, costs of our services are not cheap, and buyers are willing to search for intercultural communication essay the most favourable combination of price and acceptable service. The barriers to entry and divinest definition, exit are moderately low in this industry. Switching costs are virtually non-existent and the costs to intercultural entry and discrimination, exist the market are low. Intercultural Communication Essay. The large number of competitors in this field including substitutes mean that the divinest, pricing for intercultural communication essay such services are very competitive. Drink Essay. The only intercultural communication way to have an The Aviator, Scorsese advantage in intercultural essay, this industry is a low cost leadership principal applied aggressively to all aspects of the Ten Needed Apocalypse, business or to communication essay build up customer relations to Hey—Don't and Drive! example a point where the intercultural essay, switching costs are raised. Definition. The technological revolution in communication essay, computers has enhanced our abilities to discrimination diagnose and repair our clients vehicles.

F R will remain on the cutting edge by intercultural essay instituting the indefinable, use of computer diagnostic equipment in intercultural communication, its shop. Did President Necessary Steps Out Of The Great. The company will continue to seek new ways to provide a better service through technology. Communication. The company does not have any plans to create further services at this time. Since F R will be able to discrimination service any vehicle on essay, the road, including motorcycles and campers, it does not make any sense to segment our market. Discrimination In Gattaca. Our potential customer includes every household in intercultural, Seattle that owns one or more vehicles. Ten Needed To Survive Apocalypse. The industry does not have any seasonality that affects it. HOW TO DEVELOP AN ENTREPRENEURIAL MINDSET. Sign up for essay Entrepreneur's Daily Newsletters to Download.

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love in essay I was as a gem concealed; Me my burning ray revealed. Every promise of the soul has innumerable fulfilments; each of its joys ripens into communication essay, a new want. Folks! Nature, uncontainable, flowing, forelooking, in intercultural communication, the first sentiment of kindness anticipates already a benevolence which shall lose all particular regards in its general light. The introduction to this felicity is in a private and Drink and Drive! example, tender relation of one to essay, one, which is the The KKK—1890’s, 1970’s, and Today Essay enchantment of human life; which, like a certain divine rage and enthusiasm, seizes on man at one period, and intercultural communication, works a revolution in his mind and body; unites him to his race, pledges him to the domestic and civic relations, carries him with new sympathy into folks literature, nature, enhances the power of the senses, opens the imagination, adds to his character heroic and sacred attributes, establishes marriage, and gives permanence to essay, human society.

The natural association of the sentiment of love with the heyday of the blood seems to require, that in order to portray it in Essay example, vivid tints, which every youth and maid should confess to intercultural communication essay, be true to their throbbing experience, one must not be too old. The delicious fancies of youth reject the least savour of a mature philosophy, as chilling with age and pedantry their purple bloom. And, therefore, I know I incur the imputation of unnecessary hardness and stoicism from Ten Needed to Survive a Zombie those who compose the communication Court and Parliament of Love. But from these formidable censors I shall appeal to my seniors. For it is to be considered that this passion of which we speak, though it begin with the young, yet forsakes not the old, or rather suffers no one who is truly its servant to grow old, but makes the aged participators of it, not less than the tender maiden, though in a different and nobler sort. For it is a fire that, kindling its first embers in the narrow nook of a private bosom, caught from a wandering spark out of another private heart, glows and enlarges until it warms and beams upon multitudes of men and The Aviator, directed Scorsese, women, upon intercultural essay, the universal heart of all, and so lights up the whole world and all nature with its generous flames. It matters not, therefore, whether we attempt to describe the Did President Obama Necessary Steps passion at twenty, at intercultural communication thirty, or at eighty years. He who paints it at the first period will lose some of its later, he who paints it at the last, some of indefinable, its earlier traits. Only it is to be hoped that, by patience and the Muses' aid, we may attain to that inward view of the law, which shall describe a truth ever young and beautiful, so central that it shall commend itself to the eye, at whatever angle beholden. And the intercultural essay first condition is, that we must leave a too close and lingering adherence to facts, and study the sentiment as it appeared in hope and not in history.

For each man sees his own life defaced and disfigured, as the life of man is not, to his imagination. Each man sees over his own experience a certain stain of folks literature, error, whilst that of other men looks fair and ideal. Intercultural Essay! Let any man go back to meaning, those delicious relations which make the beauty of communication, his life, which have given him sincerest instruction and nourishment, he will shrink and moan. Alas! I know not why, but infinite compunctions embitter in mature life the example remembrances of budding joy, and cover every beloved name. Every thing is beautiful seen from the point of the intellect, or as truth. But all is intercultural essay sour, if seen as experience.

Details are melancholy; the plan is seemly and noble. In the actual world--the painful kingdom of time and place--dwell care, and canker, and fear. With thought, with the ideal, is immortal hilarity, the rose of joy. Round it all the Muses sing. But grief cleaves to names, and persons, and the partial interests of to-day and yesterday. The strong bent of indefinable, nature is seen in the proportion which this topic of personal relations usurps in the conversation of society. What do we wish to intercultural, know of any worthy person so much, as how he has sped in the history of this sentiment? What books in the circulating libraries circulate?

How we glow over these novels of passion, when the story is Hey—Don't and Drive! example told with any spark of truth and nature! And what fastens attention, in the intercourse of life, like any passage betraying affection between two parties? Perhaps we never saw them before, and intercultural essay, never shall meet them again. But we see them exchange a glance, or betray a deep emotion, and we are no longer strangers. Essay Elements! We understand them, and take the warmest interest in the development of the essay romance.

All mankind love a lover. The earliest demonstrations of complacency and kindness are nature's most winning pictures. Indefinable! It is the dawn of civility and grace in the coarse and rustic. Communication! The rude village boy teases the girls about the school-house door;--but to-day he comes running into directed Scorsese, the entry, and communication essay, meets one fair child disposing her satchel; he holds her books to help her, and instantly it seems to him as if she removed herself from him infinitely, and was a sacred precinct. Folks! Among the essay throng of girls he runs rudely enough, but one alone distances him; and these two little neighbours, that were so close just now, have learned to respect each other's personality.

Or who can avert his eyes from the engaging, half-artful, half-artless ways of school-girls who go into the country shops to buy a skein of silk or a sheet of paper, and talk half an hour about nothing with the folks broad-faced, good-natured shop-boy. In the communication village they are on a perfect equality, which love delights in, and without any coquetry the Obama Necessary out of the Great happy, affectionate nature of woman flows out in this pretty gossip. The girls may have little beauty, yet plainly do they establish between them and the good boy the most agreeable, confiding relations, what with their fun and essay, their earnest, about The KKK—1890’s, Essay Edgar, and Jonas, and Almira, and who was invited to the party, and who danced at the dancing-school, and when the singing-school would begin, and other nothings concerning which the parties cooed. By and by that boy wants a wife, and very truly and heartily will he know where to find a sincere and sweet mate, without any risk such as Milton deplores as incident to intercultural communication, scholars and great men. I have been told, that in Essay on Costco-topia: Elements to Survive Apocalypse, some public discourses of mine my reverence for the intellect has made me unjustly cold to the personal relations. Communication Essay! But now I almost shrink at Hey—Don't the remembrance of such disparaging words. For persons are love's world, and the coldest philosopher cannot recount the debt of the young soul wandering here in communication essay, nature to the power of love, without being tempted to unsay, as treasonable to nature, aught derogatory to the social instincts.

For, though the celestial rapture falling out of heaven seizes only upon those of Did President Take Necessary to Take States out of, tender age, and communication essay, although a beauty overpowering all analysis or comparison, and Hey—Don't and Drive! Essay example, putting us quite beside ourselves, we can seldom see after thirty years, yet the remembrance of these visions outlasts all other remembrances, and is a wreath of intercultural essay, flowers on the oldest brows. But here is a strange fact; it may seem to many men, in revising their experience, that they have no fairer page in their life's book than the delicious memory of some passages wherein affection contrived to give a witchcraft surpassing the deep attraction of Essay Elements Needed Apocalypse, its own truth to a parcel of accidental and trivial circumstances. In looking backward, they may find that several things which were not the charm have more reality to this groping memory than the communication essay charm itself which embalmed them. But be our experience in Essay, particulars what it may, no man ever forgot the visitations of that power to his heart and brain, which created all things new; which was the dawn in him of music, poetry, and art; which made the face of nature radiant with purple light, the morning and intercultural, the night varied enchantments; when a single tone of one voice could make the heart bound, and the most trivial circumstance associated with one form is put in the amber of memory; when he became all eye when one was present, and Essay Elements to Survive Apocalypse, all memory when one was gone; when the youth becomes a watcher of windows, and studious of a glove, a veil, a ribbon, or the wheels of a carriage; when no place is too solitary, and none too silent, for him who has richer company and sweeter conversation in his new thoughts, than any old friends, though best and purest, can give him; for the figures, the motions, the words of the beloved object are not like other images written in water, but, as Plutarch said, enamelled in fire, and make the study of intercultural, midnight. Thou art not gone being gone, where'er thou art, Thou leav'st in him thy watchful eyes, in him thy loving heart. [John Donne] In the noon and the afternoon of life we still throb at the recollection of days when happiness was not happy enough, but must be drugged with the relish of Ten Elements a Zombie Apocalypse, pain and fear; for he touched the secret of the matter, who said of love,-- All other pleasures are not worth its pains; and when the day was not long enough, but the essay night, too, must be consumed in keen recollections; when the head boiled all night on the pillow with the generous deed it resolved on; when the moonlight was a pleasing fever, and the stars were letters, and and Drive!, the flowers ciphers, and the air was coined into intercultural essay, song; when all business seemed an folks impertinence, and communication, all the Drink and Drive! Essay men and women running to and fro in the streets, mere pictures. The passion rebuilds the world for the youth.

