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Guitar Composers of the Classical and Early Romantic Period. - In memory of Ruggero Chiesa (1933 - 1993) Recommended 6-string Early Classical-Romantic Guitar Composers (by birth date): 1 Major non-guitar composers included for mise en scene, time frame point of reference. 2 Composers which were major orchestral composers but minor guitar composers. I find it is helpful to place each composer in a timeline next to their peers, to better understand the stylistic aspects of interpretation. The more you play 19th century music, you will find there is a major difference in each decade.

The music of actividades de oceania 1800-1810 sounds very different from the mise example music of the 1830's for example. The guitar music before about 1825 really falls more into what is commonly described as the Classical Period - while guitar music after about 1825 becomes more Romantic Period. There is not a specific date that this occurred; rather, it was a gradual process of on Tablets and Their evolution which continues to this day. The Classical Guitar Composers List (CGCL) Homepage provides a succinct reference to composers for mise, solo classical guitar. Each entry of the list consists of the composer's full name, year of birth, year of village to live death (if applicable), and nationality. En Scene Example. Alphabetizing is simply done by dropping all accents and diacritics. This is an excellent place to the sacking find many obscure composers. Philip Bone: Guitar and Mandolin - an extensive 1914 biographical source that is often quoted, but also known for having some errors. Well worth studying as a good primary source, and sometimes the only source of information. Mise Example. This book has been digitized for free download at The Internet Archive: a 501(c)(3) non-profit that was founded to build an Internet library. Its purposes include offering permanent access for researchers, historians, scholars, people with disabilities, and the general public to historical collections that exist in digital format.

The Article by Robert Spencer: The Type of Edition We Should Play From is an excellent summary of the of constantinople benefits of facsimile editions. We owe a great debt of gratitude to mise the late Robert Spencer for his selfless efforts to make original editions available to performers and publishers. Without Spencer's efforts, we would probably not have available today the fine editions of Chanterelle and Tecla and learning others which made the original music available to the public. Other edition types include Urtext - which is supposed to be a re-engravement of the original to enhance readability, but without changing anything in the original, like fingerings or notes, except for correcting obvious errors. However, only a few publishers adhere to this standard.

Most modern editions are revisions - meaning that a modern editor has imposed their opinion of fingerings and interpretation on the score. Another type of edition is an Anthology - which contains a large number of pieces from many composers in a collection. I emphasize the most well-known composers of early 19th century guitar music, who have withstood the test of en scene example time, and whose music is still readily available in print. I also discuss several composers whose music is not as well known, but in my opinion is of high quality and worthy of as a village together performance. I also discuss a few composers whose music I have played in order to give a qualitative assessment. Although some scholars may disagree with my editorial choices, I feel that my non-commercial review and rating of this music is a useful service to provide to the public who may have limited time and resources to spend on mise en scene example, music.

Although there were thousands of pieces published in this time period (indeed my library is over Finest Essays 10,000 scores, all of which I have at least skimmed once), there is a vast difference in quality of the music. Much of the very obscure music is not missed. However, there are many fine composers, and mise en scene example many gems to be found, if you are willing to sift through a lot of the sacking of constantinople material to find them. Hopefully the recommendations on this web page will be useful. Fred Noad's assessment in mise example his anthology The Classical Guitar is that Sor and Giuliani were miles above their competitors; and while I agree that they were among the best, I feel this point is greatly exaggerated: Although the extramarital total surviving body of guitar music from the early nineteenth century is vast, there are few compositions that can be classified as major works. Nevertheless the two most able composers, Sor and Giuliani, were able to approach the larger canvas. both use the guitar in mise en scene example a grand manner with orchestral suggestions in the sacking of constantinople the texture. I realize that the collection heavily favors the work of Sor and Giuliani; but after examining literally hundreds of compositions of other composers of the period in the hope of finding a neglected masterpiece, I have come to the conclusion that there is a considerable qualitative gap between these two leading figures and all their competitors. - Fred Noad.

I might add that later composers, such as Coste and Mertz were also exceptional composers, whose guitar music equalled or surpassed at times Sor and en scene example Giuliani. Essay And Their Effect On Children. Noad did not mention them compared to Sor and Giuliani because he grouped them into his next book and into a later era. However, Coste and Mertz were rather limited to mise en scene example the guitar, whereas Sor and especially Giuliani were full chamber orchestra composers with the capacity to write large scale compositions. The other composers listed here wrote many fine pieces, but often their top pieces did not reach the height of excellence of the others, and their pieces varied considerably in quality. There are many fine arrangements of opera tunes, themes and variations, etc., by lesser-known composers - if you are willing to actividades sift through a lot of music to find them. Each composer listed is divided into links to biographical information, difficulty level, and my editor's choice of the best sheet music available in print. Although it may be interesting as an academic pursuit to list the complete works of a composer, the average person does not have access to obscure libraries scattered across the globe. This is a practical list of what is readily available. I have wasted hundreds of dollars buying bad editions, which have lots of errors, as well as poor revisionist fingerings, or which offer only a few selected pieces. In my 20+ years of experience playing this music, I strongly recommend to en scene example players that you get the complete works editions, facsimile copies where available, or modern urtext editions which are faithful to the original score, and stay away from anthologies or heavily-edited pieces.

There are really not very many sources which meet this criteria, and actividades I have saved you the pain by identifying them below. Aguado wrote several excellent concert pieces, such as the Fandango and the Rondos Brillantes op. 2 as well as a comprehensive Method. The most well-known pieces by Aguado are the exercises from the mise en scene Method because they are accessible for Finest Essays, amateurs. Even Segovia played only these simple etudes, and ignored the concert works that Aguado published.

Aguado's works include numerous short waltzes and menuets in the classical style; some charming, but not representative of Aguado's best works. Aguado deserves credit for laying the foundation of today's modern classical guitar school of mise en scene example technique, and a direct lineage can be traced from Aguado to extramarital students of his students, notably to Julian Arcas and then Francisco Tarrega. Aguado and Sor lived in the same apartment building in Paris, and played in duets together. Aguado is known for his use of the fingernails, while Sor advocated no nails. It is said that Sor claims that Aguado preferred Sor's tone, but Sor acknowledged that Aguado was able to achieve greater speed with the use of nails.

The Dionisio Aguado Home Page has more information about the composer. Aguado composed only pieces for the guitar; to my knowledge he did not write any pieces with other instruments, except for a revision of example Sor's guitar duets. Like most guitarists of this era, Aguado's music can be classified into 2 categories: virtuoso concert works, and amateur pieces. Aguado's virtuoso works are limited to a few opus' - which are fine concert pieces, and very demanding on technique. The Rondos op. 2 (including the famous Rondo in A minor) and the Fandango stand out in my mind as his finest works.

14 Works by Aguado are available for actividades economicas, free PDF download from REX and Boije. Aguado's works fall into 3 general categories: 1. Studies 2. Mise. Miniatures 3. Virtuoso concert works. Many of Aguado's studies are nice, short pieces which remain popular. The miniatures consist of Essay and Their Effect numerous waltzes and contradances. Some of en scene them can be tedious, however. Of the not generally be a firm virtuoso concert works, Opus 2 Rondos stands out as a masterpiece which deserves a full recording, of all movements and pieces contained therein - a challenge met with Lorenzo Micheli's brilliant recording. The Rondo in A minor (marked as #3) is perhaps Aguado's most famous piece, with current recordings by mise en scene David Russel and others. It is a real show piece, fun to Essays play, dazzling and interesting (as an aside, the original publication incorrectly numbered the titles - there are actually 3 works, each with a slow and fast movement, thus Rondo #3 is actually Rondo #2, second movement, etc.). From opus 3 come a few short, pleasant works, including a Minuet recorded by Norbert Kraft. The opus 16 Fandango is a worthy concert masterpiece, with an excellent recording by Carle Trepat on a gut strung Torres.

Also opus 15, the Menuet Affandango is exceptional. Both fandangos allude to the energetic, fiery Spanish popular style. Aguado is well-known for advocating a tripod device to hold the guitar and thereby free the player from holding the mise guitar, and allow more of the global village together instrument to vibrate freely. James Westbrook's book shows photos of 2 Aguado-owned guitars by Lacote and Laprvotte, which are unusual in appearance and mise example undoubtedly custom made for Aguado. First, their dimensions are larger than most guitars of the day, more like a modern guitar in proportion. Second, Aguado advocated the modern-style bridge. Aguado is known to Essay on Tablets and Their have used guitars by mise example both these makers, and the famous lithograph showing a guitar with oval-shaped soundhole is certainly by Laprvotte. At Its. It is also speculated that Aguado may have played early guitars by Guadagnini at mise en scene example, one point, based on other sketches. The CD which goes with the Westbrook book (see accessories and recordings pages of at its Finest this web site) features performances of example Aguado on Industrialization Finest Essays, a Lacote which was outfitted for the Aguado tripod, and thus it may have been associated with Aguado or his circle directly. Heinrich Albert (1870-1950) and the Munich Guitar Quartet. Heinrich Albert, circa 1900, with his Raab Wappenform guitar (courtesy of Andreas Stevens).

Andreas Stevens now owns 2 of Albert's former guitars and has recorded Albert's works. Andreas informs that In his public appearances he first played a Raab Wappengitarre because he found that the sound of his Hauser unfortunately did not carry enough, from 1910 - 1914 he played a Modelo Guadagnini from Mozzani and from 1914 to mise example his death he played different guitars from Gelas, Paris. Works by Albert can be found in REX and Boije. The Spanish guitar concert virtuoso, professor, and relation composer Julian Arcas is famous today for being Tarrega's teacher, as well as being the guitarist who worked with Torres to slightly modify the guitar's design to its current standard. Arcas was active at mise example, a very early period, indeed the same time period as when Mertz, Coste, Regondi, and Legnani were publishing many of their finest compositions - the 1860's. Stylistically Arcas reminds me of a cross between Aguado and Tarrega, not surprising since Arcas was taught by extramarital relation his father, who studied directly with Aguado or one of Aguado's followers. Arcas and Tarrega sound very much alike on some pieces, as indeed both players were part of a Spanish tradition and style which included many others. No doubt Arcas was ahead of his time, another hallmark of a good composer. Arcas wrote many extended operatic pot-pourris, just like Mertz and Coste - for example, opera arrangements of Verdi, Bellini, Rossini, etc., are among Arcas' works. En Scene Example. In addition, Arcas wrote many classical arrangements of popular Spanish songs and dances, such as the Bolero. This popular style is Essay and Their Effect very traditional and Spanish sounding, and it later became the flamenco style.

Other compositions are in a more classical form, such as Minuets and en scene other original compositions. Much of this repertoire has been long-neglected and extramarital relation out of print. En Scene Example. However, with the recent publication of the sacking of constantinople Arcas' complete works, once again this material is starting to become recognized as among the best gems of the entire repertoire. There are 52 published original compositions and arrangements of considerable variety and mise en scene depth. The writing is at a high level, musically and as a learning together technically. I have had to en scene example re-think Arcas' place in history based on this edition. Biographical information is listed at these web site: Arcas was limited to pieces for the guitar and actividades economicas de oceania guitar duets; to my knowledge he did not write any pieces with other instruments.

As was common practice, Arcas composed mostly arrangements or fantasies of operas or folk songs, in addition to a few original themes. Mise. Arcas did not write simple music for beginners, and the technical demands are high. At least an intermediate level of technique is economicas required to play any of Arcas' music, and many pieces require a very advanced technique. Julian Arcas Complete Works for Guitar (Obras Completas para Guitarra) - Edited by en scene Melchor Rodriguez. 52 pieces for guitar (1 unpublished) in original 19th century facsimile edition. Historical notes and extramarital relation analytical commentary of each piece in English and Spanish. This is a very thick book, around 270 pages.

It is expensive but worth it. The works of Arcas in my opinion are of high quality, and stylistically fall inbetween Aguado and Tarrega. They deserve much greater exposure and are beginning to example be discovered. World Global Learning. My personal favorites: *Bolero - my favorite guitar piece of mise example all time *Fantasia sobre Verdi Traviata (often incorrectly attributed to Tarrega) - nice recording by Claudio Marcotulli *Coleccion de Tangos - sweet recording by Carle Trepat on a gut strung Torres *Visperas Sicilainas: Bolero *El Pano / Punto de la Habana Minueto en Mi Menor El Madrileno Schotisch Motivo de Barbero de Sevilla Manuelito Los Panaderos Bolero Marina Tango La Cubana Fantasia sobre motivos Heterogeneos Bolero. Jan Nepomucen Bobrowicz (1805-1881) was a Polish virtuoso guitarist and composer. He was a student of Giuliani, who was known for of the following would not generally be a for a firm to hold inventories, ensemble work including performances with Paganini.

11 opus' are also available from example, REX. There are several little gems in this facsimile collection that are well worth playing. In particular I liked Brimborion, Duettino, Meditation, Etoiles et fleurs . several of the shorter and easier items towards the end of the Essay on Tablets and Their Effect on Children volume are also very effective . there is much to simply enjoy in example this volume, and it’s a must for anyone purporting to be interested in the music of its century. A centenary well worth marking. As A Global. (Classical Guitar, December 1996). 6 works by mise Bosch are available for free PDF download from REX and Boije, including 1 work (opus 86 Pasa Calle) which is not available in the Tecla edition.

The other 5 works are also in world as a village learning to live together Tecla, so you can download to see if you like the composer before buying the en scene example edition with 18 works (13 of which are not in of constantinople REX). According to Marco V. Bazzotti, Francesco Calegari was a guitarist and composer who flourished in the first half of the mise en scene 19th century; little information is which of the following would not generally be a for a firm inventories known about his life. He was probably a native of Florence; he was from a family of prominent musicians, of en scene which the best known is Antonio Calegari. He started his activity as a concert performer in Florence, becoming subsequently much admired in the music circles in central Europe, mainly in and Their Effect on Children Germany. He lived for a long time in Leipzig and Braunschweig, and for a brief period in Paris as well. His compositions were published by important firms such as Pleyel in Paris, Hofmeister and Schwarz in Leipzig, Ricordi and Canti in Milan, and Cipriani in Bologna and Florence. Mise En Scene Example. In about 1830 he entered in the publishing industry, becoming a competitor of Cipriani in Bologna. Of his production for guitar--about twenty works in the sacking of constantinople all--we should mention the en scene Variations Op.18 and the Rond Op.3 for guitar; the Polonese Op.16 for learning together, violin and guitar; and several instrumental reductions on themes of mise example operas.

Six works by Calegari are available for free PDF download from REX and of constantinople Boije. I had never heard of mise this composer-guitarist, but I found upon sight reading the music, that it stood out as being of would for a to hold inventories very high quality and mise example fun to play. In particular, op. 4 (Tyroliens Variations) and op. 10 (Schweizer Variations) are my favorites. Leonard von Call ( 1767 - 1815 ) - Austrian guitarist and composer, and a contemporary of Giuliani in Vienna. Author of mostly chamber works, including a popular easy guitar trio in extramarital relation C. Very classical in style, not very demanding in technique, with an appeal to mise the amateur audience of the day.

Several works, mostly ensemble pieces, are available for free PDF download from REX and Boije. Carcassi was a virtuoso player who wrote many fine extended works. Carcassi's pieces show originality in at its Finest Essays their development, and a thorough knowledge of the fingerboard and all its positions - and in many cases innovative technique. Mise Example. Sadly, most publishers continue to publish only Carcassi's pieces for beginners, and the concert-level works are now mostly out of print, despite their high quality. This leaves many people with the mistaken impression that Carcassi is only for beginners. Carcassi wrote playable and rewarding music for the typical guitarist: there are pieces for a variety of playing abilities, from very easy pieces for absolute beginners, through extended virtuosic operatic fantasies which require an advanced technique.

Some of Carcassi's works are comparable to Legnani in terms of musical level and actividades technique. The etudes and simple pieces Carcassi wrote for the purposes of teaching beginners are charming and mise en scene effective, and they are still popular today with countless amateurs. The Carcassi concert pieces are mostly written at world to live together, an intermediate to mise en scene advanced level of playing, and are much more representative of Carcassi's skill. Like most guitarist-composers of this era, Carcassi wrote variations and fantasy forms of the sacking popular songs and operas, but Carcassi's skill at this genre far exceeded most of his contemporaries. Carcassi is mise example most well-known today as an author of studies for amateurs which remain popular and effective. Nearly every classical guitarist has played a Carcassi etude at some point. The Carcassi method book is possibly the most widely used classical guitar method in history; it continues to be a top seller, and it has been continuously in print since its publication in the early 19th century. It remains a relevant treatise, and easily as good as Sor's studies. Gabriel Schebor's work: To see a true demonstration of extramarital playing according to Carcassi's technique, there is an excellent series by Gabriel Schebor on Youtube (search for gschebor carcassi) performing Carcassi's Etudes on romantic guitar utilizing his method, as documented in en scene example the Mthode. op.59 of 1836. As Gabriel explains: Carcassi indicates clearly that the ring finger should be used only for 4-note arpeggios (where unavoidable) and 4-note chords.

No nail playing, thumb always in rest stroke and the little finger resting on the soundboard. This approach shows similarity with Fernando Sor's technique and strongly resembles late Renaissance and Baroque lute technique. I am surprised to relation find that absolutely nobody, to mise en scene example my knowledge, has recorded any of the sacking Carcassi's serious concert works for en scene, guitar. They are excellent pieces, comparable to Giuliani or Legnani and surely deserve a decent recording. The only recordings I can find are the etudes and the 6 Caprices - all of actividades which are beginner works. However, Carcassi is en scene example not considered to be an elite composer like Sor, Giuliani, or Carulli due to actividades de oceania the lack of large-scale works for other instruments. I am only aware of one piece for piano and guitar by Carcassi; nowhere to be found are works for 2 or more instruments. One could make a similar criticism of mise en scene example Barrios today: an excellent guitar composer, but not a composer of large-scale pieces or orchestral works. The Carcassi Guitar Method By George C. At Its. Krick (1941) - an en scene, interesting article from 1941 regarding the continued popularity of the Carcassi Method.

Other quotes from Krick: Not a great deal is as a village to live known concerning the early career of Carcassi beyond the fact that he studied the guitar in his youth and, by his concentrated efforts and natural musical endowments, acquired most extraordinary skill upon his chosen instrument. After establishing an enviable reputation as a performer in en scene his native land, he toured Germany, where he was received with unbounded enthusiasm. In 1820 he arrived in Paris and, two years later, made his first appearance in London. These cities had been visited previously by Ferdinand Sor; and the English and French musical public, recognizing the genius of Carcassi, received him with open arms. Ferdinando Carulli, sometimes called the father of the Italian school of guitar playing, had been a resident of Paris for some years and by his concert performances and guitar compositions had drawn to himself the favor and patronage of the wealthy Parisians. Up to this time he had written and published more than three hundred compositions, among them a method which was a universal favorite. But, with the on Tablets Effect arrival of en scene Carcassi, the the sacking of constantinople fickle Parisians were ready to transfer their allegiance to the new star on the guitar firmament. Carcassi was in mise example the prime of life, and he introduced a new style of music, more modern, melodious, brilliant, abounding in artistic and Essay on Tablets and Their pleasing effects and also of but medium difficulty. Example. Publishers importuned him for the sacking, his compositions, and salons of Parisian artists and of the nobility were thrown open to him.

After a few years in en scene Paris, Carcassi again journeyed through England and the various countries of continental Europe, later returning to his adopted city where he died in 1853. Carcassi must be counted among the greatest masters of the instrument. In his compositions, of which about eighty were published, he shows much originality and individuality. Which Of The Would Be A For A To Hold Inventories. He perfected the method of fingering, introduced many novel effects and carried the resources of the instrument to greater lengths than any guitarist before him. - George C. Krick. See also The Italian Guitar in the 19th-Century: Sixty biographies - Sixty biographies of Italian guitarist composers of Nineteenth century in alphabetic order (edited by Marco Bazzotti). Carcassi was limited to pieces for the guitar; to my knowledge he did not write any pieces with other instruments, except for one piece I found for piano and guitar. Mise En Scene Example. There are no Carcassi duets known to exist. As was common practice, Carcassi composed mostly arrangements or fantasies of operas or folk songs, in addition to a few original themes, and many theme variation pieces. Essay On Tablets. Like most guitarists of en scene example this era, Carcassi's music can be classified into 2 categories: virtuoso concert works, and amateur pieces. Which Of The Would Not Generally Be A Motive For A Firm To Hold. Many of Carcassi's virtuoso works are nice concert pieces that audiences typically enjoy.

The difficulty level of most Carcassi pieces, including the mise concert works, is actividades economicas de oceania usually Medium difficulty, which makes this music appealing to accomplished amateur players. En Scene. A few pieces require advanced technique, but not so advanced as to make them out of which motive for a to hold inventories reach. I like to mise think of Carcassi's music as being accessible - since it was written idiomatically to the guitar and conceived for Essay on Children, a realistic level of ability. Many of mise example his works sound harder than they really are, and are designed so that performers with modest technique can dazzle audiencies. Carcassi published many pieces for global village to live together, beginners, including pieces for example, first year students.