It makes all things alive and significant. Nature grows conscious. Intercultural! Every bird on Needed to Survive the boughs of the tree sings now to his heart and soul. The notes are almost articulate. The clouds have faces as he looks on intercultural them. The trees of the forest, the waving grass, and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent; and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to Essay The Aviator, directed Scorsese, invite.

Yet nature soothes and sympathizes. In the green solitude he finds a dearer home than with men. Fountain-heads and communication essay, pathless groves, Places which pale passion loves, Moonlight walks, when all the fowls. Are safely housed, save bats and owls, A midnight bell, a passing groan,--

These are the sounds we feed upon. [Fletcher] Behold there in Take Necessary Steps to Take out of the Great Recession, the wood the fine madman! He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights; he dilates; he is twice a man; he walks with arms akimbo; he soliloquizes; he accosts the grass and the trees; he feels the blood of the violet, the clover, and communication, the lily in his veins; and he talks with the brook that wets his foot. The heats that have opened his perceptions of natural beauty have made him love music and verse. The Aviator,! It is a fact often observed, that men have written good verses under the intercultural communication inspiration of passion, who cannot write well under any other circumstances. The like force has the passion over all his nature. It expands the sentiment; it makes the clown gentle, and gives the indefinable meaning coward heart. Communication Essay! Into the most pitiful and abject it will infuse a heart and courage to defy the world, so only it have the countenance of the beloved object. In giving him to another, it still more gives him to himself. Indefinable! He is a new man, with new perceptions, new and keener purposes, and communication essay, a religious solemnity of character and aims.

He does not longer appertain to his family and society; _he_ is somewhat; he is literature a person; he is a soul. And here let us examine a little nearer the nature of that influence which is thus potent over the human youth. Beauty, whose revelation to man we now celebrate, welcome as the intercultural sun wherever it pleases to shine, which pleases everybody with it and with themselves, seems sufficient to itself. The lover cannot paint his maiden to his fancy poor and solitary. Like a tree in flower, so much soft, budding, informing love-liness is society for itself, and she teaches his eye why Beauty was pictured with Loves and Graces attending her steps. Obama Take Necessary The United Out Of The Great! Her existence makes the world rich.

Though she extrudes all other persons from intercultural his attention as cheap and unworthy, she indemnifies him by carrying out her own being into somewhat impersonal, large, mundane, so that the maiden stands to him for a representative of all select things and virtues. For that reason, the lover never sees personal resemblances in his mistress to her kindred or to others. Meaning! His friends find in her a likeness to her mother, or her sisters, or to persons not of her blood. The lover sees no resemblance except to summer evenings and diamond mornings, to rainbows and the song of communication essay, birds. The ancients called beauty the flowering of virtue. Who can analyze the nameless charm which glances from one and another face and form? We are touched with emotions of Essay Elements Needed to Survive a Zombie Apocalypse, tenderness and complacency, but we cannot find whereat this dainty emotion, this wandering gleam, points.

It is destroyed for the imagination by any attempt to refer it to organization. Nor does it point to any relations of friendship or love known and communication essay, described in society, but, as it seems to me, to a quite other and unattainable sphere, to relations of transcendent delicacy and sweetness, to what roses and violets hint and fore-show. We cannot approach beauty. Its nature is like opaline doves'-neck lustres, hovering and and Drive! example, evanescent. Herein it resembles the most excellent things, which all have this rainbow character, defying all attempts at appropriation and use. What else did Jean Paul Richter signify, when he said to music, Away! away! thou speakest to intercultural communication, me of things which in all my endless life I have not found, and Essay on Costco-topia: Needed Apocalypse, shall not find.

The same fluency may be observed in every work of the plastic arts. Intercultural Communication! The statue is then beautiful when it begins to be incomprehensible, when it is passing out of criticism, and can no longer be defined by compass and measuring-wand, but demands an active imagination to go with it, and to say what it is in the act of doing. The god or hero of the sculptor is always represented in a transition from indefinable that which is representable to the senses, to that which is intercultural communication not. And Today Example! Then first it ceases to be a stone. The same remark holds of painting. Intercultural Communication Essay! And of poetry, the success is not attained when it lulls and satisfies, but when it astonishes and fires us with new endeavours after the on Costco-topia: Elements Needed unattainable. Concerning it, Landor inquires whether it is not to be referred to some purer state of communication essay, sensation and existence. In like manner, personal beauty is then first charming and itself, when it dissatisfies us with any end; when it becomes a story without an end; when it suggests gleams and visions, and not earthly satisfactions; when it makes the beholder feel his unworthiness; when he cannot feel his right to it, though he were Caesar; he cannot feel more right to it than to The Aviator, Scorsese, the firmament and the splendors of a sunset. Hence arose the saying, If I love you, what is that to you?

We say so, because we feel that what we love is not in your will, but above it. It is not you, but your radiance. Communication Essay! It is that which you know not in yourself, and can never know. This agrees well with that high philosophy of Beauty which the ancient writers delighted in; for they said that the soul of man, embodied here on earth, went roaming up and down in quest of that other world of its own, out of which it came into this, but was soon stupefied by the light of the natural sun, and unable to see any other objects than those of this world, which are but shadows of real things. Therefore, the Deity sends the glory of youth before the soul, that it may avail itself of beautiful bodies as aids to its recollection of the celestial good and Essay The Aviator, by Martin Scorsese, fair; and intercultural communication essay, the man beholding such a person in meaning, the female sex runs to her, and finds the highest joy in contemplating the form, movement, and intelligence of this person, because it suggests to him the presence of that which indeed is within the beauty, and the cause of the intercultural communication essay beauty. If, however, from too much conversing with material objects, the 1970’s, and Today example soul was gross, and misplaced its satisfaction in the body, it reaped nothing but sorrow; body being unable to communication essay, fulfil the promise which beauty holds out; but if, accepting the hint of these visions and suggestions which beauty makes to his mind, the soul passes through the body, and falls to admire strokes of character, and the lovers contemplate one another in their discourses and their actions, then they pass to the true palace of beauty, more and Obama Take to Take, more inflame their love of it, and by this love extinguishing the base affection, as the intercultural essay sun puts out the fire by shining on the hearth, they become pure and meaning, hallowed. By conversation with that which is in itself excellent, magnanimous, lowly, and just, the communication essay lover comes to a warmer love of these nobilities, and a quicker apprehension of them. Then he passes from loving them in one to loving them in all, and Did President Take Steps the United States the Great Recession, so is the one beautiful soul only the door through which he enters to the society of all true and pure souls. In the particular society of his mate, he attains a clearer sight of any spot, any taint, which her beauty has contracted from essay this world, and is able to point it out, and this with mutual joy that they are now able, without offence, to indicate blemishes and hindrances in each other, and Essay, give to each all help and comfort in curing the same.

And, beholding in intercultural, many souls the traits of the divine beauty, and separating in each soul that which is divine from the taint which it has contracted in the world, the lover ascends to the highest beauty, to the love and knowledge of the Divinity, by steps on this ladder of created souls. Somewhat like this have the truly wise told us of The Aviator, directed by Martin, love in all ages. The doctrine is not old, nor is communication essay it new. Drink And Drive! Essay Example! If Plato, Plutarch, and communication, Apuleius taught it, so have Petrarch, Angelo, and folks literature, Milton. It awaits a truer unfolding in opposition and rebuke to that subterranean prudence which presides at marriages with words that take hold of the upper world, whilst one eye is prowling in the cellar, so that its gravest discourse has a savor of hams and powdering-tubs.

Worst, when this sensualism intrudes into intercultural, the education of young women, and withers the hope and affection of human nature, by teaching that marriage signifies nothing but a housewife's thrift, and that woman's life has no other aim. But this dream of love, though beautiful, is only one scene in our play. In the procession of the soul from within outward, it enlarges its circles ever, like the pebble thrown into the pond, or the folks light proceeding from an orb. The rays of the soul alight first on things nearest, on every utensil and toy, on nurses and domestics, on the house, and yard, and passengers, on the circle of household acquaintance, on intercultural essay politics, and geography, and to Take States Recession, history. But things are ever grouping themselves according to higher or more interior laws. Neighbourhood, size, numbers, habits, persons, lose by degrees their power over us. Cause and effect, real affinities, the essay longing for harmony between the soul and the circumstance, the progressive, idealizing instinct, predominate later, and the step backward from the Drink higher to the lower relations is impossible. Thus even love, which is the deification of persons, must become more impersonal every day. Of this at first it gives no hint. Little think the youth and maiden who are glancing at each other across crowded rooms, with eyes so full of mutual intelligence, of the precious fruit long hereafter to proceed from this new, quite external stimulus. The work of vegetation begins first in the irritability of the bark and leaf-buds.

From exchanging glances, they advance to acts of courtesy, of gallantry, then to intercultural, fiery passion, to plighting troth, and marriage. Passion beholds its object as a perfect unit. Meaning! The soul is wholly embodied, and the body is communication wholly ensouled. Her pure and eloquent blood. Spoke in her cheeks, and so distinctly wrought, That one might almost say her body thought. [John Donne] Romeo, if dead, should be cut up into little stars to make the heavens fine. Life, with this pair, has no other aim, asks no more, than Juliet,--than Romeo. Night, day, studies, talents, kingdoms, religion, are all contained in this form full of soul, in this soul which is all form.

The lovers delight in endearments, in avowals of love, in comparisons of their regards. When alone, they solace themselves with the remembered image of the other. Does that other see the same star, the same melting cloud, read the same book, feel the same emotion, that now delight me? They try and weigh their affection, and, adding up costly advantages, friends, opportunities, properties, exult in discovering that willingly, joyfully, they would give all as a ransom for the beautiful, the beloved head, not one hair of which shall be harmed. The Aviator, Directed! But the communication essay lot of humanity is on these children. Danger, sorrow, and pain arrive to them, as to all.

Love prays. It makes covenants with Eternal Power in behalf of this dear mate. The union which is thus effected, and which adds a new value to every atom in nature, for it transmutes every thread throughout the whole web of relation into a golden ray, and bathes the Hey—Don't Drink soul in essay, a new and sweeter element, is yet a temporary state. Essay The Aviator, By Martin Scorsese! Not always can flowers, pearls, poetry, protestations, nor even home in another heart, content the awful soul that dwells in clay. It arouses itself at last from these endearments, as toys, and puts on the harness, and aspires to vast and universal aims. The soul which is in the soul of each, craving a perfect beatitude, detects incongruities, defects, and disproportion in the behaviour of the other. Hence arise surprise, expostulation, and pain. Yet that which drew them to each other was signs of essay, loveliness, signs of virtue; and these virtues are there, however eclipsed. They appear and reappear, and continue to Essay on Costco-topia:, attract; but the intercultural regard changes, quits the sign, and attaches to The Aviator, directed Scorsese, the substance. This repairs the wounded affection.

Meantime, as life wears on, it proves a game of permutation and combination of all possible positions of the parties, to employ all the communication resources of each, and acquaint each with the strength and weakness of the other. For it is the nature and end of Obama the United out of Recession, this relation, that they should represent the human race to intercultural essay, each other. All that is in the world, which is or ought to be known, is cunningly wrought into the texture of man, of woman. The person love does to us fit, Like manna, has the taste of all in it. [Abraham Cowley] The world rolls; the circumstances vary every hour. The angels that inhabit this temple of the body appear at the windows, and the gnomes and vices also. By all the virtues they are united.

If there be virtue, all the vices are known as such; they confess and flee. Their once flaming regard is sobered by time in either breast, and, losing in violence what it gains in extent, it becomes a thorough good understanding. They resign each other, without complaint, to the good offices which man and woman are severally appointed to discharge in time, and exchange the passion which once could not lose sight of its object, for a cheerful, disengaged furtherance, whether present or absent, of each other's designs. At last they discover that all which at first drew them together,? those once sacred features, that magical play of charms,--was deciduous, had a prospective end, like the scaffolding by which the house was built; and the purification of the intellect and the heart, from year to year, is the real marriage, foreseen and prepared from the first, and wholly above their consciousness. Looking at these aims with which two persons, a man and a woman, so variously and correlatively gifted, are shut up in one house to spend in the nuptial society forty or fifty years, I do not wonder at the emphasis with which the heart prophesies this crisis from early infancy, at the profuse beauty with which the instincts deck the nuptial bower, and nature, and intellect, and art emulate each other in the gifts and the melody they bring to the epithalamium. Thus are we put in training for a love which knows not sex, nor person, nor partiality, but which seeks virtue and wisdom everywhere, to the end of increasing virtue and wisdom. We are by nature observers, and thereby learners.

That is our permanent state. But we are often made to feel that our affections are but tents of a night. Though slowly and with pain, the folks objects of the affections change, as the objects of thought do. There are moments when the affections rule and intercultural essay, absorb the man, and make his happiness dependent on a person or persons. But in health the mind is presently seen again,--its overarching vault, bright with galaxies of immutable lights, and the warm loves and indefinable, fears that swept over us as clouds, must lose their finite character and blend with God, to attain their own perfection.

But we need not fear that we can lose any thing by the progress of the soul. The soul may be trusted to the end. That which is so beautiful and attractive as these relations must be succeeded and supplanted only by what is more beautiful, and so on for ever.

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Class Size: What Research Says and What it Means for State Policy. Class size is one of the small number of variables in American K-12 education that are both thought to influence student learning and are subject to legislative action. Legislative mandates on maximum class size have been very popular at the state level. In recent decades, at least 24 states have mandated or incentivized class-size reduction (CSR). The current fiscal environment has forced states and districts to rethink their CSR policies given the high cost of maintaining small classes.

For example, increasing the pupil/teacher ratio in the U.S. by one student would save at least $12 billion per year in teacher salary costs alone, which is roughly equivalent to the outlays of Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, the federal governments largest single K-12 education program. The substantial expenditures required to sustain smaller classes are justified by intercultural the belief that smaller classes increase student learning. We examine what the research says about whether class-size reduction has a positive impact on student learning and, if it does, by how much, for whom, and under what circumstances. Despite there being a large literature on class-size effects on academic achievement, only a few studies are of high enough quality and sufficiently relevant to folks literature, be given credence as a basis for legislative action. The most influential and credible study of CSR is the Student Teacher Achievement Ratio, or STAR, study which was conducted in Tennessee during the late 1980s. In this study, students and teachers were randomly assigned to a small class, with an average of intercultural 15 students, or a regular class, with an Obama to Take the United Recession, average of 22 students. This large reduction in class size (7 students, or 32 percent) was found to increase student achievement by an amount equivalent to about 3 additional months of schooling four years later. Studies of class size in Texas and Israel also found benefits of smaller classes, although the communication essay, gains associated with smaller classes were smaller in magnitude than those in the Tennessee STAR study. Other rigorous studies have found mixed effects in 1970’s, and Today example, California and in other countries, and communication, no effects in Florida and Connecticut. Because the pool of credible studies is small and the individual studies differ in the setting, method, grades, and magnitude of class size variation that is studied, conclusions have to be tentative.

But it appears that very large class-size reductions, on the order of magnitude of 7-10 fewer students per class, can have significant long-term effects on student achievement and other meaningful outcomes. These effects seem to Needed Apocalypse, be largest when introduced in intercultural communication, the earliest grades, and for students from less advantaged family backgrounds. When school finances are limited, the cost-benefit test any educational policy must pass is not Does this policy have any positive effect? but rather Is this policy the most productive use of these educational dollars? Assuming even the largest class-size effects, such as the STAR results, class-size mandates must still be considered in the context of alternative uses of tax dollars for education. Essay By Martin Scorsese! There is no research from the U.S. that directly compares CSR to specific alternative investments, but one careful analysis of several educational interventions found CSR to be the communication, least cost effective of those studied. How the quality of school lunch affects students academic performance. 2017 Brown Center Report on American Education: Race and school suspensions. The popularity of class-size reduction may make it difficult for Did President Take Necessary Steps the United out of the Great, policymakers to communication essay, increase class size across the board in Did President Obama Take to Take the United States out of Recession, order to sustain other investments in education during a period of budget reductions.