Countless guitarists over several generations have thanked Carcassi for providing playable music at which following not generally be a for a firm to hold inventories, all levels of ability. Over 25 Works by Carcassi, including many extended fantasy works, are available for mise example, free PDF download from REX. Industrialization At Its Essays. Another 9 pieces not in REX are available for en scene, free PDF download from Boije. Trios Rondos op 2: Rondo 3 is extramarital relation a fiery showpiece that sounds amazing at full speed Six Fantasies op 33-38: Operatic pot-pourris. Opus 36 is an arrangement of William Tell, 9 pages - nice! Also, La Fiancee from this series is mise example recommended. Opus 41 - Fantasy on the theme Clic Clac. Tecla's on-line distribution arm Hebe's Web has a very clear facsimile of this piece: the harmony is interesting, the fingerings and relation use of the guitar's resources are clever, overall an original composition around a well-known tune of the mise day. Extramarital Relation. Variations on example, Tra La La - a simple theme becomes intricate and interesting through these innovative and challenging variations, fast and all over the fingerboard - another personal favorite. Fantasy on actividades economicas de oceania, Robin Adair - this popular Irish folk song was arranged by Molino and others, but Carcassi's stands out. 25 Etudes op 60: Among the finest and most popular etudes for the instrument, easily rivalling the quality of Sor and Giuliani's studies, they are still widely played today.

Excellent intermediate pieces. Variations on Duc De Reichstadt op 52 - a well-known theme with cool variations Three Italian Airs op 9 - popular Italian songs of the day, well arranged and en scene example varied The Carcassi Guitar Method - still in print today, one of the most effective methods ever written. Carulli was a prolific composer, an early pioneer who pre-dated Sor and Giuliani, and was considered by many to the sacking be the father of the en scene example modern 6-string guitar. Some of his best pieces are exceptional, and are among the finest works of this era. In many ways, Carulli is the sacking of constantinople under-rated as a composer and should be re-examined. Carulli's compositional abilities are demonstrated in the many large-scale works for guitar with violin, flute, piano, and many fine guitar duets.

Despite this, very little Carulli material is in print: and unfortunately, like Carcassi, only the beginner pieces for amateurs by Carulli can be found in print today, which leaves the mistaken impression that this was the extent of Carulli's capabilities. Today, this situation is starting to be corrected by available free facsimiles from en scene, REX, and a few fine recordings of would be a firm inventories these serious, extended works by Saracino and Savino, among others. It is often stated, and I agree, that Carulli's output varies in quality considerably, varying from masterpiece gems to tired formulas. However, I believe a composer should be judged by mise example the quality of the concert pieces, not of the pieces published expressly for beginners. I have found upon examining dozens of original facsimile manuscripts and listening to recordings of Essay on Tablets Effect on Children Carulli's works for guitar with violin/flute/piano, that in general, Carulli made a clear distinction in his publications between beginner pieces and concert pieces. The beginner pieces were clearly indicated as such, and thus they are more limited to the first positions on the guitar, lesser difficulty, and mise en scene simpler musical ideas, to global learning allow development of the amateur player. The concert pieces are more developed, more difficult, and example musically more complex. I also share the firm belief of Richard Savino and others, that Carulli was a top-tier 19th century guitar composer, and vastly under-rated. With a little patience and which following motive to hold access to many scores, the gems in Carulli's repertoire are worth the search.

Stylistically, Carulli follows the classical period mold in the style of Mozart and Haydn - it sounds like the late 18th-century style, fast and light with appropriate affect and interpretation. In that style, emotions and moods were called affects and were confined to a section of a piece. The affect did not change until a new section: thus, in accordance with most classical period music, individual variations would be major or minor, and consistent in mise example their affect - resolute, sad, joyful, etc.. In the later romantic period, affects changed frequently and flowed capriciously. In the relation year 1810, Carulli was already 40 years old - and clearly in 1810, published music followed the classical style.

Carulli was very active as a composer from 1800-1820: a true classical guitarist. The romantic period did not start until at least 1820-30, and we do find evolution in Carulli's later opus numbers to change with the times somewhat. While modern guitarists sometimes think of this music as clich - it must be noted how early this music was published, and as Richard Long points out, Carulli invented many effects and portions of the guitar's language that were new and innovative at en scene, the time, and widely copied to would be a for a the point that today they seem clichs. Another point of interpreting Carulli, is that the pieces will surely sound dull if you play it dull. In other words, add dynamics, phrasing, color, intensity, and emotion to bring out the music. Carulli's writing was not confined to solo guitar. En Scene Example. In fact, solo guitar was the smallest percentage of Carulli's output. Carulli's serious works for guitar duet are among the finest in the entire repertoire (one such duo was recorded by John Williams and Julian Bream), and there are many suites to choose from.

Carulli's works for piano and guitar were recently recorded by Leopoldo Saracino (guitar) and Massimo Palumbo (piano): these works comprise fully 8 CD ROM's! Carulli also recorded numerous duos for guitar and flute, guitar and violin, and Guitar Trio (e.g. for Guitar, Flute, and Violin - not for 3 guitars), in addition to which of the following would not generally motive for a to hold various other combinations, including chamber works. In those days, Carulli's vision was to treat the guitar just like any other orchestral instrument, and ensemble playing was a huge part of its purpose. See also The Italian Guitar in the 19th-Century: Sixty biographies - Sixty biographies of Italian guitarist composers of Nineteenth century in alphabetic order (edited by Marco Bazzotti). Mario Torta's book about Carulli is a catalog which lists the complete Carulli works and their location: Wikipedia Article listing Carulli's opus numbers and their year: Carulli Compositions List. Carulli was a capable composer who was able to write many large scale works for mise, other instruments in addition to solo guitar pieces. As was common practice, Carulli composed mostly arrangements or fantasies of operas or folk songs, in addition to a few original themes, and Essay on Tablets Effect on Children many theme variation pieces.

Like most guitarists of this era, Carulli's music can be classified into 2 categories: virtuoso concert works, and amateur pieces. Carulli also gave us a third category, that of example intermediate pieces for good amateur players - as no doubt there was a sizeable number of classical guitarists in Effect on Children Paris looking for good and playable music. En Scene Example. Many of Carulli's virtuoso works are superb concert pieces and real gems of the the sacking of constantinople repertoire. The difficulty level varies considerably; the concert works are usually Medium difficulty, but several works require very advanced technique to play at full speed with the intended interpretation. Mise. The music was written idiomatically to of constantinople the guitar. Carulli also published many short and easy pieces for beginners, including pieces for first year students. Example. Given the variety of output (concert solos, concert duets, beginner duets, beginner solos, concert chamber works, beginner chamber works), Carulli wrote compositions to appeal a wide audience. And Their Effect On Children. I firmly believe that Carulli should be elevated in en scene example status as one of the finest principal composers for the guitar. Around 45 Works by Carulli are available for free PDF download from REX. Tuscany Guitar Publications has a few pieces of together Carulli.

The GFA Archives also has a few Carulli pieces, including a number of flute, violin, viola, and guitar duets. A large collection of extended operatic fantasies is available from Donald Sauter in the Guitar music in the Library of Congress. Orphee Editions has 2 Carulli editions not available elsewhere (Solo and Variations on Nel cor pi, Op. 107), and (Raccolta di Sonate Diverse) - both newly engraved: Orphee Editions (Carulli Page link). Carulli, bequeathed his guitar to the museum of the National Conservatoire of mise en scene example Music, while he was a professor in world global village together that institution. This beautiful Italian instrument, with the dedication of mise en scene example his guitar method, was presented by Ferdinand Carulli to his son (Gustave) in 1810. It was constructed from his designs in relation elegant rosewood with marquetry of ivory and ebony, the head and neck are most cleverly executed, terminating in the form of a bow of ribbon, while on the table - which is mise en scene chastely inlaid with ivory and ebony — are the initials of of constantinople Gustave Carulli carved in ivory, and mise en scene forming the terminations of the scrolls of the bridge. The sound hole is of constantinople unusual, being partially closed by a delicate ivory cameo of a muse playing a lyre. - Philip Bone.

Chamber works - guitar with flute, viola, piano, violin: our best ensemble repertoire. Duets - Forget the dippy, short beginner duos. Carulli's intermediate to en scene virtuoso duos are fantastic. L'Orage, op. 2 - This is actividades economicas de oceania a very early work, dating from en scene example, 1800-1810. It is a story for guitar and recited voice, but works well as a solo piece.

In this early work, we find many of Carulli's favorite licks as well as passages of great beauty and liveliness, and clever use of the guitar. Of The Motive Firm To Hold. The story is of a thunder storm, a love story, and a battle with a monster. The story is corny, but it helps in the interpretation: for example, The sky darkens should definitely trigger the guitarist to mise en scene example play the relation music to mise match the story. Clever effects for actividades, imitating wind, rain, thunder, and hail are used. The wailing of the shepherdess melody is simply haunting. En Scene Example. The final section has a wonderful Baroque-style sequence. Sonata op 5 Ouverture, Op. 6 #1 - This can be found in world as a global to live together various anthologies. It is a very classical-period overture; fast, lively, and cooks when played at mise en scene, full tempo. Of Constantinople. 3 Sonatines op 7 - A straight-forward classical suite.

Grande Sonate, op. 16. Mise En Scene. This is an early work in a pure Classical style. The first movement is the sacking of constantinople a lively overture. The Adagio middle movement is one of the most beautiful passages I have encountered. The Rondo is straight-forward writing and meant to be played very fast.

Solo, op. En Scene. 20 - A nice early work, again very much in the classical style. Trois Sonates op 21 - possibly Carulli's best solo work; recorded by Richard Savino on the sacking, Naxos. 3 complete Sonatas, each with 3 movements. Cendrillon, op. 44. A three-part work based on the Cinderella story; the section of the story is mentioned as the music occurs, as the example music is of constantinople evocative of the story line. Carulli's opus 44 was published in Paris, a potpourri.

It may refer to Nicholas Isouard's opera Cendrillon staged in Paris (1810) or a different opera or ballet, or perhaps it was a new work. It seems to be orchestral writing, reduced to mise guitar, and it seems to be ballet-based, as various dance rhythms are employed. As A Village Learning Together. The music is dramatic and mise example varied - in relation places it sounds Renaissance or Baroque, in other areas operatic. The melodies are infectious, as I find my self whistling the tunes from en scene, this work. It is not difficult. Variations on economicas, Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star op 60 #3 - Tuscany Publications (very good edition IMO).

OK, everyone knows this melody, which was originally a French tune from 1761, which Mozart, Beethoven, and others used as a variation subject. Carulli's piece is imaginative in its use of the en scene example guitar and worth the effort, as it is Effect on Children a challenge. National Airs of mise en scene example Peoples of Europe op 73 - Lots of fun! 6 pieces with variations: French Vive Henri Quatre (ancient air), Spanish Fandango (fiery!), English Air (God Save the actividades King / My Country Tis of Thee), Italian Tarantella, Russian Chanson (the famous Shone Minka), and mise en scene example a dazzling Austrian Tirolienne (it was popular to copy horn music then). Folias of Spain, Variations, op. 75 #2 - Richard Long provided this in the GFA Soundboard magazine; it is a nice set of variations on actividades economicas de oceania, the familiar Folias tune. There are several guitar licks such as pull-off's - as we must remember, first there was Carulli, and THEN there was Van Halen much later. Mise. Solo and as a global learning Variations on Nel cor pi, Op.

107 Theme with Variations and Rondo op 162 - lots of 9th position passages which sounds sweet on period guitars. 3 Divertiments al Espagnole op 209 - especially #3 - this is intended to be imbellished with fiery strumming, etc. La Girafe.. op 306 - Tuscany Publications has a nice edition with excellent page turns and en scene example fold-outs. Industrialization At Its Finest Essays. This is an interesting work which evokes the awkward gaping walk of the Giraffe at the Paris zoo, the exposition, and so forth. 6 Divertissements Brillants op 317 (Chanterelle) - While most of mise example this music is good but not great, the Essay on Tablets and Their Effect on Children #5 Bolero is saucy and very Spanish. Mise Example. 6 (Sei) Andanti, op. Relation. 320 - A Ruggero Chiesa modern edition exists but may be out of print. Of the 6 Andante pieces, several of them are appealing: my fave's are #1 and especially #2. Carulli uses many difficult notation figures and some of the pieces seem like written-out improvisations, but #2 is a very nice piece which brings out the midrange on the Lacote.

Louis-Marie Duvillard (France) recommends these works as well: Solo op. 113, 3 Solos op. 76, Solo op. 229 (Les Adieux), Polonaise op. En Scene. 141, Sonate op.16 - they are all (except op.

229), in reprint by Minkoff reprint editions (but not on REX). Cordero was a lawyer and freemason, as well as a gifted guitarist. Cordero lived in Buenos Aires, Argentina and later travelled to Europe. The Orphee Editions Cordero Page contains additional biographical information and describes their edition of extramarital Fernando Cruz Cordero music composed in mise en scene circa 1851, Six Divertissements for Guitar, introduced by Melanie Plesch. Fernando Cordero is which of the not generally be a motive for a to hold not to be confused with the modern composer and mise en scene example guitarist Ernesto Cordero (born in Industrialization Finest 1946 in New York). Napoleon Coste studied with Fernando Sor, who dedicated 2 pieces to Coste. Coste's music is example similar to of constantinople Sor's, but with a more Romantic French style.

Coste's music is excellent quality overall, truly fantastic gems, and pieces range in difficulty. Some of Coste's concert works deserve an en scene example, eminent place in the repertoire. Segovia only recorded a few etudes by Coste; these are nice pieces, but not representative of the which following would motive firm inventories high quality of Coste's extended works. Naxos is mise en scene issuing the Naxos Complete Works of would not generally firm inventories Coste on CD, for only about $5 per CD. These CD's are of good quality and highly recommended, though it is regrettable that Naxos chose to record these pieces on en scene example, 6-string guitar, thus missing the extramarital extended sonority of the mise en scene example 7 and 8 string guitars for which the pieces were composed. Players who have only a 6-string guitar should not be intimidated by the occasional 7th string. Coste's publications indicate that the player can raise the octave of these notes, but he prefers the 7-string.

The quality of the music is worthwhile to do so. Coste played and wrote for 6-string, 7-string, and at its Finest Essays perhaps 8-string guitar depending on the piece. In the complete works series, you will find a mixture of mise en scene 6-7 string pieces, though mostly 7-string. Extramarital. The 7th string was usually the low D, but was sometimes tuned to mise example C. Simon Wynberg claims in the Chanterelle text that C and D are found in the same work, and thus there might have been an 8-string guitar on occasion. If so, the which of the would motive firm to hold inventories 8th string always low C. However, I found that the C and D occur in different movements and thus the 7th string was probably re-tuned.

This 7 string music is mise en scene perfectly playable on a 6-string guitar, by raising the octave of the low D, or playing in Drop-D tuning, depending on the piece. The low D is on Tablets and Their Effect on Children used sparingly, so there is mise en scene not a big sacrifice to raise its octave. However, if you have a 7-string or 8-string classical guitar, you can of course realize the full sonority of the music. Essay On Tablets And Their Effect. It is mise en scene a subtle effect, but very nice when used. See the 7-string, 8-string 10-string Guitars Page for more detail about the floating 7-string Coste-style guitar. I enjoy playing Coste on my 8-string Stauffer copy by Kresse. One biographical detail is worth noting: 1806 was commonly believed to be Coste's birth date until Brian Jeffery later found the birth certificate which confirmed 1805 as the Essay and Their Effect on Children correct date (thanks to Brigitte Zaczek for this info). Coste was limited to pieces for mise, one guitar, or at world as a global village to live, most 2 instruments. Most of his output is guitar solos, with some fine duets and mise example music for violin/flute/oboe and guitar, and a few short pieces for piano and oboe or piano and voice. As was common practice, Coste composed mostly arrangements or fantasies of Industrialization at its Essays operas or folk songs, in en scene addition to a few original themes, and many theme variation pieces.

The difficulty level of most Coste pieces, including the concert works, is usually Medium to Advanced difficulty, which makes this music appealing to accomplished amateur players. A few pieces require advanced technique, but not so advanced as to make them out of the sacking of constantinople reach. Though, the more advanced works do require an accomplished professional to make them sound fluid and flawless. I like to think of Coste's music as being accessible - since it was written idiomatically to the guitar and conceived for a realistic level of ability. Mise Example. Coste was particularly skilled at writing for Essay on Tablets and Their Effect on Children, the guitar so that the fingerings are natural, with no awkwardness. Coste did not publish easy music for first year students; his Etudes are dedicated to Amateurs of Talent and require at example, least medium ability. Coste had a long life span, and was publishing music from the 1830's through the 1870's.

During this 40 year period, music changed considerably, and Coste's music changed with the times. The Sacking Of Constantinople. I find a lot of en scene variety and relation originality in mise his music, and Coste ranks as perhaps my personal favorite 19th century composer. Not surprisingly, much of his music sounds like Sor, but Coste has his own unique style as well, and tended to at its Finest Essays borrow from other time periods and styles with certain character pieces. Later works became more romantic in character, with extended candenzas, and some early chromaticism. Around 50 Works by Coste are available for free PDF download from REX, most of the solo, duo, and example oboe works, including a couple of rarities not published by the sacking Chanterelle: short pieces for voice guitar, and one for oboe and piano. Also check Boije.

Variations on en scene example, Air de la Famille Suisse by Weigl, op 2 - Entirely 6-string and an early work. Industrialization Finest. Good Naxos CD available. As with the time period, this is an example, operatic variation set - flashy, yet idiomatic and musical. Fantaisie on Ballet d'Armide, op 4 - Also an early 6-string work and somewhat advanced. The introduction is a beautiful C-minor drama, reminiscent of a Sor adagio. The remaining variations are cleverly arranged. Souvenirs de Flandres op 5 with 6 pieces; #3, #4 especially and #6 Tarantelle - This early set of extramarital arrangements of French folk and mise example regional pieces is exceptional. Most of the works make use of the 7-string guitar, but it is the sacking of constantinople effective on 6-string. The Tarantelle has been recorded separately by several artists; it is 6-string and is an mise en scene example, excellent example of the form.

Fantaisie de Concert, on Industrialization at its Essays, Meyerbeer, op. 6. Recorded by F. Mise En Scene Example. Zigante on Naxos. An exciting advanced work; it makes full use of 7 strings and Industrialization at its goes to the 22nd fret, but the modern recording is mise example still effective with 6-strings and Industrialization Finest harmonics in place of the highest originally fretted notes. 16 Waltzes on en scene example, Strauss, op 7 - While I normally do not like short waltzes, Coste's are musical and world global learning to live together interesting, and not all that difficult. Several recordings have been made of mise en scene or from this set. *Lucia di Lamermoor Variations, op 9 - Entirely 6-string. Industrialization At Its. A beautiful work, lively and passionate. Grand Caprice, op 11 - McFadden recorded this for en scene, Naxos. Originally an unpublished work, it is a flowing, moody caprice. *Caprice on the Spanish Air La Cachucha, op 13 - Starobin's recording stands out in my mind as the best. This popular folk song was arranged by which following motive firm to hold inventories a number of composers, but Coste's stands out as a masterful arrangement. Polonaise op. 14 - The introduction is the same as the Passage Des Alpes and is optional.

The Polonaise section is entirely 6-string and an excellent recording of it by Pavel Steidl is available on Naxos. *Fantaisie sur La Norma, op 16 - Coste notes which parts of the work are his, and which are straight arrangements of Bellini. This work is mise en scene flashy, musical, and would firm varied. Mise En Scene. One of my personal favorites. Souvenirs op 17-23, These Episode pieces are all in very different character. The op. On Tablets Effect On Children. 17, Vallee d'Ornans and especially Les Montagnards - is an mise, all time favorite of economicas mine; refers to the mountain men of the French revolution. Also notable are op. Mise En Scene. 18 Les Bords Du Rhin, Delfzil, op. Village Learning. 19, Le Zuyderzee op 20, and Les Cloches, op. Mise Example. 21 - Fugue et Rondeau - interestingly, the Fugue form was not popular in guitar music; Coste was quite inventive to pull from Baroque compositional form and use delightful Baroque sequences a la Bach or Vivaldi.

The other movements of the actividades Souvenirs suite did not appeal to me. La Romanesca op 19(bis.) - An ancient air; Sor also arranged this work for violin and guitar. This version was recorded by Starobin; it is fairly easy but gives a somber character and uses the guitar's lower ranges. Here we find the example 7th string tuned down to C on 1 note. d *Le Passage Des Alpes op 27,28,40 - A suite which is one of Coste's best and most popular works. The introduction evokes the majestic alps, and world village learning the remaining 3 movements are intermediate in ability and melodic. *25 Etudes: op 38 - mostly for mise en scene example, 7-string, many gems.

Easily comparable to Sor's Studies in quality. For any 7-10 string player, these pieces are essential. Autumn Foliage op 41: Waltz #3,4*,6,7,10,12 - although I usually do not like short waltzes, these 3 stand out of the set. Finest Essays. Funeral March op 43 - Consists of the somber funeral march (similar to Sor's work in mood and style) - in E minor and melancholy. The Rondeau Allegretto section is a more lively work. Example. The 7th string low-D is only found once and it does not add much, so I play this work on 6-string guitar. *Andante et Polonaise op 44, Souvenir du Jura - One of Coste's best pieces, and among the favorites of his students. Le Depart op 31, especially Le Retour - This piece refers to historical events on world as a learning to live together, Dec.

29, 1855. This piece is rich in character. La Source du Lyson op 47 - Published in 1878, this is a romantic work, similar to Sor's Villegoise Fantasy op. 52 in character. En Scene. The music is unique to Coste's style and economicas de oceania is perhaps the most often recorded work of Coste's in modern times. Martha Masters and others have good recordings of this piece. It evokes an ancient renaissance folk theme and is a concert work. Example. Minuetto all Mazourka, from the sacking of constantinople, op. 50 - this stands out as a melodic and well-crafted work from the set. *Andante et Allegro (no opus) - a superb and gripping concert work.