In that context, state policymakers should consider targeting CSR at students who have been shown to benefit the most: disadvantaged students in the early grades, or providing a certain amount of funding for CSR but leaving it up to local school leaders on intercultural communication essay, how to distribute it. In settings where state mandates on maximum class size are relaxed, policymakers need to folks literature, bear in mind that the effect of any increase in essay, class size will depend on how such an increase is implemented. For example, a one-student increase in the pupil/teacher ratio in the U.S. would reduce the teaching workforce by about 7 percent. If the teachers to be laid off were chosen in a way largely unrelated to their effectiveness, such as seniority-based layoffs, then the associated increase in class size might well have a negative effect on student achievement. But if schools choose the least effective teachers to let go, then the effect of increased teacher quality could make up for some or all of the possible negative impact of increasing class size. State resources for education should always be carefully allocated, but the need to judiciously weigh costs and benefits is particularly salient in times of austere budgets. Class-size reduction has been shown to work for folks, some students in some grades in communication, some states and countries, but its impact has been found to be mixed or not discernable in other settings and circumstances that seem similar. It is Essay example very expensive. The costs and benefits of class-size mandates need to be carefully weighed against all of the alternatives when difficult decisions must be made. A Context for communication, Linking Research to folks literature, Policy. There are a small number of variables in American K-12 education that are both thought to influence student learning and are subject to legislative action.

Class size is one. Others include human resource policies, funding levels, curriculum, days/hours of instruction, and testing and accountability. Advocates for legislation on any of these topics are likely to appeal to communication essay, research evidence as support for their position. Directed! That is appropriate and intercultural communication, desirable as long as: a) the evidence is of high quality, b) it is relevant to the legislative action under consideration, c) conflicting evidence isnt ignored, and d) alternative courses of legislative action are similarly evaluated and compared. The absence of any of these four conditions undermines the legitimacy of Drink and Drive! Essay example advocacy that is built on assertions about what research says. If the intercultural communication, evidence is not of high quality it provides little or no support for Essay on Costco-topia: Ten Needed, any conclusions. For instance, advocates for class-size reduction might cite evidence that students in smaller classes perform better on state examinations. But this simple correlation could be due to families with higher levels of intercultural essay education living in more affluent school districts that can afford smaller classes.

Class size per se might have no more to do with student achievement than the condition of the schools sports stadiums. Evidence that is this weak is Essay The Aviator, directed by Martin no evidence at all. Research can be of high quality but of questionable relevance to legislative action because the intercultural essay, settings and The KKK—1890’s, 1970’s, and Today Essay, circumstances of the research are so different from those at hand. For example, a number of well-designed studies of class size in the U.S. Communication Essay! prior to World War II found that student achievement increased when class size rose.[1] But the nature of the population, the organization of schools, the characteristics of teachers and Obama Take Necessary Steps to Take States, so many other things differ between now and the U.S. between the two world wars that the relevance of this research for current legislation is weak. Considering the balance of the communication essay, evidence is also very important. The KKK—1890’s, 1970’s, Essay Example! Too frequently advocates for particular positions cherry pick their evidence, conveniently ignoring research that raises questions about their favored position or putting their thumbs on the appraisal scale so that the flaws in conflicting research are emphasized. Advocates for and against class-size reduction have engaged in or been accused of engaging in such cherry picking for as long as there has been research on this issue and the prospect of legislation.[2] Finally, and most importantly, all legislative action that requires appropriations involves choices.

An appeal to evidence to support expenditures without consideration of the intercultural essay, costs and benefits of all the options that are available can seriously mislead. With a limited and currently shrinking pool of Essay example state funds available to communication, support K-12 education, the relative productivity of expenditures should be carefully considered. What are the costs and Take, benefits of maintaining a cap on class size relative to other state-mandated uses of funds for education? And what are the communication, costs and benefits of state mandates on specific uses of education funds relative to appropriations that allow more flexibility at indefinable meaning, the local level in how funds are spent? Research Associate, Andrew W. Intercultural Communication! Mellon Foundation.

Senior Fellow - Economic Studies, Center on Children and Families. Background on Class-size Reduction. Legislative mandates on maximum class size have been very popular at the state level. In recent decades, at least 24 states have mandated or incentivized class-size limits in their public schools.[3] Because the legislatively imposed limits have nearly always required a reduction in 1970’s, and Today Essay example, class size compared to the period prior to the legislation, these initiatives are called class-size reduction (CSR). State-level CSR initiatives flourished during a period of rapidly expanding per-pupil expenditure on public K-12 education in the U.S. Intercultural! (per pupil revenue increased by The KKK—1890’s, 1970’s, Essay example 58 percent in real dollars in the last 20 years[4]). Indeed, CSR was a significant contributor to the increase in spending in that the average pupil/teacher ratio for public schools has decreased by 21 percent in the last 20 years.[5] ,[6] The average U.S. pupil/teacher ratio in intercultural communication, the public schools is currently 15.3.[7] With an example, average U.S. teacher salary of approximately $55,000,[8] each student has an individual cost of about $3,600 in teacher salary alone. With about 49.3 million public school students enrolled, a one-student decrease in class size from the present average would cost over essay $12 billion a year in Did President Steps the United States out of the Great Recession, aggregate for the U.S.[9] A one-student increase in class size would generate an equivalent savings. The costs of intercultural CSR are not limited to teacher salaries. More classrooms are needed for smaller classes. Did President Steps Out Of! In our example of a one-student reduction in class size across the U.S., more than 225,000 additional classrooms would need to be added to the nations stock.

In any context $12+ billion a year for intercultural communication essay, any educational initiative is meaning a large amount. By way of comparison, the federal governments largest single K-12 education program, Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, involves about the intercultural communication essay, same level of The KKK—1890’s, 1970’s, and Today Essay annual expenditure as would a one-student reduction in the nations average pupil/teacher ratio.[10] With the end of federal stimulus funding and economic growth at low rates, 40 states are projecting shortfalls for their 2012 budget year. Some, including large states such as California, Texas, and Illinois, are projecting revenue shortfalls that are more than 20 percent of the communication essay, size of the 2011 budgets.[11] For these states, there is no single solution. Cuts will have to be made in many areas, including education, and difficult choices will abound. In this context, we believe it is useful to revisit research on the effects of 1970’s, Essay class size on student learning, and to explore what the findings from that research have to contribute to the budget deliberations that many state legislatures are presently or will shortly be engaged in. Does class-size reduction have a positive impact on student learning? If so, by how much, for whom, and under what circumstances? What would be the likely effect of relaxing class-size mandates? What are the intercultural communication essay, uncertainties in the conclusions that can be drawn from existing evidence about state CSR policies? There is a large body of research on the relationship between class size and student learning.

A 1979 systematic review of the indefinable meaning, literature identified 80 studies.[12] There are surely hundreds today. The vast majority of intercultural essay these studies simply examine the association between variation in class size and student achievement. The primary difficulty in interpreting this research is that schools with different class sizes likely differ in many other, difficult-to-observe ways. For example, more affluent schools are more likely to The KKK—1890’s, Essay, have the resources needed to provide smaller classes, which would create the illusion that smaller classes are better when in fact family characteristics were the real reason. Intercultural Communication Essay! Alternatively, a school that serves many students with behavior problems may find it easier to Necessary to Take the Great Recession, manage these students in smaller classes. A comparison of intercultural essay such schools to other schools might give the appearance that small classes produce less learning when in fact the behavior problems were the main factor. The most credible studies of CSR have utilized either randomized experiments, in which students and teachers are randomly assigned to smaller or larger classes; natural experiments in which, for example, a sudden change in class size policy allows a before-and-after analysis of its effects; or sophisticated mathematical models for estimating effects that take advantage of longitudinal data on individual students, teachers, and schools.

We limit our review to The KKK—1890’s, and Today Essay, such studies. Research that supports the effectiveness of smaller classes. The most influential and credible study of CSR is the Student Teacher Achievement Ratio, or STAR, study which was conducted in intercultural essay, Tennessee during the late 1980s. Beginning with the entering kindergarteners in 1985, students and Drink and Drive! Essay example, teachers were randomly assigned to a small class, with an average of 15 students, or a regular class, with an average of 22 students. Thus the reduction in class size (7 students, or 32 percent) was quite large. There are several research studies based on the STAR experiment. We examine two, including one that focuses on longer-term outcomes. Kruegers analysis of the Tennessee STAR experiment finds that elementary school students randomly assigned to small classes outperformed their classmates who were assigned to regular classes by about 0.22 standard deviations after four years.[13] This is equivalent to students in the smaller classes having received about 3 months more schooling than the intercultural essay, students in and Today example, the regular classes.[14] This effect was concentrated in the first year that students participated in the program.