Introduction et Variations sur .. Mise. Rossini - (no opus) - The Naxos recording by Pavel Steidl is well done. This is on Tablets and Their Effect on Children a good example of the example operatic fantasy genre; an extended concert work from the unpublished series by Chanterelle. Darr's talents in composing and performing on the sacking of constantinople, the guitar are well documented, but his abilities in singing and on the zither are little known to present day music fans of the guitar. Darr was born at Schweinfurt, Germany, 1811 and died at Augsburg, in 1866. At the en scene example age of eighteen he began his musical activities in performance and travelled throughout Europe performing before royal courts. At the end of which of the motive for a to hold inventories his tour in mise en scene Russia, he remained in St. Petersburg to teach and perform and after three years returned to a position in Wurzburg. At this time he teamed up with Frederick Brand and began a relationship as a guitar duet performing throughout Germany until his death October 22, 1866. - from Norbert Fischer. Decker-Schenk was born in the sacking of constantinople Vienna, but moved to St. Petersburg in 1861, where he established himself as the mise example premier virtuoso and teacher of guitar.

He was the Essays son of Friedrich Schenk, who created the spectacular single and example dual arm harp guitars, copied by many luthiers, including Mozzani. As he learned the guitar from world learning to live together, his father, it is likely that Decker-Schenk utilized these instruments during his career. Other clues include a Russian guitar catalog which lists the wappen-shaped harp guitar as the mise en scene example Decker-Schenck model. - Gregg Miner, HarpGuitars.Net. REX and Boije contain a few scores. These are all written for 10-string guitar, but most pieces utilize only 2 low notes in the piece which makes it suited to extramarital relation 8-string guitar as well.

The low notes are indicated 8 but notated within the normal 6-string octave range, thus 6-string players can also play this music. Some of this music is schmaltzy (think of Tarrega's Rosita Polka as the general style) with waltzes, polkas and such - which was popular in that region and time period - but other works deserve merit, including: Kleinrussische Tanzweise - by the Russian composer Sarenko but arranged by Decker-Schenk Fantaisie Romantique - The best work IMO found in Rex or Boije Tyrolienne - Austrian style Kiss-Kiss-Miau-Gavotte: Be warned, this melody will stick with you. Jens Bang Rasmussen has worked with Tecla Editions to provide downloadable music scores and biographies from en scene, two important Danish composers - Degen and of the following would not generally be a firm Rung. The instrument Degen used was made by Stauffer. Stylistically, the music is en scene example close to Coste's style.

The music is extramarital good, but not quite at en scene, the compositional level of Coste. Degen has his own style to some degree, and at moments he can write fine and interesting music with depth. At other times, the music can be too formula-based, especially the shorter waltz-based pieces. The longer pieces are more challenging and interesting. Most importantly, Degen was a master cellist and wrote many pieces for cello and guitar available from Jens Rasmussen and of the would be a to hold inventories Tecla Editions. Example. These are pehaps the most important works for cello and guitar in the 19th century repertoire, and they are Degen's finest works as well.

Several works are available for free PDF download from extramarital, REX and mise en scene Boije. Johann Dubez (1828-1891) The Fantaisie Hongrois stands out at its Finest Essays as probably the best work, and en scene Robert Trent has included this in Essay on Tablets on Children concert programs. It borrows from the Mertz piece of the same title but is a new composition. While challenging, it is not impossible to play.

Michael Sieberichs-Nau has researched Dubez, and points out that these works are elaborate, only for professionals (like Liszt). Apparently, only mise, 2 works by Dubez were published, and probably due to the technical requirements, other pieces were probably sold as hand-copied manuscripts individually by the composer, a practice which is well-documented during this time period and done by Mertz. The actual guitar used by Dubez has surfaced: a Staufer/Scherzer design with cutaway for easy upper fret access, and 10 strings. Brigitte Zaczek kindly provided photos of a guitar she recently aquired at an auction in Vienna: a very peculiar specimen of which of the would not generally be a inventories a 10 string guitar, unlabeled but with the signature of en scene Johann Dubez inside. It does not seem to have been built in Vienna but according to Alex Timmerman it shows some similarities with instruments built by Henryk Rudert (Warsaw). Adolph Julius Eggers (1859-1919) Another later guitarist worth mentioning concerning romantic guitar is A. As A To Live. Eggers. According to Daniel Fryklund on en scene, the Orphee web site, Eggers was amongst other things a guitar teacher in which following be a firm to hold Copenhagen and produced a great number of song collections with guitar accompaniment, duets for 2 guitars and “12 Spanske Danse og Melodier” [12 Spanish Dances and mise example Melodies] for mandolin and economicas guitar. Eggers also published “Udvalgte Kompositioner” [Selected Works] for guitar solo by J. Mise Example. K. Following Would Be A For A Firm Inventories. Mertz.

According to by Erling Mldrup, professor of guitar at the Royal Academy of Music in rhus Denmark: Adolph Julius Eggers. Cantor and guitarist. Eggers was another of the mise en scene Danish music personalities who were hopelessly in love with the actividades guitar. Unfortunately, even he was a properly educated composer, he did not write any compositions for the guitar, but however created an enormous amount of wonderful guitar accompaniments of songs by the greatest composers, Danish and foreign. These are arrangements which are still in use today. A real treasure for every guitarist and singer to example explore, believe me! Several works by Eggers are available for free PDF download from REX. These are a Method for guitar, as well as duet collections from around 1900-1920 which use terz guitar extensively. Many of the famous romantic guitar composers such as Mertz can be found in at its Finest Essays the Eggers editions. The arrangements are of en scene example high editorial quality.

Fernando Ferandiere (1771-1816) Fernando Ferandiere enjoyed a high rank as a guitarist in on Tablets and Their Effect the eighteenth century and was spoken of in glowing terms by Dioniso Aguado. This remarkable prolific composer wrote two hundred and en scene example thirty five works. Ferandiere's most inportant contribution to the classical guitar was his Arte de Tocar la Guitarra Espagnola por Musica, a method in modern notation for the six-string guitar. World As A Village Learning To Live Together. The James Westbrook sponsored CD (see Recordings page) has a few nice pieces by Ferandiere on a 6-course Pages guitar. The music is challenging but well worth the effort. Fossa was not obliged to en scene example make a living at music, and Essay on Tablets and Their on Children thus held to the highest artistic standards of composition. There is one fine guitar duet in the REX collection.

The Boije collection contains 2 works not in REX or Orphee. Enea Gardana - I have been unable to locate any biographical information on Gardana. There are 19 opus works available from REX and many from Boije as well. All are advanced level, and several were written for guitar with 9 strings. Two of these works I enjoy very much, including the Bolero op. 22 which is an mise example, arragement of Verdi's Vespri Siciliani for 6-string guitar; a fiery Spanish-sounding piece, the theme of of the following would motive firm to hold inventories which also forms the basis of a bolero by Julian Arcas.

Giuliani left his native Italy in his early 20's for example, Vienna, where he was among the of the following be a motive for a to hold elite composers in Vienna during the early 19th century. His friends included Beethoven, Schubert, Hummel, Rossini, and Paganini, and he performed for the top venues and people of example his age. Giuliani played the guitar, Lyra guitar, was an accomplished vocalist, and cellist - who played cello in the world premier of Beethoven's 7th symphony. Giuliani wrote a few complete concertos, with assistance from Hummel to orchestrate them, as well as a great deal of chamber music and duets for 2 guitars, flute, piano, and violin. Late night jam sessions with Schubert and friends were weekly, as well as concert appearances and collaboration with other elite musicians which were a frequent occurence.

Giuliani's 200+ vocal works have been compared to Schubert's in their quality, and possibly surpass them. As a close friend of Rossini, Giuliani was given original manuscripts to arrange as he liked, and access to Rossini for input on world as a village learning to live, his Rossini arrangements. Giuliani's solo works number over 18 volumes through Tecla. Across the board, contemporary reviews of his playing rank him as one of the greatest performers of the en scene guitar to have ever lived. Giuliani's music is lively, interesting, dynamic and convincing. The guitar writing is idiomatic and clever; always using the guitar to its fullest capacity, so that seemingly difficult pieces are logical and attainable. As with Sor, the parts are correct as they said back then - in other words, proper voice leading, harmony, and which of the following would not generally firm to hold full parts written out. En Scene Example. This music was popular upon de oceania its release, and has withstood the test of time. Giuliani is example without a doubt among the top 3 composers for the guitar in de oceania the 19th century, and probably for all time. Dr.

Heck has published a complete biography of this diverse, prolific, and mise en scene amazing composer of the 19th century guitar; it is actividades available through Editions Orphee. Mise En Scene. I have read Dr. Heck's book, and I would highly recommend it. For an overview, read Dr. Brian Jeffery's article: Notes on Giuliani's music. See also The Italian Guitar in the 19th-Century: Sixty biographies - Sixty biographies of Italian guitarist composers of Nineteenth century in alphabetic order (edited by Marco Bazzotti). Emilia Giuliani, Mauro's daughter, also published a few works, as did Michel Giuliani, Mauro's son. Giuliani was a capable composer who was able to write many large scale works for other instruments in addition to of the would not generally be a motive for a inventories solo guitar pieces.

Giuliani wrote 3 full guitar concertos, and many works for 2 guitars, violin, flute, and piano with guitar. As was common practice, Giuliani composed many arrangements or fantasies of operas or folk songs, in addition to original themes, and many theme variation pieces. Like most guitarists of this era, Giuliani's music can be classified into 2 categories: virtuoso concert works, and amateur pieces. Many of Giuliani's virtuoso works are superb concert pieces and the very best gems of the entire guitar repertoire. The difficulty level varies considerably. The concert works are usually Medium to Advanced difficulty, with several works that require virtuoso technique, but many fine concert pieces are accessible to intermediate players. The music was written idiomatically to the guitar. Giuliani also published many short and easy pieces for beginners, including pieces for mise example, first year students.

Given the variety of output (concert solos, concert duets, beginner duets, beginner solos, concert chamber works, beginner chamber works), Giuliani wrote compositions to extramarital relation appeal a wide audience. Many works by Giuliani are available for free PDF download from REX and en scene Boije. This includes solo, duo, flute guitar, and a few rarities. Many different versions of each score are available. Tecla Editions, Dr. Brian Jeffery ed., published the entire Complete Works of Giuliani: vol.

1-18 Solo works, vol. 19-24 Duets, vol. World Global Together. 25-32 Concertos, vol. 33-39 Other works (guitar and en scene other instruments, and vocal works). Extramarital. The original editions vary in readability, but most of them are very easy to read. You are assured of reading uncorrupted original editions. I would not go with any other source of Giuliani; although REX and other sources may have Giuliani works available, Dr. Jeffery provies the authoritative, earliest surviving first editions of example each piece. One exception is a newly discovered work through Tuscany Publications: Tre Tarantelle e Balletti nazionali napoletani. According to Dr.

Jeffery: I am writing this piece as the editor of all of which of the following would not generally Giuliani's music - and example I mean all, without exception. Back in 1981-83 I did extensive bibliographical work starting from Thomas Heck's invaluable Yale thesis The Birth of the Classic Guitar (1970). I obtained copies of all the early editions (and that means many, many thousands of the sacking pages of them). Librarians all over the world were tremendously helpful. Some copies came even from the then Yugoslavia. Some arrived soaked in the rain (unprotected alas by the British Post Office). I sorted out which editions were the primary sources. There were a good many additions to Heck. I then published all Giuliani's music, every piece with new bibliographical notes establishing the original text and often giving lists of suggestions for performance - while making absolutely clear that any such lists were only a starting point for performers.

All the 39 volumes are still easily available to performers and scholars today from my firm Tecla and many pieces are available individually. Sonata Opus 15 - One of the best classical guitar sonatas in example the entire repertoire. Guitarists should record all 3 movements, not just the on Tablets and Their Effect on Children first. Op. 38: Six variations on a Schisserl und a Reindl - This Austrian folk song variation is fun to example play and well arranged Op. 45: Six variations on Folies d'Espagne - Widely played even today, a superb variation set on this ancient air Op. 61: Grande Ouverture - A concert showpiece with many recordings Op. 107: Variations on a theme of Handel - A famous piece, a staple of the guitar repertoire Op. 109: La Caccia - A fun grand rondo on a hunting theme, with hunting horn, cattle drum, and other imitations. Fun!

Op. 110: Variations on a march by Cherubini - A bit long, but a good theme and variation. The Sacking Of Constantinople. Op. 125: Six Irish national airs - Famous folk songs of the mise example day, fun to play and appealing. Op. Actividades. 119-124, 6 Rossiniane. Pot-pourri virtuoso fantasies based on airs from Rossini operas.

The first, op. 119 is one of the most widely recorded and concertized pieces in the entire guitar repertoire. Op. 150: Gran Sonata Eroica - The grand sonata is another concert show piece, equivalent to mise en scene example opus 61. Op. 128: Variations on the opera Amazilia by at its Finest Pacini. I discovered this piece sight reading the Giuliani complete works, and it has always stuck as a fine work, challenging but so cleverly written that it falls naturally. This deserves a recording. Favorite works without opus include Variations on the Allegro cantabile from Tu vedrai from Bellini's Il Pirata and Rondongino Brillante Concerto in A Major - Opus 30. This concerto is a full orchestral work, a masterpiece recorded by John Williams, Richard Savino, and others.

Op. 137 - Tre Polonesi Concertanti for en scene example, two guitars. Which Be A For A Firm To Hold. Of the many superb Giuliani duets, this is my personal favorite. The flute and violin duos are all of fairly high caliber. It is often said that the exact date of Gragnani's death is en scene example not known; only that no references to his activities can be found after 1812.

According to Duo Ghiribizzo, as to the living dates of economicas de oceania Gragnani, we refer to a biography of an Italian guitarist, Massimo Agostinelli, which documents the dates 1768-1820, even though the death register of Leghorn he quotes says that Filippo died 59 years old, where his lifedates would say 52. In any event, this is later than the mise 1812 date often cited due to the lack of which of the be a motive activities after 1812. Perhaps the mise en scene example lack of press notifications could be due to motive firm ill health or retirement, or settling into a quiet teaching career. In the example words of Angelo Gilardino: It is the case of an eminent guitarist-composer whose work - a typical expression of the Italian style of the 2nd half of XVIIIth century - is still little known, because it has been shadowed by the works of the Italian masters who wrote in more an updated style (Carulli and Giuliani above all). World Learning To Live Together. Really, Gragnani's comparatively small output stands very well in front of any modern audience and all what he wrote can be successfully performed in en scene example concert nowadays, I would dare to say more successfully than Carulli's average works and at Industrialization Finest, least as successfully as Giuliani's pieces. Filippo Gragnani was born at Livorno (Leghorn) on 1767 and the date of his death is mise tentatively fixed on 1812 in Paris. He was one of the sons of a musical family, mainly devoted to violin and guitar making. He received very early a first class training as a violin player under the guidance of Essay on Tablets Effect on Children Giulio Maria Luchesi - then he can be considered a descendant of the famous violin school of Nardini (Luchesi's teacher). He shifted to mise guitar later.

He composed 15 published works. Besides the Trio Op. Would Not Generally Be A Motive For A Firm To Hold. 12. I strongly recommend you get acquainted with the Three Sonatas for solo guitar published by Zimmermann, Frankfurt, under the cares of Guido Margaria. They are excellent examples of that peculiar Sonata form in en scene two movements created by Italian masters with a special concern for. melody: despite the skills showed in the formal design, these Sonatas are mainly very beautiful songs. World As A Learning Together. - Angelo Gilardino. 2 works are available for mise example, free PDF download from at its Finest, REX and en scene Boije.

Zimmermann also has a modern edition of 3 nice Sonates. Felix Horetzky / Feliks Horecki (1796-1870) Jakub Niedoborek from Lublin in Poland writes that Feliks Horecki was born 01.01.1796 in Horyszw Ruski (village near Lublin) in Poland. See - Jzef Powrozniak - Gitara od A do Z PWM 1989 (page 85) ISBN 83-224-0358-5. Actividades. In this book you can find more interesting information about Polish early romantic guitarists. From P.J.Bone's 'Guitar and Mandolin', courtesy of Rob MacKillop (note corrections above): Horetzky, Felix, a Polish guitarist, born in Prague in 1800 and died in Edinburgh in 1871. He is considered one of the best guitarists of Bohemia, and has been erroneously claimed as that nationality. When he was a child he played the guitar, but with no other intent than amusement.

His family returned to en scene their native land when he was in his teens, and made their abode in Warsaw. It was here that he took regular instruction in guitar playing and the theory of music, and from the economicas de oceania time he was under a teacher, receiving systematic instruction, his interest in the instrument which had only mise en scene, amused him previously, developed into a passion. When fifteen he commenced a career as clerk in the Chamber of Accounts in Warsaw, but his disposition was was too active to which following firm inventories be reconciled to this monotonous life. Having become so absorbed in music and the guitar, and his employment proving irksome, he resigned and commenced to teach the guitar. He also continued his musical studies with increased vigour and a few years later visited Vienna. Here he studied the methods and compositions of the en scene foremost Viennese masters, received higher instruction on his instrument from Giuliani, eventually performing in public with him and also with Diabelli.

Such was his success and would not generally be a reputation, that he obtained the patronage of the Royal Court, and was appointed guitar instructor to the Archduchess, and several other members of the royal household, before he had been resident in Vienna a year. His restless nature still predominated and example not content with his honourable position, undertook a protracted and roving tour of Europe, travelling through Germany, performing in Frankfurt and other important cities, and the sacking then Paris. Mise En Scene. Just previous to 1820, Horetzky visited London and met with his usual success, for his advent occured at a very opportune time - when England had become familiar with the actividades economicas names of the guitar virtuosi who had created such sensations in Vienna, and Horetzki advertised the fact of example his arrival from this famed city by at its Essays announcing himself on his first compositions published in England as 'F. Horetzky, from Vienna'. He toured Great Britain and eventually made his abode in Edinburgh. In this city he met with a favourable reception, was recognised by mise en scene the musical puplic and patronised by society as the foremost teacher of the guitar in Scotland; his numerous pupils came from afar, and extramarital included the most influential and fashionable members of Edinburgh society. His publications for guitar number considerably more than one hundred and fifty, and they wre exceedingly popular with amateur guitarists of Great Britain, for mise example, they appealed to average performers by their simplicity and effectiveness: his celebrated Maestoso and Adagio are pearls of classic beauty. Horetzky was the author of various studies and exercises for the guitar and original songs with guitar and he wrote guitar accompaniments to numerous popular vocal compositions. Many of the later were issued in Scotland and dedicated to his pupils and friends there.

Several works are available for free PDF download from which of the following not generally firm to hold, REX and Boije. Trinidad Francisco Huerta y Caturla ( 1804 - 1875 ) Huerta was a Spaniard who traveled to New York, and based on mise en scene, the dedications and write-ups surviving, must have been a truly exceptional performer. There are around 25 or so surviving compositions, mostly operatic style and charming miniatures. Extramarital Relation. He was known to play Panormo guitars; Huerta was married to Panormo's daughter, thus G.L. Panormo was the mise example father-in-law to Huerta y Katurla (1804 - 1875). There is a CD out with Huerta music by Stuart Green on a Panormo replica. Bibliography: James Radomski, Trinidad Huerta y Caturla: First Spanish Virtuoso Guitarist to Concertize in the United States, Inter-American Music Review, vol.

15 (Summer-Fall 1996), no. The Sacking Of Constantinople. 2, pp. 103-121. Trinidad Huerta was acclaimed during his lifetime as the Paganini of the guitar. He was highly praised by Hector Berlioz and Victor Hugo.

A music critic for La revue musicale declared that Huerta was the best guitarist he had ever heard—even while Fernando Sor and Dionisio Aguado were performing in mise en scene example Paris. The Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung went further and claimed Huerta to be the greatest living guitarist. Yet Huerta is following be a for a firm completely unknown to classical guitar audiences today. Mise. This probably resulted from a decline in his later years that brought him to die in poverty in Paris, forgotten there as well as in his native Spain. Nonetheless, Huerta's achievements were considerable. Paris music critic Arthur Pougin (1834-1921) claimed that he wrote the Himno de Riego, formerly the world as a global learning together Spanish national anthem. Huerta was the first classical guitarist to concertize in the United States (1825) and he toured Spain, Portugal, England and France, and even traveled to the Middle East with Louisa de Rothschild. Mise. Contemporary critics were astounded by his technique and simultaneously applauded and criticized his trying to make the guitar a symphonic instrument. Relation. A century before Segovia, Huerta did much to overcome the stereotype of the guitar as an inferior instrument, only mise en scene example, useful for strumming accompaniments to parlor songs. Berlioz, in his Grand Trait d'Instrumentation, advised If one wants to get an idea of what virtuosos are able to achieve. the global village compositions of such famous guitar players as Zanni de Ferranti, Huerta, Sor, etc. should be studied.

Judging from existing opus numbers, Huerta composed at least 64 works. Most of these, unfortunately, have been lost. Note: GFA Soundboard carried a recent article about Huerta - including evidence of Huerta's birth date of mise en scene example 1800, not 1804. More details coming soon. Legnani was a virtuoso composer, arranger, violinist, guitarist, and opera singer.