In addition, the positive effects of class size were largest for black students, economically disadvantaged students, and boys.[15] Krueger estimates that the communication essay, economic returns to class-size reduction in Tennessee were greater than the costs, with an internal positive rate of Hey—Don't example return of essay about 6 percent. A recent long-term follow-up of STAR participants into adulthood utilized IRS tax records to investigate a range of outcomes.[16] The researchers find that students assigned to small classes at the beginning of elementary school are about 2 percentage points more likely to be enrolled in college at age 20. Folks Literature! They did not find any evidence of an impact on incomes at age 27, but the income effects are measured with too much imprecision to warrant strong conclusions. In summary, STAR researchers have found positive effects of early and very large class-size reductions on academic achievement in school and college attendance, with the economic benefits of the program outweighing the communication, costs. These are important results from a very strong research design. Rivkin, Hanushek, and Kain used a sophisticated statistical model to examine the Essay directed Scorsese, effects of natural variation in class size in Texas in the mid-1990s.[17] The study utilized longitudinal data from more than one-half million students in over three thousand schools. Essay! The researchers found positive effects of smaller class sizes on reading and Essay on Costco-topia: Ten Elements a Zombie Apocalypse, mathematics in intercultural essay, 4 th grade, a smaller but still statistically significant effect in 5 th grade, and little or no effects in later grades. Folks Literature! Because the researchers used state assessment results that were only available beginning at 4 th grade, they could not estimate class-size effects for the early grades that were studied in STAR. The estimated class-size effects for 4 th and 5 th graders in Texas were about half the intercultural, size the K-3 effects in Tennessee. International studies also provide positive evidence for the effects of class-size reduction.

Angrist and on Costco-topia: Ten Needed to Survive Apocalypse, Lavy took advantage of a class-size limit in communication essay, Israel of 40 students. Whenever there are more students in a grade than 40 per teacher, a teacher and 1970’s, Essay, classroom must be added. The effect on class size in smaller schools can be dramatic. For example, with 80 students in a two-classroom 3rd grade, class size will be 40, but with 81 students it will be 27. The researchers find positive effects of smaller fourth- and fifth-grade classes, with effect sizes that are on the lower end of the intercultural communication, range of those found in the STAR study.[18] They do not find any effects on third-grade scores. Studies with mixed results. In 1996, California enacted a K-3 CSR program designed to reduce class size by meaning ten students per class, from communication essay, 30 to 20, throughout the indefinable, state. School participation in first and second grades exceeded 90 percent statewide by 1998, but participation in Kindergarten and third grade did not exceed 90 percent until 2000.

This staggered introduction of CSR provided opportunities for researchers to intercultural communication, study its effects. CSR created 25,000 new teaching positions in its first two years. Many of these positions were filled by teachers without certification or prior teaching experience. Other positions were filled by experienced teachers who switched grades or schools. Jepsen and Rivkin carried out a sophisticated analysis to examine the and Today, influence of communication both the class-size reduction and the changes in the teacher workforce.[19] They find positive effects for class-size reduction that are about half as large as those found in Tennessee. At the literature, same time they find that increases in the numbers of intercultural communication new and not-fully-certified teachers offset much of these gains. The KKK—1890’s, 1970’s, And Today! In other words, students who ended up in the classrooms of teachers new to their classrooms and grades suffered academically from the teachers inexperience by almost the intercultural communication essay, same amount as they benefited from being in a smaller class. There is an important lesson here: Major education initiatives do not operate in a vacuum. Policies designed to affect one dimension of a students educational experience are likely to affect others as well.

Other unintended negative consequences of Californias CSR policy included an increase in class size in grades four and five[20] and the use of multi-grade classrooms.[21] Woessman and West, taking advantage of differences in average class size between the 7 th and 8 th grades within schools, examined class-size effects on performance on international examinations in 11 countries around the world.[22] They find educationally meaningful effects of smaller classes in a small number of countries, and a roughly even split between no effects and small effects in the remainder of the countries. Interestingly, the countries in which they find educationally meaningful positive effects of smaller classes are those with low salary levels for teachers and lower than average performance on international exams. A low average salary level for teachers suggests that a country is drawing its teaching population from Hey—Don't Drink and Drive! Essay, a relatively low level of the overall capability distribution of all its employees. Thus, the countries studied by Woessman and West seem to communication, have taken different paths, with some opting for relatively large numbers of Essay by Martin poorly-paid teachers who perform better in smaller classes and others having relatively fewer but better-paid teachers whose performance isnt as affected by the number of students in class.

In this regard it is intercultural communication worth noting that the East Asian nations that perform at higher levels than the meaning, U.S. on international exams have very large class sizes. Dee and West used a nationally representative database of students to compare the outcomes of the intercultural essay, same eighth-grade students who had attended different size classes in different subjects. They find no overall impact of Elements to Survive a Zombie class size on test scores, i.e., the same students did not perform better in the subjects in which they had smaller classes. There was, however, a small positive effect on test scores in urban schools, and modest overall positive effects on non-cognitive skills such as student attentiveness and intercultural communication essay, attitudes about Obama Steps the United States out of, learning.[23] Studies with negative results. Arrayed against these positive and intercultural communication, mixed findings for CSR are two credible studies that find no positive effects. Hey—Don't And Drive! Essay Example! Hoxby examined natural class size variation in Connecticut that was caused when natural population variation triggered a change in the number of classes in intercultural essay, a grade in a school. For example, a small school that has 15 first-grade students in one year and 18 the next year would have a larger class during the second year.

Additionally, a school that has set a class-size limit of 25 would have one second-grade class of 25 if there were 25 second-grade students but two classes of The Aviator, directed 13 if there were 26 students. Hoxby finds no relationship between class size and achievement in fourth and sixth grade (which should reflect class size in all previous grades). Intercultural! Hoxby does not even find class-size effects at schools that serve disproportionately large shares of disadvantaged or minority students.[24] A recent study by Chingos systematically examined the broad and expensive Florida CSR policy. In 2002, voters approved an Scorsese, amendment to the Florida state constitution that set limits on the number of students in core classes (such as math, English, and intercultural, science) in the states public schools. Beginning with the literature, 2010-2011 school year, the maximum number of communication students in each core class would be: 18 students through grade 3; 22 students in grades 4 through 8; and 25 students in Hey—Don't and Drive! example, grades 9 through 12. In 2003, the intercultural, Florida Legislature enacted a law that implemented the amendment by first requiring, from 2003-04 to Essay The Aviator, by Martin Scorsese, 2005-06, districts to reduce their average class sizes either to the maximum for each grade grouping or by at intercultural, least two students per year until they reached the maximum. Hey—Don't And Drive! Essay Example! Beginning in 2006-07, compliance was measured at essay, the school level, with schools facing the same rules for their average class size that districts faced previously. Beginning in Hey—Don't and Drive!, 2010-11, compliance was measured at the classroom level. This policy cost about $20 billion to implement during its first eight years, with continuing costs of $4 billion to $5 billion each subsequent year.[25]

Taking advantage of the staggered introduction of class-size reductions over time at the district and school level, Chingos utilized a sophisticated before-and-after analysis to examine the effects of the policy on student achievement between 2004 and 2009. He finds no evidence that the Florida policy had any impact on test scores in grades 3 through 8 (state-wide assessments in communication essay, math and reading were not administered in the earlier grades).[26] Despite there being a large literature on class-size effects on academic achievement, only a few studies are of high enough quality and sufficiently relevant to be given credence as a basis for legislative action. Because the meaning, pool of intercultural communication essay credible studies is small; the individual studies differ in the setting, method, grades, and magnitude of class size variation that is studied; and no study is without issues, including those reviewed here, conclusions have to be tentative. It appears that very large class-size reductions, on indefinable, the order of essay magnitude of 7-10 fewer students per Did President Necessary States the Great class, can have meaningful long-term effects on intercultural communication, student achievement and perhaps on non-cognitive outcomes. The academic effects seem to be largest when introduced in the earliest grades, and for students from less advantaged family backgrounds. They may also be largest in classrooms of teachers who are less well prepared and effective in the classroom. The Tennessee STAR experiment generates the largest estimate of the payoffs of Elements Needed to Survive a big decrease in class size. In Kruegers cost-benefit analysis, the intercultural essay, return to the investment in smaller class sizes in Tennessee was slightly bigger than the costs of implementing the program. In other words, it paid its way. All other studies of CSR generate either smaller estimates of the Essay Needed a Zombie Apocalypse, effects of variation in class size or find no effects at all.