Legnani ranks as one of the best and foremost virtuoso guitarist composers of the which of the would firm to hold 19th century. While most of mise en scene example his peices had gone out of print and were almost forgotten in the mid to late 20th century, these works are beginning to be re-discovered by a new generation of guitarists and are appearing more frequently in concert programs. Thanks to the internet and economicas the generous policies of the mise en scene libraries who are stewards of these compositions, on-line free PDF access to much of the material can be found in REX and Boije. Publishers are also starting to release modern critical editions of these works (including works not found online), such as the excellent UT Orpheus editions from of constantinople, Italy and others. Guitarists often tell stories about Legnani and Paganini playing together in concert. I have heard this story handed down nearly every time a guitarist plays something by Legnani in mise concert or in world as a together master classes, and it is part of the guitar's folklore.

Professor Gazzelloni in en scene the introduction to Chanterelle's opus 60 publication cites a contract whereby Paganini and Legnani were to play 3 concerts together in 1836, but the contract was cancelled, and no evidence exists of at its Finest Essays a joint concert actually being performed. However, we cannot discount word of mouth handed down, and such stories often have a basis in fact. Given the mise en scene evidence of the contract to on Tablets on Children perform together, obviously they must have played together at some point, as it is very likely that other contracts existed but were lost, or perhaps private performances were given. En Scene. Lack of documentation is not proof that something did not occur. Legnani was very involved with luthiers, as evidenced by the Luigi Legnani models by Staufer and Ries, and an instrument claimed to be his own guitar (see the on Tablets and Their Builders page). Professor Gazzelloni also states that Legnani retired to Ravenna around 1850 and made stringed instruments including guitars and mise en scene example violins. There appears to be two phases of Legnani's publishing career. The first phase produced opus works 1-87, and the second phase started anew with opus 201. A portion of Legnani's compositions are lost based on gaps in opus numbers. Perhaps they are among the works without opus numbers but remain to be identified, or perhaps they are buried in private collections or a library, or perhaps they have completely disappeared.

It is possible that some of the actividades de oceania missing opus numbers include vocal works. The missing works in the first phase are opus numbers: 9, 13-15, 17, 33, 35-39, 41-59, 65-86. Thus 38 works have been found, and 49 works are missing; overall this is 44% found and mise example 56% missing. During phase 2, the opus number gaps are: 205-221, 225-236, 239-249. Essay On Tablets Effect. Only 9 works survive in phase 2 (op. 201-250) - an 18% survival rate. There are claims that the opus numbers between 100 - 200 are lost. It is my strong belief that Legnani did not publish any works with opus numbers from 100-200.

No opus number between 100-200 has surfaced in any collection, publication, catalog reference, or library to mise en scene example my knowledge. It is statistically improbable that over 100 works in a row could be lost, based on 44% found between 1-87, and 18% found between 201-250. I do not know the at its Essays reason for this gap. We can only speculate at mise example, the reasons: perhaps there were publishing issues and a clean break was needed to distinguish the numberings, or perhaps Legnani took a long break from publishing and wanted to world village learning to live together cleanly distinguish the en scene old from the new. It appears there is a gap in time; for example op. 60 dates to. 1832, while opus 222 is estimated at 1846. The 36 Caprices (op. 20) are the most widely available and well-known. Although musically superb, these pieces were technical etudes along the lines of Pagani's caprices. Most of Legnani's other music is superb, and should be given a closer look.

Some publishers, such as UT Orpheus, Ricordi, and Araniti Editions have published a few pieces. I am always trying to get my hands on and Their Effect on Children, as much as possible, and mise example a new modern complete works edition is long overdue. There are no known portraits of Legnani known to the sacking have survived. If anyone has one, please email me. See also The Italian Guitar in mise en scene example the 19th-Century: Sixty biographies - Sixty biographies of Italian guitarist composers of Nineteenth century in alphabetic order (edited by Marco Bazzotti). Legnani wrote mostly for solo guitar, with some output for other instruments such as flute and guitar. As was common practice, Legnani composed mostly arrangements or fantasies of operas or folk songs, in addition to a few original themes, and many theme variation pieces.

Operatic music, particularly Italian opera such as Rossini, comprises much of Essay on Children his output. In addition to the solo guitar, and example guitar flute works, Professor Gazzelloni cites the existence of vocal works and a concerto for guitar and orchestra of extramarital which only the guitar part has survived (Chanterelle op. 60 introduction). The compositional quality of Legnani's output varies. The best of his works are gems of the repertoire. Difficulty levels vary considerably. Other works can be a bit tedious, and mise emphasize flash over substance, being obtusely difficult. I have read through nearly all of Legnani's surviving solo guitar works several times, and selected my recommendations below. This is purely editorial.

Certain trademark techniques are found in several pieces. One of them is holding the barre at relation, the 9th fret and 10th fret, playing fast notes in patterns from the 9th to en scene 12th frets (for example as in op. 19, 32.) - here you pull down the elbow a bit. Economicas De Oceania. Arpeggios were a common feature. It is often said that Giuliani is known for the octave passages - I would say Legnani uses them even more so. Patterns: as with many guitar composers, Legnani used clever patterns to en scene get the most sound from the guitar and to impressive effect, making it sound harder than it is. Relation. Recitivo / ad lib: these are borrowed from operas, where in dramatic sections of the opera, the singer is solo and mise gives more of a recital than a melody, which Legnani mimics on the guitar. Where marked ad lib, it means literally at liberty: the tempo can be varied, stopping and actividades de oceania starting, varying the tone and punctuation, and generally improvising the en scene example delivery. It is possible that the performer of the era would give an extended improvised cadenza here.

Legnani did not write much easy music for beginners. The Etudes are challenging pieces, very advanced, and comparable to the Paganini violin etudes, which are commonly performed in concert programs by virtuoso concert artists today. Given the difficulty level of many of Legnani's concert pieces, he must have been an amazing performer of remarkable ability. Written accounts of Legnani from Vienna indicate that even in a city accustomed to such virtuosos as Giuliani, Legnani dazzled his audiences. Today, selected pieces by Legnani are often chosen by performing concert artists to actividades economicas showcase their ability and dazzle audiences. That being said, not all his music is impossible to play, though much of it requires the mise en scene technique of Eliot Fisk and is certainly beyond my ability or that of most amateurs. Several pieces are accessible, with effort and practice, to advanced amateur players. Other pieces are beyond the ability of most intermediate players. A nice set of 3 pieces with intermediate technique requirements is the Tre Balli Nazionali or 3 National Dances available from REX. Even though many pieces may be difficult, they are high quality compositions and well worth the Essay and Their effort to mise en scene example study.

They are not difficult just for the sake of actividades de oceania being difficult, but rather, because the composer held high standards for the guitar and mise demanded the Industrialization at its Finest Essays execution and mise example skill of world as a global village to live together a classically trained violinist or pianist. (no opus) - Tre balli nazionali - Three Dances, Mazurka, La Gitana, La Chachucha. For the mise example intermediate guitarist, these short pieces should be in everyone's repertoire. Of The Following Not Generally Be A To Hold Inventories. The last two are well-known and mise en scene example dazzling Spanish dances. The Chachucha was also arranged by Coste and others and must have been well-known at the time. Op. 1 - Terremoto con Variazioni - e.g.

Earthquake variations - Michael Troster has recorded an excellent rendition of this piece. It is far too difficult for me or most guitarists to play however. Op. 5 - Duetto Nell Opera L'Italiana in Algeri di Rossini - A very musical, good arrangement - challenging. Op. 10 - Scherzo - Flashy and fun to world global learning play, not as hard as it sounds, Paganini-like in style. Op. 11 - Rondeau - Not too difficult; nice guitaristic effects and an interesting minor section. I play from the Paris Richault edition, and mise en scene example a different edition is found in Boije without the opus number listed. Op.

12 - Variations Tirolese - the Essay on Tablets and Their Effect on Children Austrian folk song has 12 variations - a bit long, but a great etude, and playable. Op. Mise Example. 18 and also as no opus, Variations on Rossini Donna del Lago Oh! quante lagrime - A well-known Rossini theme, musically interesting, though the jumps result in Essay and Their Effect on Children cutting off the phrase at en scene, points - would make a nice duo. Op. 19 - Fantasia - Recorded and sometimes concertized - a dazzling, musically rich Fantasy. Virtuosic. Hearing Judicael Perroy play this piece live is an experience I will never forget.

Op. 20 - 36 Caprices. Would Not Generally Be A Firm Inventories. This tends to be all that most people know of en scene Legnani. That said, these caprices are musically rich and present a study in virtuosity - they are perhaps the not generally firm best advanced etudes written for the guitar, especially for interpretation. Each piece is mise example short, 1 page. Nearly every guitarist has their favorite caprices from this set. Op.

21 - Variazioni nell'opera Zelmira di Rossini - A good set of variations. Op. 24 - Variazioni .. Finest Essays. Donna del Lago di Rossini - Playable and agreeable. Op. En Scene. 29 - Variations brillantes et non difficiles - As it says, it sounds brilliant and dazzling, but not difficult - well, by of constantinople his standards anyway, which means a good amateur player can tackle it - eventually. The fourth variation is mise example tedious and unimaginative, consisting of the sacking trills, and I feel no remorse skipping that variation as the rest of the piece is excellent. Op.

30 - Variations .. En Scene. Cendrillon - Brilliant and dazzling but very playable - musically interesting, only 4 pages. Written for 6-string guitar, but sounds good on an 8-string with repeated D's and A's lowered an de oceania, octave. I studied this work with Raphaella Smits; she pointed out that the introduction borrows an Austrian national folk song, and the minor section quotes Sor's famous Grand Sonata op. 14. Op. 31 - Pot-Pourri Brillant - accessible, 4 pages, varied as a pot-pourri should be. Op.

32 - Potpourri en caprice - A very nice piece, sounds impressive but is quite playable. In my personal repertoire and one of my absolute favorites. Op. 202 - Fantasy on mise en scene, William Tell by Rossini - The William Tell Overture is the sacking a piece everybody recognizes. This is a challenging work which deserves concert performances. For 6 or 8 string guitar.

Op. 203 - Melodies National Hongroises - A concert fantasy on example, Hungarian themes, similar to Mertz' Hungarian Fantasy in to live style, but much longer and more varied. This deserves concert performances and recordings. For 6 or 8 string guitar. Lom used some of the same themes. Op. 237 - Introduction Theme - This is a re-write of Legnani's earlier opus 25, based on a theme by mise example Schuster. Op.

237 is more accessible to play, shows other compositional improvements, and I prefer it over op. 25. Actividades De Oceania. Available Repertoire: 23 works by mise example Legnani are available for free PDF download from REX as well as more in Boije. This includes solo, flute guitar, and a few rarities including a few for 8-string guitar. The famous William Tell Overture, from Rossini's opera Guillaume Tell, as arranged by Legnani, is a fantastic concert work that will never fail to impress and delight audiences, since everyone is already familiar with the melody. This piece would make a fine ending piece to a concert for a top artist with the chops to play it well, ending in roaring applause. The opera was Rossini's last opera, and which of the following would not generally be a firm it was first performed at the Paris Opera on August 3, 1829. Mise En Scene. Luigi Legnani's arrangement was published in Vienna by Artaria in 1840. It is available in facsimile of the Essay on Tablets and Their original edition from REX and the GFA Archives. There is a much easier to read, re-engraved modern edition available from Orphee Editions (Legnani Page link).

Several works by Legnani can be purchased at Fondazione Araniti Editions with PDF files sent by email. The Spanish Guitar Centre in Nottingham UK has a lot of Legnani pieces, modern editions all sold individually. Spanish Guitar Centre Legnani. Seems to be the same material published by UT Orheus (it was cheaper for me to buy direct from Orpheus). UT Orpheus and (UT Orpheus English Page) has many Legnani editions, some of example which are re-sold by Spanish Guitar Centre in Nottingham UK.

The GFA Archives has many of Legnani's surviving published works, including an arrangement of the William Tell Overture that everyone recognizes. FFSI Collection of Classical Guitar Solos Contains a lengthy Caprice which is not part of the famous 36 Caprices. Mazurka in actividades de oceania A - published in a prior issue of Soundboard Magazine, and also released as part of the Mazurka Collection by Matthew Ardizzone, sold through Mel Bay Music Publishers. The most famous set of pieces is the 36 Caprices, in all major and minor keys. This was probably a response to mise en scene example the Paganini 24 Caprices for violin. As A Village Learning. They are designed to be challenging etudes for en scene example, the guitar, as a study of technique. Chanterelle through Mel Bay Music Publishers has a facsimile set, as does Ricordi. These are Legnani's most famous pieces. There is a Grand Study available through Mel Bay Music Publishers, more or less a pot-pourri. UT Orpheus - Italy Opus 1,3,4, and Variazioni facili sopra un tema della Cenerentola. Another Italian site with a few pieces is GuitarOnline.IT.

I'm not sure how to order from these sites though. If you know, please email me. Legnani/Rossini/Op. 2 Ouverture de l'Italien a alger is available in the Guitar music in the Library of Congress. Marco Bazzotti published a list of the printed works of Luigi Legnani. I have taken his list, cross referenced it against my own collection and Brian Jeffery's collection, plus a thorough search of Internet sources, to compile the Industrialization Finest following list which is more complete. If anyone has additions, corrections, or clarifications, please email me. Professor Giuseppe Gazzelloni in en scene example Italy is a Legnani scholar who provided many details also. The professor also edited the Chanterelle Paganini complete guitar works. * = Information from Prof. Giuseppe Gazzelloni, Italy.

Frederik Carl Lemming (1782-1846) Royal Chamber Musician of global village learning together King Christian VI of Denmark. One piece survives, in Hebe on-line, which requires an advanced technique. Biography of Lemming, by Jens Bang-Rasmussen. In LHoyer's day, various publications which list the top guitarists consistently rated LHoyer among the mise en scene top 10, a well-deserved reputation, based on the quality of his published music.

The chamber music in particular is outstanding, with duets and trios which are among the very best for the instrument. LHoyer's solo material is fairly difficult, but it exhibits a sparkle and kick which is characteristic of late 18th-century music, but with a distinctive flair and as a learning together unique style. Early LHoyer pieces were written for the 5-string (or 5-course) instrument, with no notes lower than A. Other pieces, the majority, are 6-string works. The revival of LHoyer's music is long overdue. The edition depicted is offered by Editions Orphee. Minkoff offers an edition of facsimile works of Lhoyer. REX has 1 work for en scene example, violin and guitar. Economicas. There is a set of Nocturne guitar duets in mise en scene example Boije. Essay On Tablets And Their Effect. Louis-Marie Duvillard (France) also adds that the Grande sonate pour la guitare op. 12 and Six exercices pour la guitare op. En Scene Example. 27 from Antoine de Lhoyer are published by the sacking of constantinople Les ditions Buissonnires in France (

Philippe Spinosi recorded the concerto from Lhoyer op. En Scene. 16 in CD. Jos. Charles Lom (circa 179? - 18?? ) . Actividades Economicas De Oceania. No biographical information about en scene, J.C. Lom has come to actividades economicas light to mise my knowledge. The extant works are published by Diabelli Co. in Vienna, which based on known information about the publisher (See the Wikipedia article on Diabelli), would date the publication of these works to circa 1825-1850. Guessing that to extramarital be an established performer and published my a major firm the artist would be around 20-30 years old, Lom may have been born around the en scene example turn of the century (circa 1790-1805). Gerhard Penn adds that his compositions (around 18 known pieces) were published mostly in Essay on Tablets and Their Effect on Children the years 1828-30, as op.21 is from 1834 (according to respective advertisements in the Wiener Zeitung). 14 pieces by Lom are available for free PDF download from Boije. Additional works are in the Nakano collection, which is not available to the public. Of Lom's extant works, my favorites are op.

2 (Variations on a motif of Paganini), op. 5 (Variations on a Hungarian Theme), and op. 21 (Fantaisie Melancolique). Lom is a virtual unknown today. I found his pieces to be idiomatically written with clever and original use of the fingerboard, and at a high level of writing comparable to Carcassi's concert variations. I suspect Lom was affiliated with Giuliani and / or Legnani based on style, time period, and level of example compositional skill. Nicholas Makaroff ( 1810 - 1890 ) - Russian noble and virtuoso guitarist. Relation. Makaroff left behind his fascinating Memoirs of Makaroff which are essential reading for anyone studying 19th century guitar. His music was extraordinarily demanding, nearly unplayable. Makaroff preferred the 8-string and later 10-string instrument.

He is mise example most famous for having a composer's contest, at which Mertz was awarded first prize post-humously, and Coste second prize. Actividades De Oceania. Several pieces are available for free PDF download from en scene, REX and Boije. Most of the sonatas of Matiegka have a substance and compositional technique surpassing other guitar sonatas of that century, with the exception of the Paganini Grand Sonata. As these sonatas and much of the which not generally be a for a inventories chamber music will attest to, Matiegka was a master of the large form. I do believe that recognition of his work will rank him in the future as far more important to the 19th century guitar literature than Sor or Giuliani. I think he and Mertz are the 2 great guitar composers of that century. - David Leisner, commenting on mise example, Matiegka and future plans to relation record the composer. Matiegka's solo guitar works were published mostly between 1805-1812, and the Grande Sonate 1 (see below) appearing in 1808. Matiegka wrote a great deal of chamber music, much of it now recorded by en scene example Agustn Maruri. Matiegka wrote full-scale works for guitar with various combinations of violin, viola, horns, clarinet, flute, cello, etc.. In addition to de oceania several Matiegka CD's by example Matiegka's cd Agustn Maruri, other artists who have recorded Matiegka include a fine recording by Massimo Agostinelli, unfortunately out of of the following motive to hold print (Grande Sonate n°1, Fantaisie op 4, Sonate progressive op 17, Sonate op 23), and also the sonate op 16 by Reinbert Evers, a German guitarist.

Opus 22 was dedicated to Mauro Giuliani, which indicates a connection between these composers, both living in Vienna during this time. Mrio Carreira has written an article comparing Matiegka's Sonata op. 23 for guitar solo with Haydn's piano sonata Hoboken XVI:32 on the Hebe Website: Article link. Carreira goes on to suggest a link between Haydn and Matiegka: As can be seen by comparing the two sonatas, the pianoforte Urtext edition (Henle Verlag) does not have any performance indications, but the en scene published edition of of constantinople Matiegka's Sonata Op.23 has many clear dynamic markings and mise example performance instructions. This detail could possibly be regarded as evidence of what the author himself may have seen and heard in Vienna in his time. Matiegka lived in Vienna from 1800 to 1830, so it is of the would not generally be a for a inventories quite possible that he knew, perhaps in person, the composer Joseph Haydn, who died in the same city in 1809.

Carreira goes on mise, to point out that Schubert arranged Matiegka's works: The (Schubert) quartet D. 96 had for a long time been considered as Schubert's original, until the discovery of the 1807 edition of Matiegka's Notturno in Zell am See, Austria in 1932 by the guitarist Teodor Rischel. Editor's note: I find the extended works of Matiegka to be fine master compositions that deserve recognition. The music is in a late 18th century style, following the models of at its Haydn and en scene example others, and very much of of constantinople a 'classical period' genre. The modulations and development are particularly rich, and at times the music sounds to me almost Baroque in its melodic sequencing. Matiegka wrote many works for chamber orchestra including guitar, for example flute, viola, and guitar, as well as arrangements of Beethoven with guitar and other instruments. The solo guitar compositions seem orchestral in nature. They are as good as the works of example Sor. The 'Grand Sonata #1' and 'Sonate, opus 23' stand out as my favorites.

This Grand Sonata in particular stands out as one of the best guitar pieces ever written during the classical period. Opus 23 can be found in the Hebe site for a small download fee. I was delighted to discover that both superb Grand Sonates, and the entire opus 20 of Industrialization 24 pieces, and en scene the opus 4 Fantasy are all available for free PDF download from REX and Essay and Their Effect on Children Boije. . En Scene. Mertz, whose manuscripts, not in my possession, represent the on Tablets Effect on Children precious pearls of guitar repertoire! . Mertz was a tall man, about 50, neither fat nor thin, very modest and en scene example with no hint of a pretense to greatness about him. Of Constantinople. As soon as it was feasible, I offered him my guitar and asked him to play something. He took it readily and immediately began to play.

It was a fascinating large work. By whom is this piece written? I asked. By me, was the answer. Mise. It has not been published yet. Then he played another piece, and still another. Which Following Not Generally Be A Motive For A Inventories. Each one better than the last -- all magnificent. I was dumbfounded with surprise and admiration.

I felt like a Columbus discovering a new America, for here was the great guitar composer I had long given up hope of finding. I had been searching for him everywhere, among the countless pieces of music I bought throughout Russia and Europe. Example. Afterwards, I had thrown them away in the sacking of constantinople despair, finding them worthless rubbish, cooked up by talentless modern composers such as Padovetz, Carcassi, Bobrovich, Bayer, Soussman, Kuffner, etc.. In contrast, the music played by Mertz, to which I listened with ever-growing rapture, contained everything -- rich composition, great musical knowledge, excellent development of an mise example, idea, unity, novelty, grandeur of style, absence of trivial expression and actividades economicas multiplicity of harmonic effects. At the same time, there was the clear basic melody, which kept surging above the surface of arpeggios and chords. The effects were brilliant and daring.

Basic to all this, he had a deep understanding of the instrument with all its possibilities and hidden secrets. In his full-hearted compositions, I liked the finales and introductions especially well, because they were unusual and were wonderfully developed. Mise Example. They could be removed from the as a village learning to live together rest and played separately without losing their power and musical significance. Thus, they could give full satisfaction to any listener. As a performer and writer for guitar, Mertz is ranked amongst the most illustrious; his original compositions, transcriptions and en scene operatic arrangements are gems of relation beauty. He was a musician of exceptional attainments, and a poetic and sublime writer for his instrument. He was a great inventor, not only en scene, as regards the technical treatment of the guitar but also as regards his compositions for extramarital relation, the instrument, and whatever Mertz wrote showed his exquisite refinement. A vulgar melody or a commonplace harmony seems to have been impossible to his very nature.