Getting a decent sense of the intercultural essay, size of the effect that can be expected from reducing class size is Hey—Don't Drink and Drive! obviously important to evaluating its benefits. Few voters would support a multi-billion dollar initiative that results in essay, improvements in student outcomes (or any other desirable outcome, such as the Did President Obama Take States, populations health or vehicle gas mileage) that are too small to communication essay, be noticeable. One way to roughly estimate the size of class-size effects that is consistent with the existing literature would be to assume that the effects are linear, i.e., a reduction in class size by one student would generate 10 percent of the benefit of a reduction in class size by 10 students, and to assume that the effects diminish with each grade in school, with a reduction of a given number of indefinable students in 5 th grade expected to have about half the effect of reduction of the same number of intercultural essay students in kindergarten. The largest estimates of the magnitude of folks literature class-size effects are those produced by Krueger (1999), who found that the students in classes that were 7 to 8 students smaller on average than regular-sized classes performed about 0.22 standard deviations better on a standardized test. This means that students performed about 3 percent of a standard deviation better for every 1 student less in the class. These effects were generated largely by class-size reductions in kindergarten. If we take the effect by 5 th grade to intercultural communication, be half the size of the kindergarten effect, then a reduction in 1 student per class would generate approximately 1.5 percent of a standard deviation difference in achievement scores in 5 th grade. This means that on a statewide assessment such as the directed, Texas Assessment of intercultural Knowledge and Skills (TAKS), which has a mean of about 700 and a standard deviation of about 100 at 5th grade for Did President Necessary Steps to Take the United States out of, mathematics, a reduction in class size by one student would generate an improvement of 1.5 scale score points. Intercultural Communication Essay! Thus a statewide mean of 700 on TAKS would become a statewide mean of 701.5. Literature! Alternatively, an increase of class size by one student would lead to a statewide mean of 698.5 on TAKS. At grade three the effect would be about 2 points up or down (assuming an effect size for a 1 student reduction of 2.0, which is 2/3 rds of the effect for earlier grades in STAR).

To put a one or two point change in intercultural communication, student performance as a result of class size in context, the difference between the average scale scores of folks whites and essay, blacks on TAKS at 5 th grade is 65 points. Folks Literature! Note that our estimates of a one to two point effect on TAKS of a one student change in class size are based on an upper bound for class-size effects based on intercultural communication essay, Kruegers analysis. Estimates that averaged together effect sizes for all the studies we have reviewed, including the two that found no effects at all (Hoxby; Chingos), would obviously be considerably smaller. Funding Class-size Reduction vs. Other Initiatives. When school finances are limited, the indefinable, cost-benefit test any educational policy must pass is intercultural not Does this policy have any positive effect? but rather Is this policy the most productive use of these educational dollars? Assuming even the largest class-size effects, such as the on Costco-topia: to Survive, STAR results, class-size mandates must still be considered in the context of intercultural communication essay alternative uses of tax dollars for education. Will a dollar spent on folks literature, class-size reduction generate as much return as a dollar spent on: raising teacher salaries, implementing better curriculum, strengthening early childhood programs, providing more frequent assessment results to intercultural communication, teachers to help guide instruction, investments in indefinable, educational technology, etc.? There is no research from the U.S. Intercultural Essay! that directly compares CSR to 1970’s, Essay example, specific alternative investments.

In other words, the comparison condition for all CSR studies has been business as usual rather than, for example, a comparison of $20 billion invested in smaller classes vs. $20 billion invested in higher teacher salaries. Intercultural! Thus, estimates of effects and costs from different education investments have to indefinable meaning, be extrapolated and estimated from different studies, and this process is necessarily inexact. Nevertheless, Harris finds short-term rates of return for computer-aided instruction, cross-age tutoring, early childhood programs, and increases in instructional time that are all greater than those for CSR.[27] Whitehurst does not estimate costs, but finds effects on student achievement from choosing more effective curriculum; reconstituting the teacher workforce (for example by substituting Teach for America teachers for new teachers from intercultural, traditional training routes); and enrolling students in popular charter schools in urban areas that are all as large or larger than those obtained from CSR.[28] The popularity of class-size reduction may make it politically difficult for policymakers to increase class size in order to sustain other investments in education, even in a time of budget austerity. 1970’s, And Today! In that context, state policymakers might consider targeting the reductions at communication essay, students who have been shown to benefit the most: disadvantaged students in the early grades, or providing a certain amount of funding for CSR but leaving it up to local school leaders on how to distribute it. Much smaller classes for inexperienced teachers who need support in developing skills or for teachers who are responsible for struggling students may make more sense than across the board reductions.

The tradeoff between class size and teacher salaries needs to and Today Essay, be very carefully considered. Effects on student achievement related to differences in communication essay, teacher quality are very large. The same data from the Tennessee STAR study that demonstrates long-term effects for Essay Needed to Survive, class-size reduction produces estimates of much larger effects for intercultural essay, variation in teacher quality within schools. Thus, for example, while differences between large and The KKK—1890’s, 1970’s, and Today example, small classes in early elementary school had no long-term effects on the earning power of adults, differences in classroom quality did.[29] With fixed or reduced state budgets to support K-12 education, maintaining class-size limits means a larger pool of communication essay teachers with lower salaries. It means that funds that might be devoted to Hey—Don't Drink and Drive! example, raising teacher salaries across the board or selectively in hard to fill positions or for highly effective teachers will be limited. By one estimate, an increase in average class size by 5 students would result in an across the board increase of 34 percent in teacher salaries if all the savings were devoted to intercultural, that purpose.[30] Higher salaries would likely draw more qualified people into the teaching profession, and keep them there.

In the current fiscal climate, it is folks clear that the yearly increases in funding in real dollars that have long been enjoyed by our nations public schools are coming to an end for the foreseeable future. Intercultural Communication Essay! Many states and districts are contemplating cuts in funding that will require schools to make hard choices. So although the research literature has focused on the effect of reducing class size, the current policy debate concerns the other side of the cointhe consequences of increasing the size of Did President Obama Necessary the United the Great classes. The potential for negative consequences of larger classes clearly needs to be weighed against the fallout from essay, cutting other programs in order to example, preserve smaller classesboth academic programs and non-academic offerings such as athletics and the arts. Another important point is that the effect of any increase in class size will depend on intercultural essay, how such an increase is 1970’s, and Today implemented. Our earlier rough calculation indicated that a one-student increase in the pupil/teacher ratio in intercultural communication essay, the U.S., which would save over $12 billion per year in salary costs alone, would decrease the teaching workforce by about 7 percent of the nations teachers. Many school districts and states across the nation are considering reductions in the teacher workforce on this order of magnitude.

If the teachers to be laid off were chosen in on Costco-topia: Ten Elements to Survive a Zombie, a way largely unrelated to their effectiveness, such as last in first out, then the associated increase in class size could well have a negative effect on student achievement. But if schools choose the least effective teachers to let go, then the effect of increased teacher quality could make up for some or all of essay any negative effect of increasing class size.[31] State resources for education should always be judiciously allocated, but the 1970’s,, need to carefully weigh costs and communication, benefits is particularly salient in indefinable, times of austere budgets. Class-size reduction has been shown to work for some students in some grades in some states and intercultural communication essay, countries, but its impact has been found to be mixed or not discernable in other settings and circumstances that seem similar. It is very expensive. The costs and benefits of class-size mandates need to on Costco-topia: Ten Needed to Survive a Zombie Apocalypse, be carefully weighed against communication essay, all of the alternatives when difficult budget and program decisions must be made. Jonah Rockoff, Field Experiments in Class Size from the Early Twentieth Century, Journal of Economic Perspectives , 23(4): 211230 (2009).

See, e.g, Eric A. Hanushek, The Failure of Scorsese Input-Based Schooling Policies, Economic Journal , 113(485): F64F98 (2003) and Alan B. Krueger, Economic Considerations and Class Size, Economic Journal , 113(485): F34F63 (2003). Education Commission of the States, State Class-Size Reduction Measures, Denver, Colorado: Education Commission of the States (2005). Note that the communication, pupil/teacher ratio is nearly always smaller than class size because it includes teachers in specialized roles as well as regular classroom teachers. However, within states, pupil/teacher ratio and class size are highly correlated. We use pupil/teacher ratio here because it can be calculated from data reported by all U.S. school districts to the federal government, whereas class size cannot. Presently there are 3.2 million teachers serving 49.3 million students in the public schools, which corresponds to folks, 15.3 students for essay, every teacher. Decreasing the pupil/teacher ratio to 14.3 would require hiring 226,000 additional teachers, which at $55,000 per teacher would cost $12.4 billion/year in salary costs alone. These per-pupil cost estimates are very conservative compared to others in the literature that try to indefinable meaning, account for all costs of teachers, including fringe benefits and facilities. See, e.g., Douglas N. Harris, Toward Policy-Relevant Benchmarks for Interpreting Effect Sizes: Combining Effects With Costs, Educational Evaluation and essay, Policy Analysis 31(1): 329 (2009).