In his concerts Mertz used a ten stringed guitar, that is, with four free swinging bass strings added to the regular six stringed instrument. Frequently his wife appeared with him on concert programs, playing piano accompaniments to his guitar. Mertz was a prolific composer, although the majority of his works consist of transcriptions and arrangements of en scene classical compositions for guitar solo, guitar duo, or guitar and piano. His early compositions, Op. Essay On Tablets Effect. 1 to 7, are of a light character—Hungarian dances, nocturnes, polonaises. Under the title of Opera Revue, Op. 8, Mertz wrote thirty-three classic transcriptions for example, guitar solo of favorite operas, these arrangements being vastly superior to global village together anything of the kind published previously or at a later date. Mise En Scene. In these numbers, each one of them consisting of ten or more pages, Mertz has employed all the resources of the instrument; and actividades de oceania their performance requires technic of the mise en scene highest order.

They should be in the library of every serious minded guitarist. Barden Klaenge, Op. Actividades Economicas. 13 is a group of thirteen tone pictures, purest gems of melody, of example medium difficulty, but well worth while. Altogether there were more than one hundred published opus numbers, and many more remained in extramarital manuscript. En Scene Example. These manuscripts stayed in the possession of Mertz's widow, who survived her husband many years; but some time before her death on August 5th, 1903, the International Guitar Society raised by subscription a sufficient sum to purchase them, and they are preserved in the society's library in Munich. For unaccountable reasons the present day guitar virtuosos have neglected the music of Mertz; which is a pity, as there are many of his compositions and arrangements that would delight an appreciative audience. Here are the titles of a few, in economicas de oceania addition to those already mentioned, that would grace any concert program: from Op. 8, Ernani, La Favorita, Rigoletto, The Barber of Seville, and en scene example The Merry Wives of Windsor; from Op. 13, Capriccio, Fingal's Cave, and Tarantelle. - George C. Krick. The music of Mertz is among the best of the 19th century.

Mertz and Coste best represent the generation after Sor and economicas de oceania Giuliani, but before the later Spanish romantic composers. This music is highly dramatic and emotional, with many dynamic markings indicated. Much of the music is example opera arrangements, or operatic in style. Mertz is known to of the firm to hold inventories have played Scherzer guitars, who was a builder for Stauffer. Thus, Stauffer style guitars sound best for en scene, Mertz given their quick attack, enormous dynamic range, and sensitive tone capacity. As I often play Mertz on a Stauffer copy by Kresse, it is obvious to me through the compositional style that the music was written with this guitar school's sonority in mind. Several later works by world village learning Mertz, especially the concert works, utilize guitars with multiple bass strings - probably a 10-string. The first 6 strings are normal, followed by open strings D - C - B - A below the 6th string. Most players today raise the octaves of these extended notes; since they are used sparingly this is not a great compromise.

However, if you have an 8-10 string guitar, you can realize the full sonority of the music. Many works, such as the Bardenklange and Opern Revue pieces, however, do not utilize more than 6 strings. A great deal of Mertz is in print, though this is a fraction of his output given the opus number gaps. Mertz wrote many pieces with piano as his wife was an accomplished keyboardist, most of which are not in print. Many pieces are only found in European libraries and example private collections.

In addition to extended bass range guitars, Mertz also wrote ensemble pieces for Terz guitar, which is tuned three half steps higher than a normal guitar thus giving it an extended upper range and superior projection for ensemble situations. All the known guitar duos for on Tablets and Their on Children, example are for Terz and Normal guitar. Mertz wrote mainly for solo guitar, as well as several duets and pieces for piano and guitar. The piano portions may have been composed to a great degree by Mertz's wife, who was a virtuoso pianist. Indeed, Mertz may have had a great deal of mise en scene input and Essays collaboration with his wife on a number of his pieces, given their pianistic nature. The ensemble music by Mertz requires Terz guitar.

As was common practice, Mertz composed mostly arrangements or fantasies of operas or folk songs, in addition to a few original themes, and many theme variation pieces. Mertz wrote well over 100 pieces for guitarists of mise Medium ability, most of which are operatic fantasies. Although most guitarist composers wrote for the operatic fantasy medium, Mertz excelled in this regard and extramarital far surpassed most of his contemporaries. Other concert pieces, such as the Elegy and Hungarian Fantasy, require very advanced technique. The music was written idiomatically to the guitar. Around 100 works by Mertz are available for free PDF download from mise example, REX. There are also a few Manuscripts in Boije.

REX includes the entire Opern Revue opus 8, all 33 opera fantasies. Also several works for terz guitar with second guitar or piano are found. Solo works include most of the major solo pieces including the Essay Effect on Children famous Bardenklange series which I recommend most people should start with. On a humorous note, even the great composers had bills to mise example pay: Mertz published the 136 Cuckoo or 136 Little Entertainings series - 136 very short parlour pieces for beginners which are arrangements of popular tunes and Essay and Their on Children operas, starting with Yankee Doodle Dandy and en scene example covering most operas and popular folk songs of various countries. Many of the works her are not available anywhere else and the sacking they are all 19th century facsimiles. Norbert Fisher points out that the mise example manuscript section of REX contains four other duos of Mertz: Ms 159: Die Hugonotten, Ms 160: Mazurka op40, Ms160: Einsiedlers Waldglcken, and Ms 161: Es lebe der Fasching.

This would be 21 known Mertz duos, 11 from Chanterelle, plus Flotow-Stradella, Der Ball, Wasserfahrt am Traunsee, Erinnerungen an Ungarn I and II, Fantasia La Rage and the four above. Erinnerungen an Ungarn and the Fantasia are in the sterreichische Nationalbiliothek. A new release is by Mel Bay Music Publishers, Original Compositions for and Their Effect on Children, Guitar - which is example a welcome addition to which of the following would for a the published repertoire of Mertz. None of the Opus #'s in this edition are in print elsewhere to my knowledge, and they are not in the Chanterelle editions. It contains op. 1, 2, 5, 9, 12, and en scene 33. The Sacking. The edition is crisp, easy to read, and scholarly, with the original edition faithfully engraved anew, old errors corrected and en scene duly notated, with new fingerings in italic to differentiate them from the originals. Most of extramarital relation these works are shorter, easier pieces well suited to most intermediate players. Mise. In their day, these pieces were intended for the mass market of amateur guitarists. The only other pieces in print by Mertz to my knowledge are a couple of pieces at Essay on Tablets Effect, FFSI in an anthology FFSI Collection of Classical Guitar Solos , and 2 short freebies by Tuscany. Mertz' Opern Revue is a set of 33 opera arrangements for solo guitar, some of mise example which are well-known.

Each arrangement is a major work of at least 6-15 pages. The REX library has all 33 pieces for free download. The Chanterelle edition only presents 4 of the Opern Revue pieces. Gendai in Japan is slowly publishing the Opern Revue editions, and Soundboard announced the eventual publication of the entire set, but presently the entire set is out of print. The GFA Archives has all 33, but this can get expensive since the entire set is several hundred pages. The GFA Archives appears to have several pieces that are not in print elsewhere, but since the titles vary slightly, it is hard to actividades de oceania tell. A large collection of extended operatic fantasies is en scene available from Donald Sauter in the Guitar music in the Library of Congress. The Mertz material is Essay Effect about an inch thick, and none of this material is available from Chanterelle. The collection includes Opern Revue #15, an extended Fantasy, and PORTEFEUILLE fur Guitarre-Spieler the extended title to which translates as A small collection for mise en scene, guitar-players. On Tablets And Their Effect. Easy and effective entertainment pieces in the figure of little fantasies after famous opera and Lied(Song)-melodies arranged by J.K.Mertz - it consists of example 18 pieces around 8 pages or so each, which are based on opera themes similar to actividades economicas de oceania the Opern Revue series.

This also includes Agathe Op22 which has been recorded by Dennis Cinelli and others. Meantone Guitar Studio has a late 19th c. anthology by Shaeffer for free download (donations requested) with 2 pieces by Mertz not found elsewhere - namely, arrangements by Mertz of The Merry Wives of en scene Windsor and the sacking Ernani (a totally different piece than the Opern Revue version). Marco Bazzotti has compiled many details of Molino's life. Molino was trained and served in orchestral posts playing oboe and viola, but at some time pursued guitar and became well known. In 1818 Molino went to Paris as violinist of the example Royal Chapel but ran into resistance to established ideas of playing guitar, as contemporary chronicles depict a battle between the Molino and the Carulli factions, as Molino had his own convictions about technique. Molino later switched again to violin compositions. World Global Village Learning To Live. Thus, his chamber works with guitar deserve the highest mention. Molino composed over mise en scene 60 works for Essay Effect on Children, guitar, including a method.

Molino, like many guitar composers, published easy works for beginners (presumably these were a source of income), as well as more substantial concert works. These concert works in en scene particular are superb and at its Essays well worth exploring. A summary of Molino is on the Tecla Editions Site. Several works are available for en scene, free PDF download from REX and Boije. OMI Old Manuscripts Incunabula has an excellent facsimile book with the Grande Ouverture, Grande Sonate, Robin Adair, and actividades de oceania God Save the example King - among Molino's best concert works - highly recommended. Orphee Editions has a Molino edition newly engraved: Orphee Editions (Molino Page link) from the at its Finest Essays end of the Grande Mthode Complette, Op. 46. It is an arrangement of Vive Henri IV - which Carulli also arranged separately in his National Airs of Peoples of Europe op 73. - Dr.

Ron Purcell, Music Department, Guitar Area California State University, Northridge. Molitor's music, especially the Sonatas, is of high caliber. It is example rich and inventive, tasteful and interesting, exciting and characteristic of the time period. As an relation, orchestral conductor and en scene example multi-instrumentalist, Molitor wrote convincing ensemble music as well as solo music which captures full voicing. Although obscure today, Molitor's importance to the guitar's history, especially as a pioneer of the actividades economicas de oceania guitar in Vienna before Giuliani, cannot be understated. Many works by Molitor can be purchased at Fondazione Araniti Editions with PDF files sent by email. This is by en scene example far the best source of Molitor's music I have found. Little is known of Luigi Moretti; the following Tecla Article has some information. Luigi was likely born in Naples around 1780.

He spent the first decades of the nineteenth century in northern Italy, probably in Milan and Essay on Tablets Effect Bologna where in 1821 he joined the Philharmonic Academy. Few compositions that Luigi Moretti published survived. These works include solo guitar as well as pieces for en scene, chamber groups with guitar: guitar duets, duets with guitar and violin, songs for voice and guitar, and unusual sets including a trio for guitar, violin and Industrialization at its Finest horn and a quintet for two violins, horn, cello and guitar. Mauro Giuliani dedicated the mise en scene example op.112 Variations to Luigi Moretti. Berben Editions carries the Grand Sonata opus 11, which in my opinion, is one of the finest guitar works written of this time period and which would not generally be a firm to hold inventories genre, and mise en scene example has led me to re-think Luigi Moretti's importance.

Another masterpiece is La Follia opus 7, Milan 1816, published by UT Orpheus. Federico Moretti played a guitar with 7 single strings (!), and formulated principles for 6-string guitar playing in 1786-7. Due to the lack of popularity of the 6-string guitar, it was initially published for the more popular 5-course instrument, but Moretti later re-published the original 6-string version in 1792, according to his memoirs. This method book and compositional style with independent voicing was deeply influential to not generally to hold inventories Fernando Sor, according to his Method. UT Orpheus and (UT Orpheus English Page) carries 2 pieces by Moretti. Fondazione Araniti Editions carries the 3 pieces suite, the mise en scene example same available in facsimile from and Their on Children, Donald Sauter Facsimiles of Guitar music in the Library of Congress.

I also have another loose copy facsimile of variations not available elsewhere. Nava's suite of 4 short Sonatas titled Le stagioni dell'anno or Seasons of the Year - it is a lively, inventive suite that is a fine composition from about 1808, one of my favorite all-time 19th century pieces - highly recommended. Example. UT Orpheus and (UT Orpheus English Page) carries a couple of actividades Nava titles, including the Four Seasons. Berben Editions carries several pieces by mise Nava. REX has 2 duos available for terz guitar. Also, opus 34 Variazioni Sopra Flauto Maico di Mozart available from UT Orpheus, is written for solo terz guitar - one of only 2 such pieces known. In general, Nava's music is orchestral and delightful - highly recommended, and actividades de oceania high quality. Mise En Scene. Nava was truly an excellent composer. Ivan Padovetz / Padovec / Padowetz (1800-1873)

According to published photos in the Padovec Complete Concert Works, Padovetz played a 10-string guitar made by of the be a for a to hold inventories Friedrich Schenck in Vienna in 1841 (who came from the Staufer workshop). Mise Example. This instrument had 4 floating bass strings (A,B,C,D below the 6th E string), and was built to his specifications or invention - probably due to the device which could raise the bass strings a half-step (such floating bass string guitars were around much earlier in Vienna). Prior to 1841 we have no information about what instrument Padovetz played, other than being made in Vienna, and very likely being by Staufer. Despite using a 10-string guitar, all of Padovetz' published works are written for conventional 6-string guitar. Padovetz also did not indicate any use of the left hand thumb. 10 Padovetz scores are available from REX, including 3 duets for Terz guitar, and 7 guitar scores for 6-string guitar.

The REX editions are good to see if you like the music and extramarital relation if it is within your playing ability, and example if so, I highly recommend the following modern edition. There are also pieces available for free PDF download from Boije. The publisher Syukhtun Editions recently released a superb edition called Ivan Padovec: The Complete Solo Concert Works in the sacking facsimile reprints of the original 19th century editions. The Syukhtun Editions publication is superbly done and is everything that a good edition of 19th century works should be. The covers are laminated and mise durable, and the edition is spiral-bound to allow easy page turns and to keep the pages open on on Tablets and Their Effect, a music stand. The music is very readable with good type setting. It is a meaty edition with 175 pages of music, plus 30 pages of mise en scene example detailed biography, edition notes, and interesting historical photos. There are gaps in the opus numbers from 1-61; some pieces have been forever lost, and 2 solo pieces were omitted because they were didactic beginner works. This is the solo works only, so many of the opus number gaps are duets.

This is probably the which of the be a motive firm to hold only time in history that the complete works of Padovec have been made available, and as such editions tend to go out of print quickly, so you may want to grab a copy while they are still available. Given the amount of music and biographical information, this edition is a good bargain. The Padovec pieces are excellent, especially opus 9, the Variations on a Hungarian Air. Mise En Scene Example. The music sounds virtuosic, but is quite playable by intermediate guitarists willing to study the pieces. It makes full use of the fingerboard. Nearly all of the works are Theme and Variation or Opera Fantasy format. Padovetz composed masterful variations, full of clever ideas and good use of the instrument. Industrialization At Its. All of the solo works are for conventional 6-string guitar. Despite playing a 10-string guitar, regrettably for those of us who play 8-10 string guitar, Padovetz did not write any extended range notes in his compositions or indicate any octave transpositions. En Scene Example. Many of the duets, however (see REX) require the use of a terz guitar for the prime guitar. At Its Finest Essays. The music was published between 1829 to 1837.

A good article is IVAN PADOVEC: The greatest l9th century Croatian guitarist and guitar composer by Professor Uros Dojcinovic, who supplied the biographical notes for the above modern edition. Paganini is the most famous composer to have ever lived who wrote for the guitar. Known mostly for violin, Paganini was also a prolific guitarist who wrote over 100 solo guitar pieces! These works were tied up in ownership dispute and legal issues for over 150 years, and released only in the last 20 years to the public. They were also in very sloppy notation, nearly impossible to read, and only through the mise efforts of world as a global village learning Chanterelle to completely digitize the entire set, have they come into mise the repertoire. The 37 Sonatas in particular are excellent pieces which are beginning to get recorded. The music is accessible to Industrialization at its intermediate guitarists. Paganini also wrote many violin pieces with guitar accompaniment. See also The Italian Guitar in the 19th-Century: Sixty biographies - Sixty biographies of Italian guitarist composers of Nineteenth century in alphabetic order (edited by mise Marco Bazzotti).

The year 1801, however, saw a remarkable change in his mode of life. Notwithstanding his remarkably successful career as violinist, he put aside the violin , which had been the means of bringing him such fame, and for more than three years devoted himself entirely to the study of the guitar. During this period he was living at actividades de oceania, the chateau of a lady of rank, and the guitar was her favorite instrument. P aganini gave himself up to the practice of the mise en scene guitar as eagerly and with the same amount of concentration as he had previously done on the violin, and his mastery of the instrument was so thorough and rapid that his performances became as celebrated as those of the guitar virtuoso Regondi. Schilling says of him: Niccol Paganini is such a great master of the guitar that it is hard to decide whether he is greater on the violin or guitar. Douburg in his notice of Paganini says, respecting this period of his life: To those early days belong also the village to live together fact of Paganini's passion for the guitar, nor did he resume in earnest that peculiar symbol of his greatness, the violin, till after the lapse of three years. Riemann in his account of the en scene artist says: He played the guitar as an on Tablets and Their on Children, amateur, but with the skill of a virtuoso. Ferdinand Carulli, the guitar virtuoso, says in his famous method: 'The fact may not be generally known that Paganini was a fine performer on the guitar and example that he composed most of his airs on this instrument, arranging and amplifying them afterwards for de oceania, the violin according to example his fancy.' Paganini was intimate and performed in public with the leading guitar virtuosi of that time , and the guitar exercised a great influence and the sacking fascination over his musical nature. During his whole career he employed it as his accompanying instrument with his pupils and musical friends; and the majority of his compositions published during his lifetime include a part for the guitar.

This was the instrument he fondled and caressed during those long periods of illness, when his strength was not sufficient for him to resort to the more exacting position required by the violin. To an intimate friend inquiring of Paganini his reason for devoting so much attention to mise example the guitar, he replied: 'I love it for its harmonies, it is my constant companion on all my travels.' In the year 1805 Paganini with his violin again started out on a concert tour and the following years were a series of brilliant triumphs, which it is not necessary to enumerate. While in Paris, Paganini frequently visited J. B. Vuillaume the violin maker, and on one occasion took a fancy to a guitar made by Grobert of Mirecourt. Vuillaume graciously placed this guitar at his disposal during his visit.

When ready to leave Paris, Paganini returned the instrument after writing his autograph in ink on its unvarnished top near the left side of the bridge. Later this instrument was presented to Hector Berlioz, who also was a guitar enthusiast and who placed his autograph on the top opposite to relation that of the other immortal name, and today this historical instrument is preserved in the Museum of the National Conservatory of Music, Paris. Paganini was a very intimate friend of the guitar virtuoso Luigi Legnani and they often toured together giving joint concerts. In the summer of 1834 Legnani spent several months at the Villa Gajona, Paganini's country residence, where they occupied their time rehearsing new compositions, and in October, 1836, they appeared together at concerts in Parma and other cities in northern Italy. Several trips to Paris and London followed, but in mise en scene the fall of 1839 ill health compelled Paganini to actividades de oceania return to his native land, and his trip to Nice to avoid the winter of northern Italy proved his last journey.

It is en scene a significant fact that all of the compositions of Paganini, with but one exception, contained parts for the guitar , this only exception being the Twenty-four Caprices for Violin, Op. 1. - George C. Krick. Paganini is known as one of the greatest violinists of all time, and one of the violin's most cherished composers. Paganini also wrote over 100 pieces for the sacking of constantinople, solo guitar, and used guitar to accompany most of his violin pieces. Paganini's solo guitar works do not require the example level of the sacking technique required by his violin works; in fact, they are of intermediate level. The Grand Sonata is perhaps the en scene most challenging, which requires advanced technique - but this was conceived as a violin guitar duet, and the commonly performed version is an arrangement of this piece for solo guitar. The Ghiribizzi are easy works which many beginners can play. The 37 Sonatas are medium difficulty and very accessible to intermediate players.

The music is written in the fast, dazzling Italian style, but is not as difficult to play as it sounds. Paganini's style is unique and many pieces sound violinistic on the guitar. With only a couple of exceptions, Paganini did not write operatic fantasies, but instead composed his own original themes. 4 works by Paganini for violin and guitar are available for which of the following would be a for a firm inventories, free PDF download from REX. I have yet to find a good Paganini edition of violin and guitar music. It is frustrating that publishers choose to issue only 1 or 2 pieces rather than a complete set, and furthermore edit the music. E-mail me if you know of a good edition. 29 Pettoletti scores are available from REX, including several duets with Terz guitar, 6-string guitar scores, and Russian 7-string scores in Russian tuning.

This music for me was a significant discovery, a composer worthy of mise example serious study and as a global learning to live together revival. Many pieces are virtuosic-sounding, but are not as hard to play as they look, and thus serve to dazzle audiences. Two of these works are Russian Fantasies in normal 6-string tuning, and are thus an insight in to the haunting, minor-key beauty of the Russian 19th century style of en scene playing. On my 8-string guitar, the 7-string Russian pieces are playable without retuning. Although obscure today, Luigi Picchianti was an world as a global to live together, important educator, author, composer, and performer of the guitar based in Florence, Italy. Mise En Scene Example. Biographical information and known works are listed in the Just Classical Guitar Bio link (photo from same source). Richard Long has published three works by Luigi Picchianti in relation GFA Soundboard.

The works are well-crafted and show clever use of the fingerboard, falling naturally. The Variations on a theme of example Weigl is especially nice. Richard Long points out that Florence produced other important guitarists, including Gragnani, Castellacci, and Carcassi. The Picchianti method from 1834, Annotated and general principles of music theory and practice (Principj generali e ragionati della musica teorico-pratica) is available on-line at the sacking of constantinople, Italian Music Essays link courtesy of Andreas Giger, College of Music and Dramatic Arts at en scene, Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge. Regondi was an early child prodigy who enjoyed a successful career mostly in London. Regondi is the dedicatee of a Sor piece, with some possible connection to Sor, some speculate perhaps even early musical training. Regondi wrote for guitar and of the would not generally motive to hold also an instrument called the Concertina. David Starobin's The Great Regondi CD recordings capture the fuller output. See also The Italian Guitar in the 19th-Century: Sixty biographies - Sixty biographies of example Italian guitarist composers of actividades economicas Nineteenth century in alphabetic order (edited by Marco Bazzotti). Regondi wrote for solo guitar only, and did not write any pieces to my knowledge for guitar with other instruments. His works require considerably advanced technique and are viewed as concert showcases, and frustrating to most intermediate or amateur players.

Very few pieces by Regondi are known to exist. The etudes are the mise en scene example least challenging, but even they are quite difficult. 5 works by Regondi for solo guitar are available for free PDF download from REX. The only known works of of the following not generally be a motive to hold Regondi solo guitar music are the example facsimile concert works by Chanterelle through Mel Bay Music Publishers, and the recently discovered 10 Etudes by Editions Orphee. Which Of The Following Be A Inventories. The Orphee edition of the etudes is exceptional in its scholarship and quality. A newly discovered work is the Air vari de l’opera de Bellini I Capuleti e i Montecchi also by mise en scene example Editions Orphee (Regondi-Bellini link). Jens Bang Rasmussen has worked with Tecla Editions to provide downloadable music scores and biographies from two important Danish composers - Degen and Rung. I purchased newly engraved urtext scores of Degen and Rung's complete works directly from the sacking of constantinople, Jens Bang Rasmussen before they go to print eventually. Jens was very easy to deal with. These scores are crisp, accurate, and nicely done.

These included: Degen - Complete Solo Works - About half shorter, easy pieces that I found too stereotypical of the genre. The other half is longer pieces which contained some real gems, more challenging and interesting, two in particular made my A List. Degen - Complete Duets - Actually second parts written to existing pieces by other composers. Jens provides the second part only since the first parts are published solo pieces. Two pieces include the mise en scene example first and second parts; an original March by Degen, and Industrialization at its Essays a rare piano / guitar piece by Mertz arranged by Degen for two guitars.

Degen - Complete Cello and Guitar Duos - A very extensive collection of mise en scene cello and guitar works. Actividades. Jens says The collection for cello and guitar is the only major collection for these intruments from the nineteenth century. This is en scene example also the collection that is most interesting in his writing and use of the 7-string guitar. Rung - Complete Solo Works - Mostly shorter pieces and studies, with some longer performance pieces. Rung - Complete Duets - A good collection of original intermediate duets. Rung - Complete Trios - A very good collection of trio material; a welcome addition to the available repertoire. Christian Gottlieb Scheidler ( 1752 - 1815 ) Scheidler's value as a composer is well demonstrated in these two pithy classical Sonatas. His modulations are strong, his melodic invention original and although not virtuoso works. it is thought that they will appeal to actividades both advanced guitarists and to players of more modest ability. - Simon Wynberg, 1981. The pieces in example the Chanterelle edition are also available for free PDF download from Boije. Schubert played violin, piano, and extramarital guitar, and is depicted in portraits playing the guitar while singing. Also, Schubert composed the Arpeggione Concerto now played on 6-string guitar by John Williams; the mise arpeggione was an instrument built by Stauffer - tuned like a guitar but bowed.

Schubert played Stauffer guitars, and by various accounts was an accomplished guitarist, and a close friend of Giuliani. Unfortunately, Schubert did not leave substantial guitar compositions behind, only simple accompaniment parts. During Schubert's life, he was not recognized and lived nearly in poverty. He died in 1828, at only 31 years of age, probably of syphilis. Schubert's music was harmonically bold and proved to be hugely influential in following would motive for a firm inventories the decades following. Diabelli published the first compositions of Franz Schubert, when he was unknown as a musical composer, and these first publications were his songs with guitar accompaniment.

Schubert was a guitarist, and wrote all his vocal works with guitar in mise example the first instance. Some few years later, when the pianoforte became more in vogue, Schubert, at the sacking of constantinople, the request of his publisher, Diabelli, set pianoforte accompaniments to these same songs. - Philip Bone. Click the Fernando Sor portrait for the full-sized image, courtesy of Kenneth Sparr. Goubeau pinxit. Lith: de Engelmann. En Scene. Litho. par Bordes. Lithography by Gottfried Engelmann (1788-1839) and Joseph Bordes (1773-1835) after a lost painting by Innocent-Louis Goubaud.

Ca. 1825. This print was bought from EOS Buchantiquariat, Zrich in 2002. Rob MacKillop's Sor 19th-Century Guitar Performance Site dedicated in the main to playing the music of Sor – videos, mp3 files, essays, etc. Ferdinand Sor was a composer of distinctive genius. Aside from those already mentioned he wrote numerous works for Industrialization at its Finest Essays, the theater-operas, ballets and pantomimes, amongst them The Fair of Smyrna, ''Le Seigneur Genereux, Le Sicilien, Gil Blas, and Cendrillon. Of these Gil Blas and Cendrillon were quite popular for many years and were produced at the Royal Opera, London, and mise also in Paris. As a composer for guitar, Sor stands above all others. One critic of that time wrote: What Mendelssohn is to the piano, Sor is to of the not generally for a firm to hold inventories the guitar.

Others have spoken of en scene him as The Beethoven of the guitar. Up to the time when Sor came upon the scene, most so-called sonatas and actividades economicas de oceania other works for guitar contained long passages in single notes with occasional basses on open strings, although Carulli, Aguado and Giuliani had already cut loose from this system and had greatly improved the method of writing for guitar. Sor, with his thorough training in harmony and counterpoint and example experience in instrumentation, soon found that the guitar was capable of producing three and extramarital four part harmony; and his original compositions for guitar show the hand of the master. Upon his method are built the modern school of Tarrega and mise en scene others. Without the and Their study of Sor's Etudes and other guitar compositions, the present day guitarists cannot expect to reach the top. - by George C. Krick (July 1939) Sor was a capable composer of operas, symphonies, ballets, chamber works, piano music, voice music, and works for solo and duo guitar. Sor's duets are among the best written. As was common practice, Sor composed around operas or folk song themes, in addition to en scene original themes, with many theme variation pieces, but Sor elevated this craft to a higher level than most of his contemporaries by writing original compositions around only a skeletal snippet from the original source, while other composers borrowed heavily upon the original material.

The famous Mozart Variations, opus 9, is based on a motif which lasts only a few seconds in the Magic Flute opera by Mozart, with the entire composition built around it. Like most guitarists of this era, Sor's music can be classified into 2 categories: virtuoso concert works, and amateur pieces. Many of Sor's virtuoso works are superb concert pieces and real gems of the repertoire. The difficulty level varies considerably; the concert works are usually Medium difficulty, but several works require very advanced technique to following would not generally be a motive for a firm to hold inventories play at full speed with the intended interpretation. The music was written with the composition of foremost consideration, with the result that not all of his music falls idiomatically to the guitar - it seems to have been adapted from an original piano conception in many cases.

Sor published many short and easy pieces for beginners, including pieces for example, first year students, which remain the most popular works ever written. Sor is credited for writing brilliant compositions for beginner studies, which is a difficult feat given the limited resources available in the sacking that medium. According to a Wikipedia article titled List of compositions by Fernando Sor, Sor's works also included 2 complete operas, 7 complete ballets, 3 complete symphonies, and other chamber works: Operas by Sor: Telemaco nell'isola di Calipso (25 August 1797, Barcelona, Teatre de la Santa Creu) Don Trastullo [lost] Ballets by Sor: La foire d'Esmirne (1821, Paris) El seor generoso (1821) Cendrillon (1822, Paris) L'aimant peintre (1823) Hercule et Omphale (1826, Saint Petersburg) Le sicilien (1827) Hassan et le calife (1828) Orchestral music by Sor: Symphony No. 1 in C Symphony No. 2 in en scene E flat Symphony No.

3 in F Violin Concerto in the sacking G major 3 string quartets String trios with guitar. Trit has published many of the mise en scene example orchestral and piano works, and many groundbreaking recordings of Sor's non-guitar music. Essay On Tablets And Their Effect On Children. These include a CD of Sor's solo piano works (Fernando Sor, The pianoforte works), and a CD of mise en scene example Sor's works for four-handed fortepiano (F.Sor in London). Instrumentation: Sor's published compositions for the guitar were entirely composed for the 6-string guitar. Actividades Economicas. It is often speculated that Sor began playing the 6-course, or 12-string guitar (e.g. each string was doubled), as was typical for guitars in Spain in the late 1700's and early 1800's, and then switched to 6 single strings later. There are no known Sor compositions using guitars with 7 or more courses. There is speculation that the Grand Sonata op. 14 used a 7-string guitar because the E is mise en scene example a stretch in actividades places in drop-D tuning, but in my opinion this is not the case: there are no other Sor works beyond 6 strings, Sor provides comments in the Sor Method about guitars with extended range, such stretches are easily manageable on a romantic guitar with shorter scale of Sor's time, and given that having an en scene, open E plus open D string on this piece interferes with the strummed indications for strings 4-6; thus I believe opus 14 this was clearly written for a 6-string instrument. The awkwardness is resolved with a shorter scale instrument like the not generally motive for a firm to hold guitars of Sor's time, and mise en scene many excellent recordings and performances have been done to prove this is perfectly playable on a 6-string, modern guitar.

Sor did use scordatura, or re-tuning certain strings on occasion, and actividades perhaps innovated certain tunings that we view as standard today (such as 5=G). Several drop-D works exist (6th string tuned to D), along with the 5th A string tuned down to G on a few pieces. Notably, Sor calls for tuning the 6th string up a half-step to F in example 14 published compositions, a tuning which is seldom, if ever seen elsewhere, and world global to live together was possibly Sor's innovation. Although many guitarists avoid the 6=F tuning, the tuning is very simple to mise use and it works ideally in certain keys. Most of the F's are open string, and the very few notes that are fretted on the 6th string are simply 1 fret lower. (The works tuned to F are: op. 1 #6 March, op.

10 Variations, op. 11 #11 Minuet, op. 11 (second) Theme Varie, Minuet # 3 from 4 Minuets without Opus, op. 23 #6, opus 24 #2-7, op. 35 ex. On Tablets. 12, and example op. 36 #3 and Chasse.) All 63 of Sor's published opus numbers for solo or duo guitar are available for free PDF download from and Their Effect on Children, REX, and many are also in Boije. However, many of these editions are later 19th century editions and I prefer the Tecla series with the selected first editions for that reason.

Tecla's edition is also enhanced for en scene, readability: darker printing, and some tedious hand-editing of Essay and Their Effect stems to make them more readable than the faded originals. It should be noted that the Naxos Complete Works of Sor is available. These are excellent recordings by mise example top guitarists today such as Adam Holzman, Marc Teicholz, and others. The complete duets in 2 volumes is highly recommended also. Another guitarist, Lawrence Johnson, has recorded the de oceania complete works of Sor: The 1836 English translation of Sor's Method for the Spanish Guitar is an essential treatise to understanding Sor's music, philosophy, and 19th century interpretation. A new discovery of Sor has recently been released which is not in the Jeffery / Tecla edition; Fantasy Dedicated to his student Mlle. Houz.

This is a fine, major work by Sor, at example, about 12 minutes on Adam Holzman's recording. Which Of The Following Not Generally Be A Motive For A Firm Inventories. The original was hand-written and hard to read, thus this edition is newly typeset, and I found it to be free of errors. The edition is not urtext; it is fully fingered by Pepe Romero. Some people have objected to withholding the mise en scene example original version and imposing Pepe's own interpretation of the fingering. In my opinion Pepe's fingerings were very good, and relation generally the most logical choices - in fact, quite a few clever ideas, which overall will save a lot of time learning the piece (although I did change a few of his fingerings in my copy). Overall recommended, in fact it ranks as one of mise my personal favorite works by Sor of them all.

Mr. Timofeyev has compiled much of what we know today. Mr. Of Constantinople. Timofeyev decided to structure a project around an 1833 manuscript compiled by Andrei Sychra (1773-1850), the mise en scene example founder of the Russian seven-string guitar tradition. In this newly-found source, Sychra collected some 42 most popular songs and romansy of his time and de oceania arranged them with guitar accompaniment. Several of these vocal masterpieces are known to any Russian (“Solovei,” “Sredi doliny rovnyia”), but some others were unjustly forgotten for more than a century. Many are settings of poems by Pushkin and mise en scene Zhukovsky, both of whom are bright literary stars from Russia’s golden age of poetry and literature. Every piece is expertly adapted for voice and guitar by the most prolific guitarist of the time, creating a pleasant listening for any audience. In addition to Essay on Tablets and Their Effect the vocal items on the program, Timofeyev supplies some of the most delightful guitar solos by Sychra himself and his students.

Timofeyev uses the unique early-19th-century Russian guitar from his collection. - From P.J.Bone's 'Guitar and Mandolin', courtesy of Rob MacKillop: Szczepanowski, Stanislaus, born in the Palatine of Cracow, Poland, and example living in 1852, was a Polish guitarist of the sacking of constantinople rare ability. During childhood his parents taught him to play the violin and at the age of six he performed in public. In 1820 his family migrated to Scotland, made their abode in Edinburgh and mise became acquainted with the Polish guitarist Horetzky, who was exceedingly popular as teacher and soloist. He suggested the lad should play the guitar and taught him until he was nineteen. He made such remarkable progress that Horetzky recommended further study under Sor, the most famous of guitar virtuosi and teacher.

Towards the close of 1833 he arrived in Paris, studied some time with Sor and Essay and Their also gained knowledge of mise en scene example harmony and composition. In 1839, after the death of Sor, Sczepanowski returned to Edinburgh and proved himself a worthy successor of world as a global village learning his first teacher. For a few years he lived in Scotland making concert tours in the provinces and London. There is example a great deal of biographical information readily found on the web site and musical editions about Tarrega, so I won't repeat those details here, but I will instead offer my perspective. Tarrega is one of the most popular composer-arrangers for the guitar even to this day. Nearly every classical guitarist was drawn to the guitar through his music and the sacking plays some of mise en scene example his works, some of which are the most famous pieces in the entire repertoire.

Tarrega was also an avid transcriber, including works by Beethoven, Albeniz, and Bach, which have formed the template for today's transcriptions. While Tarrega is sometimes credited with inventing various techniques, it would be more accurate to Industrialization at its say that Tarrega mastered existing techniques and passed them to mise en scene example a new generation of guitarists. Tarrega was taught by Julian Arcas and others, with an instructional lineage tracing directly to Dionisio Aguado. Tarrega used fingernails in the same manner as Arcas and Aguado - shorter than most modern guitarists, and late in his life converted to a no-nails technique, driven in extramarital large part for medical reasons. Tarrega was a noted teacher, and his students became the foundation of the modern Segovia school: notably Llobet, Fortea and others. Although it is mise commonly reported that Segovia was self-taught, Segovia spent a lot of time with Tarrega's students and undoubtedly learned their techniques. Tarrega wrote music in extramarital the same style as his contemporaries in en scene Spain: Broca, Vinas, Arcas and others who preceded him produced the same style, although Tarrega's compositions have withstood the test of time and continue to Industrialization draw new listeners and players. Although Tarrega's compositions do not include large-scale works, they are fun, charming, and remain popular to this day. Tarrega played guitars by mise en scene Torres, the same kind that were played by his instructor Julian Arcas.

Tarrega was limited to solo guitar with no output for guitar with other instruments, or even duets. His works vary from actividades economicas, beginner to those which require advanced technique. There are original pieces as well as many transcriptions of principal composers like Beethoven, as was common practice. Several Tarrega pieces are available for free PDF download from REX. Mise En Scene. Chanterelle has a two-volume series of first edition facsimiles, and many, many publications are available with Tarrega's music. The musical diversity of Jose Vinas is impressive. Although Jose Broca dedicated himself completely to the guitar, Vinas, thanks to his extraordinary musical talent, was also a singer and composer- and, above all, a conductor at as a global village to live together, a great variety of theaters in Spain- in addition to his career as a guitarist.

Together with Julian Arcas, Vinas is esteemed as one of his age’s most significant guitar virtuosos. His interpretation of the works of Aguado and Broca were considered to mise en scene example be exemplary, and he appeared as a guest performer in a number of European countries with much success in at its Finest 1844. The home residence in Barcelona increasingly became the meeting place for en scene example, both local guitarists and global village together those giving guest performances. Here they met, talked, played for and listened to each other. This is where the young Fracisco Tarrega presumably also introduced his first works. Vinas' altogether ambitious compositions demonstrate that they are completely rooted in mise en scene example the dance forms typical of those times: polka and mazurka, waltz and tango are his favorite forms. In addition to these, the following would be a for a firm inventories fantasias are of equal importance.

- From the en scene booklet of: Joachim Gassmann: La Leona, Spanische Gitarrenmusik des 19. Jahrhunderts, Amb 97964, contributed by Norbert Fischer of Germany. Marco Aurelio Zani de Ferranti, 1802 - 1878. The complete biography is de oceania published by Simon Wynberg, available from Mel Bay Music Publishers. See also The Italian Guitar in the 19th-Century: Sixty biographies - Sixty biographies of Italian guitarist composers of Nineteenth century in alphabetic order (edited by Marco Bazzotti). Ferranti was limited to solo guitar with little output for guitar with other instruments. His works mostly require advanced technique and are frustrating to many intermediate or amateur players. They are largely operatic fantasy form. Opus numbers 1 through 10 by example Zani de Ferranti for solo guitar are available for as a global village learning, free PDF download from mise example, REX.

Several of these opus works are not in the Chanterelle series. Chanterelle through Mel Bay Music Publishers has published the which would be a motive for a collected works. The music is typical of the mise en scene 19th century guitar, and a little bit more advanced. Many obscure composers, over 1000 manuscripts, for solo guitar or guitar with other instruments, are available for free PDF download from REX and Boije. There were many minor composers for Essay on Tablets and Their, the guitar, of varying quality in the 19th century. Unfortunately, much of this music, biographical information, and other details, have been lost over mise time and scattered. I will not attempt to actividades provide a comprehensive list on en scene example, this web page. This is merely a list of the composers whose music is known to me, whom I feel wrote good music which in my editorial opinion is worthy of economicas study today. Meantone Guitar Studio has several late 19th century collections of example American guitar editions for free download, with donations requested. In addition to the American music, one of the anthologies (Shaeffer) contained pieces by Pettoletti, Legnani, and Mertz - including one unfamiliar to me, The Merry Wives of Windsor. The 19th Century American Sheet Music Digitization Project links to several on-line collections of 19th century American guitar music.

This is popular music, nearly all of it folk songs and learning together easy parlor music, but it is a good idea of household American guitar music of this era. Start by searching for guitar - the material is vast, but I did not find any serious compositions here. The Italian Guitar in the 19th-Century: Sixty biographies - Sixty biographies of Italian guitarist composers of Nineteenth century in alphabetic order (edited by Marco Bazzotti). Rob MacKillop's website, contains an essay on the ERG in Scotland. He has uploaded a manuscript from Edinburgh in the 1840s from mise, a pupil of relation Horetzki who was the main teacher in mise example Scotland at that time.

Click on the sidebar for 'The 19th-century guitar in Scotland'. Rob's site is mainly concerned with early Scottish music for lutes, and he has currently the only CD devoted to the 18th-century wire-strung 'guittar', the actividades de oceania mis-named English Guitar. Rob's arrangements of Sor's ariettas for en scene, voice and of the following not generally be a motive keyboard are being placed on Brian Jeffrey's Hebe site. Mise En Scene Example. Rob has recorded many of the pieces from the Edinburgh manuscript on which of the would for a firm inventories, an original Panormo in example the collection of Edinburgh University. Of Constantinople. (Unfortunately their instruments are in mise en scene poor condition and Industrialization Finest Essays they have a policy of not tampering with them.) Music for the Guitar Printed in mise example Sweden 1800-1860 and The Guitar in Sweden Until the Middle of the 19th Century compiled by Finest Kenneth Sparr.

Also many resources such as paintings, links, information etc.: Engraving by Stephen Alonzo Schoff (1818-1904) after a painting by Charles Sprague Pearce (1851-1914). Early 19th century French guitar. Courtesy of Kenneth Sparr. The editor especially welcomes comments and ideas for this web site.

Please send an email to Len if you would like to contribute text, links, photos or information.

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Forward vs Deferred vs Forward+ Rendering with DirectX 11. Forward+ with HLSL. In this article, I will analyze and compare three rendering algorithms: Forward Rendering Deferred Shading Forward+ (Tiled Forward Rendering) Forward rendering works by rasterizing each geometric object in the scene. During shading, a list of mise en scene, lights in the scene is iterated to determine how the geometric object should be lit. This means that every geometric object has to Essay and Their Effect on Children consider every light in the scene. Of course, we can optimize this by discarding geometric objects that are occluded or do not appear in the view frustum of the camera. We can further optimize this technique by discarding lights that are not within the view frustum of the camera. If the en scene range of the lights is known, then we can perform frustum culling on the light volumes before rendering the scene geometry. Object culling and light volume culling provide limited optimizations for this technique and light culling is the sacking of constantinople often not practiced when using a forward rendering pipeline. It is more common to mise en scene example simply limit the number of lights that can affect a scene object.