Gene V. Meaning! Glass and Mary Lee Smith. Meta-Analysis of Research on Class Size and Achievement. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 1(1): 216 (1979). Alan B. Krueger, Experimental Estimates of Education Production Functions, Quarterly Journal of Economics , 115(2): 497532 (1999). The average student gains 0.88 standard deviations per year from kindergarten through the end of third grade (Carolyn J. Hill, Howard S. Bloom, Alison Rebeck Black, and intercultural communication essay, Mark W. Lipsey, Empirical Benchmarks for Interpreting Effect Sizes in Research, Child Development Perspectives , 2(3): 172177 (2008)). The STAR effect size of The KKK—1890’s, 1970’s, Essay 0.22 is 25 percent of that, which corresponds to 2.5 months of a 10-month school year. Matthew M. Chingos, The False Promise of Class-Size Reduction, Center for American Progress (2011). Raj Chetty, John N. Friedman, Nathaniel Hilger, Emmanuel Saez, Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach, and Danny Yagan, How Does Your Kindergarten Classroom Affect Your Earnings? Evidence from Project STAR, NBER Working Paper No.

16381, September 2010. Steven G. Rivkin, Eric A. Intercultural! Hanushek, and John F. Kain, Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement, Econometrica , 73(2): 417458 (2005). Joshua D. Angrist and Victor Lavy, Using Maimonides Rule to Estimate the Did President Obama Take Necessary States, Effect of essay Class Size on indefinable, Scholastic Achievement, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 114(2): 533575 (1999). Christopher Jepsen and Steven Rivkin, Class Size Reduction and intercultural, Student Achievement: The Potential Tradeoff between Teacher Quality and Class Size, Journal of The KKK—1890’s, and Today Essay Human Resources , 44(1): 223250 (2009). David Sims, Crowding Peter to Educate Paul: Lessons from a Class Size Reduction Externality, Economics of Education Review , 28: 465473 (2009). David Sims, A Strategic Response to Class Size Reduction: Combination Classes and Student Achievement in California, Journal of Policy Analysis and Management , 27(3): 457478 (2008). Ludger Woessmann and Martin West, Class-Size Effects in School Systems Around the essay, World: Evidence from Between-Grade Variation in TIMSS, European Economic Review , 50(3): 695736 (2006).

Thomas S. Dee and Martin R. West, The Non-Cognitive Returns to Class Size, Education Evaluation and Essay example, Policy Analysis (forthcoming). Caroline M. Hoxby, The Effects of Class Size on Student Achievement: New Evidence from Population Variation, Quarterly Journal of Economics , 115(4): 12391285 (2000). [25] 200910 Florida Education Finance Program, DOE Information Database Workshop, Summer 2009, available at http://www.fldoe.org/eias/databaseworkshop/ppt/fefp.ppt . [26] Matthew M. Chingos, The Impact of a Universal Class-Size Reduction Policy: Evidence from Floridas Statewide Mandate, Harvard University, Program on essay, Education Policy and Governance Working Paper. 10-03 (2010), available at http://www.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG10-03_Chingos.pdf. [27] Douglas N. Harris, Toward Policy-Relevant Benchmarks for Interpreting Effect Sizes: Combining Effects With Costs, Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 31(1): 329 (2009). [28] Grover J. Whitehurst. Dont forget Curriculum, Brown Center Letters on Education, #3 . October 2009, Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution. [29] Raj Chetty, John N. Friedman, Nathaniel Hilger, Emmanuel Saez, Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach, and Danny Yagan, How Does Your Kindergarten Classroom Affect Your Earnings? Evidence from Project STAR, NBER Working Paper No. 16381, September 2010.

[30] Matthew M. Chingos, The False Promise of Class-Size Reduction, Center for American Progress (2011).

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Free Essays on Beowulfs Battle With The Dragon. Beowulfs Battles The epic poem Beowulf is one of the oldest epics in English literature. Beowulf is intercultural communication, a great Anglo-Saxon warrior. He has super human abilities that set him apart from other men. Drink. He is a servant to Hrothgar and eventually becomes a beloved king. Beowulf is a true hero in.

The Hero vs Villian Dichotomy in Beowulf. Casey Kerins AP English Literature 10/1/12 In the Epic Beowulf , composed in the 8th century, the reader follows the protagonist, Beowulf , on a series of adventures to defeat three key monsters. This old English poem uses a series of motifs to help develop its themes, known as dichotomies. Communication Essay. Dichotomies. decimator of meaning, demons, the slayer of dragons . This man of communication, so many deeds and accomplishments, no mere soldier or warrior of any stature could dream of undertaking such monumental tasks. Meaning. An honorable battle between a powerful and essay hideous demon Grendel. A very fierce battle with Grendels mother. Finally his. The story of Beowulf is one of the most well-known Anglo-Saxon works of all time. This story follows all of the basic characteristics of Anglo-Saxon literature, such as alliteration, fitts, and indefinable meaning caesura.

More importantly many themes are expressed in this epic that are common to Anglo-Saxon culture. The. Beowulf , the Epic Hero There have been many grand stories about great warriors, and champions; those about epic heroes however, are the truly exceptional tales. One such tale, over a thousand years old, stands out from communication essay all the rest: Beowulf , the tale of a great warrior, on his quest to achieve eternal. Beowulf and the 13th Warrior Comparison. The Comparison of folks literature, Beowulf and communication 13th Warrior Beowulf is an The KKK—1890’s, and Today Essay example epic poem written a long time ago. The 13th Warrior is pretty much a movie based on Beowulf but not exactly.

The two pieces of intercultural communication essay, literature both shared a lot of differences and similarities as well. The 13th Warrior offered a more realistic. Beowulf vs. Beowulf Deciding what is the best choice for others and deciding what choice is best for us is an ongoing battle . Sometimes the best choice for you might not be the best for others, which deems us selfish. The remaining times, the Did President Obama Take Necessary to Take States, best choice for others might not be the best choice for. The Behavior and Reasoning Power of Beowulf. Beowulf Paper The behavior and intercultural reasoning in Beowulf resembles that of the Essay The Aviator, Scorsese, Anglo-Saxon culture. Beowulf resembles the ideal Anglo-Saxon he stood next to communication, his men, he wanted to die in honor with his men because that would have been his fate. In the indefinable meaning, epic poem Beowulf the Anglo-Saxon characteristics. ?Is Beowulf a Christian or Pagan. Beowulf is presented as an epic story that has both Christian and essay Pagan elements portraying the conquering hero Beowulf . Many people believe that this story portrays Pagan beliefs, but, there are more Christian concepts shown.

Beowulf is a story that takes place. Good vs. Evil in Beowulf Beowulf is longest and greatest early Anglo-Saxon poem which was composed in England sometime in the eighth century AD by a literate scop. This poem was created in the oral poetic tradition. This poem is considered as an epic because it is Necessary Steps the United out of Recession, a long narrative poem which composed. included showing courage in the face of doom, upholding honor by intercultural essay, avenging, and Essay achieving feats of strength and skill in battle . In the heroic epic Beowulf , the protagonist Beowulf perfectly embodies the ancient Germanic heroic ideals by showing courage, upholding honor and achieving feats of skill and. Beowulf In a world without hope, a brave soul has nothing to communication essay, lose. In the epic Beowulf , some might perceive Beowulf as having traits such as being arrogant. Although he is raised in folks literature a Pagan society, Beowulf concurs many tasks that an intercultural communication ordinary man could never do. He portrays man in general struggling. instead risks all that he is, for what he believes to Essay Elements a Zombie, be right, moral, and just.

Beowulf was during the Anglo-Saxon era, when heroic deeds and essay loyalty to ones leader were traits of a person that lived on forever. Beowulf is an The KKK—1890’s, 1970’s, and Today example epic and tells the story of a legendary hero, conquering all obstacles as. The main protagonist, Beowulf , a hero of the Geats, comes to the aid of Hrothgar, the essay, king of the Danes, whose great hall, Heorot, is plagued by the monster Grendel. Essay The Aviator, Directed By Martin. Beowulf kills Grendel with his bare hands and Grendel's mother with a sword, which giants once used, that Beowulf found in Grendel's mother's. and Pagan Elements in Beowulf Would Beowulf have the same effects if Christianity had not been added in by a monk?

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BEOWULF In some works of literature, certain parallel or recurring events prove to be significant. In Seamus Heaneys translation of Beowulf , there are a number of events and details that consistently occur throughout whichupon thorough analysisprove to be major elements in the development of the. In Beowulf , Beowulf fights three different monsters. Essay Elements Needed Apocalypse. The first monster he fights is Grendel, the second is Grendels mom, and the third is a dragon . Each fight shows an important part of Beowulf . The fight with Grendel shows his power, the fight with Grendels mom shows his weakness and the fight with. Beowulf vs.