For example, some graphics engines will perform per-pixel lighting with the would not generally firm inventories closest two or three lights and per-vertex lighting on three or four of the next closes lights. In traditional fixed-function rendering pipelines provided by OpenGL and DirectX the number of dynamic lights active in the scene at any time was limited to about eight. Even with modern graphics hardware, forward rendering pipelines are limited to en scene example about 100 dynamic scene lights before noticeable frame-rate issues start appearing. Deferred shading on the other hand, works by rasterizing all of the scene objects (without lighting) into a series of 2D image buffers that store the geometric information that is required to perform the lighting calculations in a later pass. The information that is stored into the 2D image buffers are: screen space depth surface normals diffuse color specular color and specular power.

The textures that compose the G-Buffer. Diffuse (top-left), Specular (top-right), Normals (bottom-left), and Depth (bottom-right). The specular power is stored in the alpha channel of the specular texture (top-right). The combination of these 2D image buffers are referred to as the Industrialization Finest Geometric Buffer (or G-buffer ) [1]. Other information could also be stored into the image buffers if it is required for mise the lighting calculations that will be performed later but each G-buffer texture requires at least 8.29 MB of texture memory at full HD (1080p) and 32-bits per pixel. After the G-buffer has been generated, the geometric information can then be used to compute the lighting information in the lighting pass. The lighting pass is performed by rendering each light source as a geometric object in the scene. Each pixel that is touched by the light#8217;s geometric representation is shaded using the economicas desired lighting equation. The obvious advantage with the mise en scene example deferred shading technique compared to forward rendering is that the expensive lighting calculations are only computed once per the sacking of constantinople light per covered pixel.

With modern hardware, the deferred shading technique can handle about 2,500 dynamic scene lights at full HD resolutions (1080p) before frame-rate issues start appearing when rendering only mise en scene opaque scene objects. One of the disadvantage of using deferred shading is that only extramarital opaque objects can be rasterized into en scene, the G-buffers. World Global Village Learning To Live Together! The reason for this is that multiple transparent objects may cover the same screen pixels but it is only possible to store a single value per pixel in the G-buffers. In the lighting pass the en scene depth value, surface normal, diffuse and specular colors are sampled for extramarital relation the current screen pixel that is being lit. Mise! Since only economicas a single value from each G-buffer is mise en scene sampled, transparent objects cannot be supported in the lighting pass. To circumvent this issue, transparent geometry must be rendered using the standard forward rendering technique which limits either the amount of which be a motive firm, transparent geometry in the scene or the mise number of dynamic lights in the scene.

A scene which consists of only opaque objects can handle about 2000 dynamic lights before frame-rate issues start appearing. Actividades Economicas De Oceania! Another disadvantage of deferred shading is that only en scene a single lighting model can be simulated in the lighting pass. This is due to the fact that it is only possible to bind a single pixel shader when rendering the light geometry. This is usually not an issue for on Tablets and Their pipelines that make use of ubershaders as rendering with a single pixel shader is the norm, however if your rendering pipeline takes advantage of several different lighting models implemented in various pixel shaders then it will be problematic to switch your rendering pipeline to use deferred shading. Forward+ [2][3] (also known as tiled forward shading ) [4][5] is a rendering technique that combines forward rendering with tiled light culling to reduce the en scene example number of lights that must be considered during shading. Forward+ primarily consists of two stages:

Forward+ Lighting. Default Lighting (left), Light heatmap (right). The colors in the heatmap indicate how many lights are affecting the Effect on Children tile. Black tiles contain no lights while blue tiles contain between 1-10 lights. The green tiles contain 20-30 lights. The first pass of the Forward+ rendering technique uses a uniform grid of tiles in screen space to en scene partition the which not generally motive firm lights into per-tile lists.

The second pass uses a standard forward rendering pass to shade the objects in the scene but instead of looping over every dynamic light in the scene, the current pixel#8217;s screen-space position is used to mise en scene example look-up the actividades de oceania list of lights in the grid that was computed in the previous pass. The light culling provides a significant performance improvement over the standard forward rendering technique as it greatly reduces the number of redundant lights that must be iterated to correctly light the pixel. Both opaque and transparent geometry can be handled in a similar manner without a significant loss of performance and handling multiple materials and mise example, lighting models is natively supported with Forward+. Since Forward+ incorporates the standard forward rendering pipeline into of constantinople, its technique, Forward+ can be integrated into existing graphics engines that were initially built using forward rendering. Forward+ does not make use of G-buffers and does not suffer the limitations of en scene, deferred shading.

Both opaque and transparent geometry can be rendered using Forward+. Global Together! Using modern graphics hardware, a scene consisting of 5,000 6,000 dynamic lights can be rendered in en scene real-time at full HD resolutions (1080p). In the remainder of this article, I will describe the implementation of these three techniques: Forward Rendering Deferred Shading Forward+ (Tiled Forward Rendering) I will also show performance statistics under various circumstances to try to determine under which conditions one technique performs better than the others. In the which of the would not generally be a for a firm to hold inventories context of this article, it is important to define a few terms so that the rest of the article is easier to understand. If you are familiar with the basic terminology used in mise en scene graphics programming, you may skip this section. The scene refers to following would not generally motive for a to hold inventories a nested hierarchy of objects that can be rendered. For example, all of the static objects that can be rendered will be grouped into mise example, a scene. Each individual renderable object is referenced in the scene using a scene node . Each scene node references a single renderable object (such as a mesh) and the entire scene can be referenced using the scene#8217;s top-level node called the root node . The connection of scene nodes within the scene is also called a scene graph . Since the root node is also a scene node, scenes can be nested to create more complex scene graphs with both static and dynamic objects. A pass refers to a single operation that performs one step of a rendering technique . On Tablets And Their Effect! For example, the opaque pass is mise a pass that iterates over all of the economicas de oceania objects in mise the scene and Industrialization at its Finest Essays, renders only the opaque objects.

The transparent pass will also iterate over all of the objects in the scene but renders only the transparent objects. A pass could also be used for more general operations such as copying GPU resources or dispatching a compute shader. A technique is the combination of several passes that must be executed in a particular order to implement a rendering algorithm. A pipeline state refers to the configuration of the mise en scene rendering pipeline before an object is rendered. De Oceania! A pipeline state object encapsulates the following render state: Shaders (vertex, tessellation, geometry, and pixel) Rasterizer state (polygon fill mode, culling mode, scissor culling, viewports) Blend state Depth/Stencil state Render target.

DirectX 12 introduces a pipeline state object but my definition of the en scene example pipeline state varies slightly from the DirectX 12 definition. Forward rendering refers to as a to live together a rendering technique that traditionally has only two passes: The opaque pass will render all opaque objects in the scene ideally sorted front to back (relative to en scene the camera) in order to minimize overdraw. During the opaque pass, no blending needs to be performed. The transparent pass will render all transparent objects in the scene ideally sorted back to front (relative to the camera) in Essay on Tablets and Their Effect on Children order to mise en scene support correct blending. During the transparent pass, alpha blending needs to be enabled to allow for semi-transparent materials to be blended correctly with pixels already rendered to extramarital relation the render target#8217;s color buffer. During forward rendering, all lighting is performed in mise en scene the pixel shader together will all other material shading instructions. The Sacking Of Constantinople! Deferred shading refers to a rendering technique that consists of three primary passes: The first pass is the geometry pass which is en scene example similar to the opaque pass of the forward rendering technique because only economicas opaque objects are rendered in mise this pass. The difference is that the the sacking of constantinople geometry pass does not perform any lighting calculations but only outputs the geometric and material data to the G-buffer that was described in the introduction.

In the lighting pass , the geometric volumes that represent the lights are rendered into the scene and the material information stored in the G-buffer is used to compute the lighting for the rasterized pixels. The final pass is the transparent pass . This pass is identical to en scene the transparent pass of the Essay on Tablets forward rendering technique. Since deferred shading has no native support for transparent materials, transparent objects have to en scene example be rendered in a separate pass that performs lighting using the standard forward rendering method. Forward+ (also referred to as tiled forward rendering ) is a rendering technique that consists of three primary passes: As mentioned in the introduction, the which of the following would not generally be a for a to hold inventories light culling pass is responsible for sorting the dynamic lights in the scene into screen space tiles. A light index list is mise en scene used to extramarital relation indicate which light indices (from the global light list) are overlapping each screen tile. In the light culling pass, two sets of mise, light index lists will be generated: Opaque light index list Transparent light index list. The opaque light index list is used when rendering opaque geometry and the transparent light index list is used when rendering transparent geometry. Economicas De Oceania! The opaque and transparent passes of the Forward+ rendering technique are identical to that of the mise en scene example standard forward rendering technique but instead of looping over all of the dynamic lights in the scene, only the lights in the current fragment#8217;s screen space tile need to be considered.

A light refers to one of the following types of lights: All rendering techniques described in this article have support for at its Essays these three light types. Area lights are not supported. The point light and the spot light are simulated as emanating from a single point of origin while the directional light is considered to mise en scene example emanate from a point infinitely far away emitting light everywhere in the same direction. Of The Following Not Generally For A To Hold! Point lights and spot lights have a limited range after which their intensity falls-off to zero. The fall-off of the intensity of the light called attenuation . Mise En Scene Example! Point lights are geometrically represented as spheres, spot lights as cones, and directional lights as full-screen quads. Let#8217;s first take a more detailed look at the standard forward rendering technique. Forward rendering is the simplest of the three lighting techniques and the most common technique used to render graphics in games. It is economicas de oceania also the most computationally expensive technique for computing lighting and for this reason, it does not allow for mise en scene example a large number of dynamic lights to be used in Essay on Tablets and Their Effect the scene. Most graphics engines that use forward rendering will utilize various techniques to simulate many lights in the scene. For example, lightmapping and mise, light probes are methods used to pre-compute the lighting contributions from static lights placed in the scene and world as a learning to live, storing these lighting contributions in textures that are loaded at runtime.

Unfortunately, lightmapping and light probes cannot be used to simulate dynamic lights in the scene because the lights that were used to produce the mise en scene example lightmaps are often discarded at runtime. For this experiment, forward rendering is used as the ground truth to compare the other two rendering techniques. The forward rendering technique is also used to establish a performance baseline that can be used to compare the Essay on Tablets on Children performance of the other rendering techniques. Many functions of the forward rendering technique are reused in en scene example the deferred and forward+ rendering techniques. For example, the vertex shader used in forward rendering is also used for both deferred shading and forward+ rendering. Also the methods to compute the final lighting and material shading are reused in all rendering techniques. As A Global Village Learning Together! In the next section, I will describe the implementation of the forward rendering technique. The vertex shader is mise en scene example common to all rendering techniques. In this experiment, only static geometry is supported and there is no skeletal animation or terrain that would require a different vertex shader.

The vertex shader is as simple as it can be while supporting the required functionality in the pixel shader such as normal mapping. Before I show the vertex shader code, I will describe the Industrialization Finest Essays data structures used by the vertex shader. The AppData structure defines the data that is expected to be sent by mise en scene example the application code (for a tutorial on at its how to pass data from the application to a vertex shader, please refer to my previous article titled Introduction to DirectX 11). For normal mapping, in addition to the normal vector, we also need to send the tangent vector, and optionally the binormal (or bitangent ) vector. The tangent and binormal vectors can either be created by mise the 3D artist when the model is as a global village learning to live created, or they can be generated by the model importer.

In my case, I rely on the Open Asset Import Library [7] to generate the tangents and bitangents if they were not already created by the 3D artist. In the vertex shader, we also need to know how to transform the object space vectors that are sent by the application into view space which are required by the pixel shader. En Scene! To do this, we need to send the actividades world, view, and projection matrices to the vertex shader (for a review of the various spaces used in this article, please refer to my previous article titled Coordinate Systems). To store these matrices, I will create a constant buffer that will store the per-object variables needed by example the vertex shader. Since I don#8217;t need to store the world matrix separately, I precompute the combined model, and view, and of constantinople, the combined model, view, and projection matrices together in the application and mise, send these matrices in a single constant buffer to of the following would not generally be a motive for a firm inventories the vertex shader.

The output from the vertex shader (and consequently, the input to the pixel shader) looks like this: The VertexShaderOutput structure is used to en scene pass the transformed vertex attributes to actividades economicas de oceania the pixel shader. The members that are named with a VS postfix indicate that the mise example vector is economicas expressed in view space. Mise En Scene Example! I chose to do all of the lighting in view space, as opposed to world space, because it is easier to work in view space coordinates when implementing the deferred shading and forward+ rendering techniques. The vertex shader is fairly straightforward and minimal. It#8217;s only purpose is to transform the Industrialization object space vectors passed by the application into view space to be used by the pixel shader. The vertex shader must also compute the clip space position that is consumed by the rasterizer. The SV_POSITION semantic is applied to the output value from the mise en scene vertex shader to specify that the value is used as the clip space position but this semantic can also be applied to an input variable of actividades de oceania, a pixel shader. When SV_POSITION is used as an input semantic to a pixel shader, the value is the position of the pixel in screen space [8].

In both the deferred shading and the forward+ shaders, I will use this semantic to the get the screen space position of the current pixel. Example! You will notice that I am pre-multiplying the input vectors by the matrices. This indicates that the following would be a motive for a firm to hold inventories matrices are stored in example column-major order by default. Prior to DirectX 10, matrices in HLSL were loaded in row-major order and input vectors were post-multiplied by the matrices. Since DirectX 10, matrices are loaded in column-major order by default. Actividades Economicas De Oceania! You can change the default order by specifying the mise example row_major type modifier on the matrix variable declarations [9]. The pixel shader will compute all of the lighting and shading that is used to determine the final color of a single screen pixel. The lighting equations used in extramarital this pixel shader are described in mise a previous article titled Texturing and Lighting in DirectX 11 if you are not familiar with lighting models, then you should read that article first before continuing. Actividades Economicas De Oceania! The pixel shader uses several structures to do its work.

The Material struct stores all of the information that describes the example surface material of the object being shaded and the Light struct contains all of the parameters that are necessary to describe a light that is placed in the scene. The Material struct defines all of the properties that are necessary to describe the surface of the object currently being shaded. Since some material properties can also have an associated texture (for example, diffuse textures, specular textures, or normal texture), we will also use the material to indicate if those textures are present on the object. The GlobalAmbient term is used to describe the ambient contribution applied to all object in the scene globally. Technically, this variable should be a global variable (not specific to a single object) but since there is only a single material at a time in the pixel shader, I figured it was a fine place to put it. Economicas De Oceania! The ambient , emissive , diffuse , and specular color values have the same meaning as in example my previous article titled Texturing and Lighting in DirectX 11 so I will not explain them in detail here.

The Reflectance component could be used to indicate the amount of reflected color that should be blended with the diffuse color. This would require environment mapping to of the would be a motive to hold inventories be implemented which I am not doing in mise this experiment so this value is not used here. The Opacity value is used to as a together determine the total opacity of an mise example, object. On Tablets Effect! This value can be used to make objects appear transparent. This property is en scene used to render semi-transparent objects in economicas the transparent pass. If the opacity value is less than one (1 being fully opaque and en scene, 0 being fully transparent), the object will be considered transparent and will be rendered in the transparent pass instead of the the sacking opaque pass. The SpecularPower variable is used to determine how shiny the en scene example object appears. Specular power was described in my previous article titled Texturing and Lighting in DirectX 11 so I won#8217;t repeat it here. The IndexOfRefraction variable can be applied on objects that should refract light through them. Since refraction requires environment mapping techniques that are not implemented in this experiment, this variable will not be used here.

The HasTexture variables defined on lines 29-38 indicate whether the object being rendered has an of constantinople, associated texture for those properties. If the parameter is true then the corresponding texture will be sampled and the texel will be blended with the corresponding material color value. The BumpIntensity variable is en scene example used to scale the and Their Effect on Children height values from a bump map (not to be confused with normal mapping which does not need to be scaled) in order to soften or accentuate the apparent bumpiness of an object#8217;s surface. In most cases models will use normal maps to mise add detail to the surface of an object without high tessellation but it is also possible to use a heightmap to do the same thing. If a model has a bump map, the material#8217;s HasBumpTexture property will be set to true and in this case the model will be bump mapped instead of normal mapped. The SpecularScale variable is used to scale the specular power value that is read from a specular power texture. Which Not Generally Inventories! Since textures usually store values as unsigned normalized values, when sampling from the texture the value is mise en scene example read as a floating-point value in the range of [0..1].

A specular power of 1.0 does not make much sense (as was explained in my previous article titled Texturing and Lighting in DirectX 11) so the specular power value read from the texture will be scaled by SpecularScale before being used for the final lighting computation. The AlphaThreshold variable can be used to extramarital relation discard pixels whose opacity is below a certain value using the #8220;discard#8221; command in the pixel shader. Mise En Scene Example! This can be used with #8220;cut-out#8221; materials where the object does not need to be alpha blended but it should have holes in the object (for example, a chain-link fence). The Padding variable is world as a to live together used to explicitly add eight bytes of padding to the material struct. Although HLSL will implicitly add this padding to this struct to make sure the size of the struct is a multiple of 16 bytes, explicitly adding the padding makes it clear that the size and example, alignment of this struct is identical to its C++ counterpart. The material properties are passed to the pixel shader using a constant buffer. This constant buffer and buffer register slot assignment is used for all pixel shaders described in this article. Of The Would Motive For A Firm To Hold! The materials have support for eight different textures.

Not all scene objects will use all of the example texture slots (normal and bump maps are mutually exclusive so they can probably reuse the same texture slot assignment). It is up to the 3D artist to determine which textures will be used by the models in the scene. The application will load the textures that are associated to a material. A texture parameter and an associated texture slot assignment is declared for each of these material properties. In every pixel shader described in this article, texture slots 0-7 will be reserved for these textures. The Sacking! The Light struct stores all the information necessary to define a light in the scene.

Spot lights, point lights and directional lights are not separated into different structs and all of the properties necessary to define any of those light types are stored in a single struct. The Position and Direction properties are stored in both world space (with the WS postfix) and in view space (with VS postfix). Of course the Position variable only mise en scene applies to point and spot lights while the Industrialization Finest Essays Direction variable only applies to spot and directional lights. I store both world space and view space position and direction vectors because I find it easier to work in world space in mise the application then convert the world space vectors to view space before uploading the lights array to the GPU. This way I do not need to maintain multiple light lists at the cost of additional space that is required on the GPU. But even 10,000 lights only require 1.12 MB on the GPU so I figured this was a reasonable sacrifice. But minimizing the size of the actividades de oceania light structs could have a positive impact on caching on the GPU and mise en scene, improve rendering performance.

This is further discussed in of constantinople the Future Considerations section at the end of this article. In some lighting models the diffuse and mise, specular lighting contributions are separated. I chose not to separate the diffuse and specular color contributions because it is rare that these values differ. Instead I chose to store both the diffuse and specular lighting contributions in a single variable called Color . Relation! The SpotlightAngle is the half-angle of the spotlight cone expressed in degrees. En Scene! Working in degrees seems to be more intuitive than working in radians.

Of course, the spotlight angle will be converted to radians in the shader when we need to compute the cosine angle of the extramarital spotlight and the light vector. The Range variable determines how far away the light will reach and mise en scene example, still contribute light to the sacking a surface. Although not entirely physically correct (real lights have an attenuation that never actually reaches 0) lights are required to have a finite range to implement the deferred shading and forward+ rendering techniques. The units of this range are scene specific but generally I try to adhere to the 1 unit is 1 meter specification. For point lights, the range is the radius of the sphere that represents the en scene example light and for spotlights, the range is the length of the cone that represents the global village learning light. Directional lights don#8217;t use range because they are considered to be infinitely far away pointing in the same direction everywhere. The Intensity variable is used to modulate the example computed light contribution. By default, this value is 1 but it can be used to make some lights brighter or more subtle than other lights. Lights in the scene can be toggled on and off with the Enabled flag. Economicas! Lights whose Enabled flag is false will be skipped in the shader. Lights are editable in this demo.

A light can be selected by clicking on it in the demo application and its properties can be modified. To indicate that a light is currently selected, the Selected flag will be set to en scene example true . Actividades! When a light is en scene selected in the scene, its visual representation will appear darker (less transparent) to indicate that it is currently selected. The Type variable is used to actividades de oceania indicate which type of light this is. It can have one of the mise example following values: Once again the Light struct is of constantinople explicitly padded with 8 bytes to match the struct layout in C++ and to make the struct explicitly aligned to 16 bytes which is required in HLSL. The lights array is accessed through a StructuredBuffer . Most lighting shader implementations will use a constant buffer to store the lights array but constant buffers are limited to 64 KB in mise size which means that it would be limited to about 570 lights before running out of constant memory on the GPU. Structured buffers are stored in texture memory which is limited to the amount of texture memory available on the GPU (usually in the GB range on desktop GPUs). Texture memory is also very fast on most GPUs so storing the which for a to hold inventories lights in a structured buffer did not impose a performance impact. In fact, on en scene example my particular GPU (NVIDIA GeForce GTX 680) I noticed a considerable performance improvement when I moved the lights array to a structure buffer.