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?Aileen Song World Literature and Composition Micah Duhaime November 9, 2015 Response to essay, Prompt Three: Beowulf vs. The KKK—1890’s, 1970’s, And Today Essay Example. Gilgamesh Beowulf and Gilgamesh are a pair of legendary heroes who shared many similar characteristics, even though they were written under starkly different cultural context. Being. original epic of Beowulf , unknown author, was used by Richard Wilbur to write his poem Beowulf . Each writer depicts Beowulf and his adventures in Denmark. However, there is a difference in purpose for these two pieces of writing.

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The young Geat is devoted to the old king because Hrothgar. Beowulf Essay Beowulf is an epic poem and the character Beowulf is an archetypal hero because of his archetypal characteristics. Communication Essay. Just like in any other epic poem the archetypal hero follows the indefinable meaning, hero cycle. In Beowulf , the poet uses imagery to characterize Beowulf as a hero in order to show conflict. 9/16/2014 Beowulf Journal Response The epic poem Beowulf is a heroic tale fueled by communication essay, vengeance and personal glory. Penned by an unknown author this story takes place in Scandinavia during a time of bloody unrest for a tribe known as the indefinable meaning, Danes. The poem largely revolves around three grand battles involving. beowulf summary ( dont pls students dont copy) ? Beowulf Robert Zemeckis Theme: real leaders are responsible, inspirational people. They take on tasks that others might not and inspire others to work with them.

Summary: King Hrothgars realm is threatened and tormented by a demon creature named Grendel by attacking and communication killing locals. Beowulfs Battles Beowulf , like Anglo-Saxon culture generally, strikes us readers as a peculiar blend of traditions, resulting in Drink and Drive! example a Christianity that is dark, realistic, anxious, violent-in short, and oddly modern. Moreover, it results in a heroism that Beowulf portrays throughout the intercultural communication, story. Beowulfs. Abigail Di Matteo Beowulf Test October 10th, 2013 English II Beowulf Passages Test The book has just started, opening up with Hrothgars lineage. Its start with his grandfather, Beo, who was Shilds son. Then it says that he left it to his son Healfdane who in turn left them four children, three. Loyalty and Generosity in Beowulf.

Generosity in and Today Essay Beowulf The society depicted in the poem Beowulf depended on two basic characteristics of intercultural, its people. Loyalty and generosity are the two characteristics that bound this culture together. Throughout the poem, the on Costco-topia: Elements to Survive Apocalypse, people must depend on the loyalty and generosity of Beowulf and his warriors. A Man with Innumerable Positive Character Traits. Beowulf is the epic tale of a man with innumerable positive character traits. A classic like this deserves recognition in modern literature and intercultural communication life for a Zombie Apocalypse its timely Biblical references and communication essay its admirable main character.

Through trials and triumphs, Beowulf keeps his faith. He is the victor three. English 225 Essay #1 Dr. Heyworth Beowulf the Monster? This poem focuses on the protagonist, Beowulf , and his three harsh battles with different monsters and his rise to king. The poem in many ways can be perceived as a riddle concerning the role of Beowulf . It is Essay The Aviator, directed by Martin, debatable whether he plays the.

Anglo-Saxon Values Demonstrated by Beowulf. Jaworski AS English II 17 October 2014 Anglo-Saxon Values Demonstrated by Beowulf In Seamus Heaney's translation of the intercultural communication essay, epic Beowulf , the protagonist, Beowulf , exemplifies the values of an Did President Necessary Steps to Take the United out of the Great Recession Anglo-Saxon warrior and king. Beowulf is essay, a Geatish warrior who uses his super-human strength to folks, defend the Danes. Beowulf : The Heros Journey An epic hero is defined as, a brave and noble character in an epic poem, admired for great achievements or affected by grand events (epic-hero). Intercultural. A hero is someone is basically someone who has a superior ability (Gulley 806). A hero is a man who takes action, who has. The First Asked to Defeat a Monster.

In the story by Burton Raffel, Beowulf is portrayed as the hero archetype. Throughout the story he must face many situations where he uses he courage and bravery to lead him to victory. Beowulf is first asked to Did President Obama Take Steps to Take States the Great Recession, defeat a monster, Grendel, who had previously attacked people in the mead hall, Herot. That. The Refinement of a Hero in Beowulf Beowulf is both a great warrior and king. These two aspects of the intercultural communication essay, hero do not just come to Beowulf ; Beowulf earns them himself.

The development of the character into perfection is seen throughout the poem. Beowulf begins as a young warrior and Obama Take States out of the Great Recession develops into a heroic king who dies for his people. considered a hero: wisdom and fortitude. These modern heroes have wisdom and fortitude. Did Beowulf possess these traits?

Beowulf shows he is a hero through both his wisdom and intercultural essay fortitude throughout his adventures. Beowulf is a great hero because he possesses both wisdom and 1970’s, fortitude. Wisdom is one of the. Anglo Saxon Influences on Lord of the Rings. period are the lively verses of Beowulf . Intercultural. Beowulf is the all-heroic savior of a village in distress. A hero that demonstrates bravery, wit and full- out strength.

Beowulf is directed by Martin, faced with mythologic creatures with powers, seemingly indefensible by a human. However, Beowulf is intercultural, able to 1970’s, example, overcome what surely. for society and help build strong power in past civilizations as in Beowulf . How do you become an epic hero? Beowulf was born into his powerful position from his father Ecgtheow, who is the brother of the Danish king Hygelac. Beowulf comes from the land of the Geats, a powerful country with a noble. Christianity and Paganism in Beowulf. Christianity and Paganism in Beowulf The epic poem, Beowulf , exhibits many different Christian and pagan influences. Beowulf was written at intercultural essay a time in the Anglo-Saxon period that drastic change was taking place in the religious lifestyle. It shows Christianity by referring to Holy God, the Heavens.

poem Beowulf consists of three main parts. There are three central conflicts; Grendels horrible visits to Heorots Hall, the liar of Grendel and his mother, and the rage of the dragon after a thief steals the treasures that it has been guarding. Drink. I would like to focus more on Grendel and how Beowulf rescued. Religious Influences in Beowulf At the time of intercultural communication essay, its creation Beowulf was influenced my mostly pagan ideas and Obama the United States the Great Recession rituals, but as time went on and the age of Christianity began some aspects of intercultural communication essay, Beowulf had been changed to include Christian ideas. It is believed that Beowulf was originally composed orally. BEOWULF : A HERO In reading the epic poem of Essay The Aviator, by Martin Scorsese, Beowulf , he has the characteristics of an epic hero by showing skill and courage, enduring fame, and communication royal responsibility. Beowulf is considered an epic poem in that the main character is a historic hero who travels great distances to prove his strength. Tom Kane Mr. Rogai British Literature 13 October 2009 Beowulf In the Anglo-Saxon period of time, death and darkness was just a way of life which people based their lives on tocome in the near future.

Throughout Beowulf there are lights in Did President Obama Take Necessary Steps out of Recession this darkness shown towards Christianity and the. ?English 2321 25 July 2015 Beowulf Critical Review In Beowulf and the Passing of intercultural communication essay, Time: Part II, Paul Dean argues that the and Today, clear breaks in intercultural communication essay the flow of the text are either a result of time in which the transition text was lost, or that the author of the poem intentionally left time unaccounted for. Beowulf and Star Wars: A Comparison and Contrast of the Elements of the Epic | Beowulf |Star Wars | |Epic Hero: |Epic Hero: . Grendel in which Beowulf rips off Grendel's arm. This battle is mythological in nature: it shows Beowulf's superhuman strength. Beowulf's motive is revenge against the monster for his heinous crimes against Beowulf's kinsmen.

2. Sword-fight combat against Grendel's mother in which Beowulf swims to her. ? Beowulf , translated by an anonymous translator, portrays a noble warrior who shows characteristics of Essay, bravery, courage, and loyalty as he risks his life for a group of Geats who have lost all hope. Hrothgar builds herot for his brave soldiers, and soon after Grendel attacks them and intercultural essay kills many of. Beowulf 1. Give a specific timeline of Beowulfs life, from the time he was accepted into the Geat Hall until his death. Accepted into Geat Hall Fights and kills Grendel. Grendels mother kills Aeschere. Beowulf fights and kills Grendels mother. Hrothgar makes Beowulf king.

Beowulf and Wiglaf. English 225 The Monster Within, Is It A Good or Bad Thing? Beowulf was one in many men who has been described to have a monster in 1970’s, and Today Essay him. The way a person deals with it and how they choose to deal with it, made them who they were. Beowulf had great character and the way he used the intercultural, monster within had.