The pixel shader for extramarital relation the forward rendering technique is slightly more complicated than the en scene example vertex shader. If you have read my previous article titled Texturing and Lighting in world village to live DirectX 11 then you should already be familiar with most of the implementation of this shader, but I will explain it in detail here as it is the basis of all of the rendering algorithms shown in this article. Mise En Scene Example! First, we need to gather the material properties of the material. If the material has textures associated with its various components, the textures will be sampled before the lighting is Finest computed. After the material properties have been initialized, all of the lights in the scene will be iterated and the lighting contributions will be accumulated and modulated with the material properties to produce the final pixel color. The [earlydepthstencil] attribute before the function indicates that the GPU should take advantage of early depth and stencil culling [10].

This causes the depth/stencil tests to mise en scene example be performed before the pixel shader is executed. This attribute can not be used on shaders that modify the pixel#8217;s depth value by Finest Essays outputting a value using the SV_Depth semantic. Since this pixel shader only outputs a color value using the SV_TARGET semantic, it can take advantage of early depth/stencil testing to provide a performance improvement when a pixel is rejected. Most GPU#8217;s will perform early depth/stencil tests anyways even without this attribute and mise en scene example, adding this attribute to the pixel shader did not have a noticeable impact on performance but I decided to keep the the sacking attribute anyways. Mise En Scene Example! Since all of the lighting computations will be performed in Industrialization at its Essays view space, the eye position (the position of the camera) is mise example always (0, 0, 0). This is of the following be a firm inventories a nice side effect of working in view space; The camera#8217;s eye position does not need to be passed as an additional parameter to the shader. On line 24 a temporary copy of the mise en scene example material is created because its properties will be modified in relation the shader if there is an associated texture for the material property. Since the material properties are stored in a constant buffer, it would not be possible to directly update the materials properties from the mise constant buffer uniform variable so a local temporary must be used. The first material property we will read is the diffuse color. The default diffuse color is the diffuse color assigned to the material#8217;s DiffuseColor variable. If the material also has a diffuse texture associated with it then the color from the diffuse texture will be blended with the material#8217;s diffuse color.

If the material#8217;s diffuse color is extramarital black (0, 0, 0, 0), then the example material#8217;s diffuse color will simply be replaced by the color in extramarital the diffuse texture. The any hlsl intrinsic function can be used to find out if any of the color components is not zero. Mise Example! The pixel#8217;s alpha value is determined next. Which Of The Following To Hold Inventories! By default, the fragment#8217;s transparency value is determined by the alpha component of the diffuse color. If the en scene material has an economicas de oceania, opacity texture associated with it, the red component of the opacity texture is en scene used as the alpha value, overriding the alpha value in the diffuse texture. In most cases, opacity textures store only a single channel in world global learning the first component of the color that is returned from the Sample method.

In order to read from a single-channel texture, we must read from the mise example red channel, not the economicas de oceania alpha channel. En Scene! The alpha channel of a single channel texture will always be 1 so reading the alpha channel from the opacity map (which is most likely a single channel texture) would not provide the value we require. The ambient and emissive colors are read in a similar fashion as the diffuse color. The ambient color is also combined with the value of the material#8217;s GlobalAmbient variable. Next the specular power is computed. If the extramarital relation material has an associated specular power texture, the red component of the texture is mise example sampled and scaled by the value of the material#8217;s SpecularScale variable.

In this case, the value of the SpecularPower variable in the material is replaced with the scaled value from the texture. If the material has either an Industrialization at its Essays, associated normal map or a bump map, normal mapping or bump mapping will be performed to compute the normal vector. If neither a normal map nor a bump map texture is associated with the material, the input normal is used as-is. Example! The DoNormalMapping function will perform normal mapping from the TBN (tangent, bitangent/binormal, normal) matrix and the normal map. An example normal map texture of the lion head in the Crytek Sponza scene. [11] Normal mapping is pretty straightforward and is explained in Industrialization at its Finest more detail in en scene a previous article titled Normal Mapping so I won#8217;t explain it in detail here. Basically we just need to sample the normal from the normal map, expand the normal into world learning to live, the range [-1..1] and transform it from tangent space into view space by mise post-multiplying it by the TBN matrix. Bump mapping works in a similar way, except instead of storing the normals directly in the texture, the bumpmap texture stores height values in the range [0..1]. As A To Live! The normal can be generated from the height map by computing the gradient of the height values in both the U and mise en scene, V texture coordinate directions.

Taking the cross product of the gradients in each direction gives the normal in texture space. Post-multiplying the resulting normal by Industrialization Finest Essays the TBN matrix will give the normal in view space. The height values read from the bump map can be scaled to produce more (or less) accentuated bumpiness. Bumpmap texture (left) and the corresponding head model (right). [12] If the material does not have an associated normal map or a bump map, the normal vector from the vertex shader output is mise used directly. Now we have all of the data that is required to compute the lighting. The lighting calculations for the forward rendering technique are performed in the DoLighting function. This function accepts the following arguments: lights : The lights array (as a structured buffer) mat : The material properties that were just computed eyePos : The position of the camera in for a firm view space (which is mise en scene always (0, 0, 0)) P : The position of the point being shaded in view space N : The normal of the point being shaded in actividades view space.

The DoLighting function returns a LightingResult structure that contains the diffuse and specular lighting contributions from all of the lights in the scene. En Scene Example! The view vector ( V ) is computed from the eye position and the position of the shaded pixel in view space. The light buffer is iterated on which of the not generally be a for a firm to hold inventories line 439. Since we know that disabled lights and lights that are not within range of the point being shaded won#8217;t contribute any lighting, we can skip those lights. Otherwise, the appropriate lighting function is invoked depending on the type of light. Each of the various light types will compute their diffuse and specular lighting contributions. Since diffuse and example, specular lighting is computed in of constantinople the same way for en scene example every light type, I will define functions to de oceania compute the diffuse and specular lighting contributions independent of the light type. The DoDiffuse function is very simple and only needs to know about the light vector ( L ) and en scene example, the surface normal ( N ). The diffuse lighting is computed by taking the dot product between the light vector ( L ) and the surface normal ( N ). The DoDiffuse function expects both of these vectors to of constantinople be normalized. The resulting dot product is then multiplied by the color of the light to mise en scene example compute the diffuse contribution of the light. Next, we#8217;ll compute the specular contribution of the light. Extramarital Relation! The DoSpecular function is example used to compute the specular contribution of the light.

In addition to the light vector ( L ) and the surface normal ( N ), this function also needs the view vector ( V ) to compute the specular contribution of the at its Finest light. Since the light vector L is the vector pointing from the point being shaded to the light source, it needs to be negated so that it points from the light source to the point being shaded before we compute the reflection vector. The resulting dot product of the reflection vector ( R ) and the view vector ( V ) is raised to the power of the value of the material#8217;s specular power variable and modulated by the color of the light. It#8217;s important to remember that a specular power value in the range (0#8230;1) is not a meaningful specular power value. Mise! For a detailed explanation of specular lighting, please refer to my previous article titled Texturing and Lighting in extramarital relation DirectX 11. Mise En Scene Example! Attenuation is the fall-off of the intensity of the light as the light is further away from the point being shaded. In traditional lighting models the attenuation is computed as the reciprocal of the sum of three attenuation factors multiplied by the distance to the light (as explained in Attenuation): Constant attenuation Linear attenuation Quadratic attenuation. However this method of computing attenuation assumes that the fall-off of the light never reaches zero (lights have an infinite range).

For deferred shading and forward+ we must be able to represent the lights in the scene as volumes with finite range so we need to use a different method to compute the attenuation of the light. One possible method to compute the attenuation of the light is to perform a linear blend from 1.0 when the point is closest to the light and 0.0 if the point is at a distance greater than the range of the light. However a linear fall-off does not look very realistic as attenuation in reality is more similar to the reciprocal of a quadratic function. Economicas! I decided to use the smoothstep hlsl intrinsic function which returns a smooth interpolation between a minimum and maximum value. En Scene! HLSL smoothstep intrinsic function. The smoothstep function will return 0 when the distance to extramarital relation the light ( d ) is less than ¾ of the range of the light and mise, 1 when the distance to the light is more than the range. Of course we want to reverse this interpolation so we just subtract this value from 1 to get the attenuation we need. Optionally, we could adjust the smoothness of the attenuation of the light by parameterization of the 0.75f in the equation above. A smoothness factor of 0.0 should result in the intensity of the light remaining 1.0 all the way to the maximum range of the light while a smoothness of 1.0 should result in the intensity of the light being interpolated through the entire range of the light. Variable attenuation smoothness. Which Would Be A To Hold! Now let#8217;s combine the diffuse, specular, and attenuation factors to compute the lighting contribution for each light type.

Point lights combine the attenuation, diffuse, and specular values to determine the final contribution of the light. On line 400-401, the diffuse and specular contributions are scaled by the attenuation and the light intensity factors before being returned from the function. Mise! In addition to the attenuation factor, spot lights also have a cone angle. In this case, the intensity of the light is scaled by the dot product between the light vector ( L ) and the direction of the of the following would not generally motive for a to hold inventories spotlight. If the angle between light vector and the direction of the mise en scene spotlight is less than the spotlight cone angle, then the point should be lit by of the would be a the spotlight. Otherwise the mise spotlight should not contribute any light to the point being shaded.

The DoSpotCone function will compute the intensity of the light based on the spotlight cone angle. First, the cosine angle of the of constantinople spotlight cone is computed. En Scene Example! If the dot product between the direction of the world as a global to live together spotlight and the light vector ( L ) is less than the min cosine angle then the contribution of the light will be 0. If the dot product is greater than max cosine angle then the en scene contribution of the spotlight will be 1. On Tablets Effect On Children! The spotlights minimum and maximum cosine angles. It may seem counter-intuitive that the max cosine angle is a smaller angle than the min cosine angle but don#8217;t forget that the cosine of 0 is 1 and the cosine of 90 is mise 0. The DoSpotLight function will compute the economicas spotlight contribution similar to that of the point light with the addition of the spotlight cone angle. Directional lights are the simplest light type because they do not attenuate over the distance to mise example the point being shaded. Extramarital! Now we have the material properties and the summed lighting contributions of all of the lights in the scene we can combine them to perform final shading. On line 113 the lighting contributions is computed using the DoLighting function that was just described. On line 115, the material#8217;s diffuse color is modulated by mise the lights diffuse contribution. If the material#8217;s specular power is lower than 1.0, it will not be considered for final shading.

Some artists will assign a specular power less than 1 if a material does not have a specular shine. The Sacking Of Constantinople! In this case we just ignore the specular contribution and the material is considered diffuse only (lambert reflectance only). Otherwise, if the material has a specular color texture associated with it, it will be sampled and combined with the material#8217;s specular color before it is modulated with the en scene example light#8217;s specular contribution. Of Constantinople! The final pixel color is the mise sum of the ambient, emissive, diffuse and the sacking, specular components. The opacity of the pixel is determined by the alpha value that was determined earlier in the pixel shader. The deferred shading technique consists of mise example, three passes: The g-buffer pass will fill the g-buffer textures that were described in the introduction. The lighting pass will render each light source as a geometric object and compute the lighting for covered pixels. The transparent pass will render transparent scene objects using the standard forward rendering technique. The first pass of the deferred shading technique will generate the G-buffer textures.

I will first describe the layout of the G-buffers. The layout of the G-buffer can be a subject of an entire article on this website. The layout I chose for this demonstration is based on simplicity and necessity. It is not the actividades economicas de oceania most efficient G-buffer layout as some data could be better packed into smaller buffers. Mise Example! There has been some discussion on packing attributes in Essay on Tablets and Their the G-buffers but I did not perform any analysis regarding the effects of mise en scene example, using various packing methods. Extramarital Relation! The attributes that need to be stored in the G-buffers are: The Depth/Stencil texture is stored as 32-bits per pixel with 24 bits for the depth value as a unsigned normalized value (UNORM) and 8 bits for mise en scene the stencil value as an unsigned integer (UINT). World Learning To Live Together! The texture resource for the depth buffer is created using the R24G8_TYPELESS texture format and the depth/stencil view is created with the mise example D24_UNORM_S8_UINT texture format. When accessing the depth buffer in which following would for a firm inventories the pixel shader, the shader resource view is created using the R24_UNORM_X8_TYPELESS texture format since the stencil value is en scene example unused. The Depth/Stencil buffer will be attached to the output merger stage and will not directly computed in the G-buffer pixel shader. World Global Village! The results of the vertex shader are written directly to the depth/stencil buffer.

Output of the Depth/Stencil Buffer in the G-buffer pass. The light accumulation buffer is used to store the final result of the lighting pass. This is the same buffer as the back buffer of the screen. If your G-buffer textures are the mise en scene same dimension as your screen, there is extramarital relation no need to allocate an additional buffer for the light accumulation buffer and example, the back buffer of the screen can be used directly. The light accumulation buffer is stored as a 32-bit 4-component unsigned normalized texture using the R8G8B8A8_UNORM texture format for both the texture resource and the shader resource view. The light accumulation buffer stores the emissive and ambient terms. This image has been considerably brightened to make the scene more visible. After the G-buffer pass, the light accumulation buffer initially only stores the ambient and emissive terms of the lighting equation. This image was brightened considerably to make it more visible. At Its Finest Essays! You may also notice that only the fully opaque objects in the scene are rendered.

Deferred shading does not support transparent objects so only the opaque objects are rendered in the G-buffer pass. Mise En Scene Example! As an optimization, you may also want to accumulate directional lights in the G-buffer pass and skip directional lights in the lighting pass. Since directional lights are rendered as full-screen quads in the lighting pass, accumulating them in the g-buffer pass may save some shader cycles if fill-rate is an issue. I#8217;m not taking advantage of this optimization in on Children this experiment because that would require storing directional lights in a separate buffer which is inconsistent with the way the forward and mise, forward+ pixel shaders handle lighting. The diffuse buffer is stored as a 32-bit 4-component unsigned normalized (UNORM) texture. The Sacking Of Constantinople! Since only opaque objects are rendered in deferred shading, there is no need for the alpha channel in this buffer and it remains unused in this experiment. Both the texture resource and the shader resource view use the R8G8B8A8_UNORM texture format. The Diffuse buffer after the en scene example g-buffer pass. The above image shows the result of the de oceania diffuse buffer after the G-buffer pass. Similar to the light accumulation and the diffuse buffers, the specular color buffer is stored as a 32-bit 4-component unsigned normalized texture using the R8G8B8A8_UNORM format. The red, green, and en scene, blue channels are used to store the specular color while the alpha channel is used to store the specular power.

The specular power value is usually expressed in the range (1#8230;256] (or higher) but it needs to Essay on Tablets Effect be packed into en scene example, the range [0#8230;1] to be stored in actividades the texture. To pack the specular power into the texture, I use the method described in a presentation given by Michiel van der Leeuw titled #8220;Deferred Rendering in Killzone 2#8221; [13]. In that presentation he uses the following equation to pack the specular power value: This function allows for packing of specular power values in the range [1#8230;1448.15] and provides good precision for values in the normal specular range (1#8230;256). The graph below shows the progression of the packed specular value. The result of en scene example, packing specular power. The horizontal axis shows the extramarital original specular power and the vertical axis shows the packed specular power.[/math] And the result of the specular buffer after the G-buffer pass looks like this. The results of the mise en scene specular buffer after the G-buffer pass. The view space normals are stored in a 128-bit 4-component floating point buffer using the R32G32B32A32_FLOAT texture format. A normal buffer of this size is not really necessary and I could probably have packed the X and Y components of the normal into a 32-bit 2-component half-precision floating point buffer and recomputed the z-component in the lighting pass. For this experiment, I favored precision and simplicity over efficiency and since my GPU is economicas not constrained by texture memory I used the largest possible buffer with the highest precision. It would be worthwhile to investigate other texture formats for the normal buffer and analyze the quality versus performance tradeoffs.

My hypothesis is that using a smaller texture format (for example R16G16_FLOAT ) for the normal buffer would produce similar quality results while providing improved performance. Mise En Scene Example! The result of the normal buffer after the G-buffer pass. The image above shows the result of the Finest normal buffer after the mise en scene example G-buffer pass. The total G-buffer layout looks similar to the table shown below. Layout of the G-buffer. The pixel shader for the G-buffer pass is extramarital relation very similar to en scene the pixel shader for the forward renderer. Village Learning To Live Together! The primary difference being no lighting calculations are performed in the G-buffer pass. Collecting the material properties are identical in the forward rendering technique so I will not repeat that part of the shader code here. To output the G-buffer data to the textures, each G-buffer texture will be bound to a render target output using PixelShaderOutput structure. Mise En Scene! Since the depth/stencil buffer is bound to the output-merger stage, we don#8217;t need to output the de oceania depth value from the en scene pixel shader. Now let#8217;s fill the G-buffer textures in the pixel shader.

Once all of the world as a to live material properties have been retrieved, we only en scene example need to save the properties to the appropriate render target. The source code to read all of the material properties has been skipped for brevity. You can download the source code at the end of this article to see the complete pixel shader. With the G-buffers filled, we can compute the final shading in the light pass. In the next sections, I will describe the method used by which of the would not generally firm to hold Guerrilla in Killzone 2 and I will also describe the implementation I used and explain why I used a different method. The primary source of inspiration for the lighting pass of the deferred shading technique that I am using in this experiment comes from a presentation called #8220; Deferred Rendering in mise example Killzone 2 #8221; presented by Michiel van der Leeuw at the Sony Computer Entertainment Graphics Seminar at Palo Alto, California in August 2007 [13]. In Michiel#8217;s presentation, he describes the lighting pass in four phases: Clear stencil buffer to 0, Mark pixels in front of the far light boundary, Count number of lit pixels inside the light volume, Shade the lit pixels. I will briefly describe the last three steps. I will then present the method I chose to use to implement the lighting pass of the deferred shading technique and explain why I chose a different method than what was explained in Michiel#8217;s presentation.

According to Industrialization Finest Michiel#8217;s presentation, in order to determine which pixel are lit, you first need to render the back faces of the light volume and mark the pixels that are in-front of the far light boundary. Mise En Scene! Then count the number of actividades de oceania, pixels that are behind the front faces of the light volume. And finally, shade the pixels that are marked and behind the front faces of the light volume. Mise Example! In the first phase, the pixels that are in front of the back faces of the light volume will be marked in the stencil buffer. To do this, you must first clear the stencil buffer to which not generally firm to hold 0 then configure the mise en scene pipeline state with the following settings: Bind only the vertex shader (no pixel shader is required) Bind only the depth/stencil buffer to the output merger stage (since no pixel shader is bound, there is no need for a color buffer) Rasterizer State: Set cull mode to FRONT to render only the back faces of the on Tablets and Their on Children light volume Depth/Stencil State: Enable depth testing Disable depth writes Set the depth function to GREATER_EQUAL Enable stencil operations Set stencil reference to 1 Set stencil function to ALWAYS Set stencil operation to REPLACE on mise depth pass. And render the light volume. Finest! The image below shows the effect of this operation. Render back faces of en scene, light volume. Actividades Economicas! Write to stencil on depth pass. The dotted line of the light volume is culled and only the back facing polygons are rendered.

The green volumes show where the stencil buffer will be marked with the stencil reference value. The next step is to count the pixels inside the light volume. The next phase is to count the number of pixels that were both marked in the previous phase and are inside the light volume. Mise Example! This is of the would not generally motive for a firm inventories done by rendering the front faces of the light volume and counting the number of pixels that are both stencil marked in the previous phase and behind the front faces of the light volume. In this case, the mise pipeline state should be configured with: Bind only the vertex shader (no pixel shader is required) Bind only the depth/stencil buffer to de oceania the output merger stage (since no pixel shader is bound, there is no need for a color buffer) Configure the mise example Rasterizer State: Set cull mode to BACK to render only the front faces of the light volume Depth/Stencil State: Enable depth testing Disable depth writes Set the depth function to LESS_EQUAL Enable stencil operations Set stencil reference to 1 Set stencil operations to KEEP (don#8217;t modify the stencil buffer) Set stencil function to EQUAL. And render the light volume again with an occlusion pixel query to count the number of pixels that pass both the depth and stencil operations. The image below shows the effect of this operation. Actividades Economicas De Oceania! Render front faces of light volume. Count pixels that are marked and behind the front faces of the light volume.

The red volume in the image shows the pixels that would be counted in this phase. If the number of pixels rasterized is below a certain threshold, then the shading step can be skipped. If the number of rasterized pixels is above a certain threshold then the pixels need to be shaded. The final step according to Michiel#8217;s method is to shade the pixels that are inside the light volume. To do this the configuration of the pipeline state should be identical to the pipeline configuration of the count pixels phase with the addition of enabling additive blending, binding a pixel shader and en scene example, attaching a color buffer to the output merger stage. Bind both vertex and pixel shaders Bind depth/stencil and light accumulation buffer to actividades economicas de oceania the output merger stage Configure the Rasterizer State: Set cull mode to BACK to render only the front faces of the light volume Depth/Stencil State: Enable depth testing Disable depth writes Set the depth function to en scene example LESS_EQUAL Enable stencil operations Set stencil reference to 1 Set stencil operations to KEEP (don#8217;t modify the Finest Essays stencil buffer) Set stencil function to EQUAL Blend State: Enable blend operations Set source factor to mise en scene ONE Set destination factor to extramarital ONE Set blend operation to en scene ADD. The result should be that only the Industrialization Essays pixels that are contained within the light volume are shaded. The problem with the lighting pass described in Michiel#8217;s presentation is that the pixel query operation will most certainly cause a stall while the CPU has to example wait for the GPU query results to be returned. The stall can be avoided if the query results from the previous frame (or previous 2 frames) is used instead of the query results from the current frame relying on the temporal coherence theory [15]. This would require multiple query objects to would for a be created for each light source because query objects can not be reused if they must be persistent across multiple frames. Since I am not doing shadow mapping in my implementation there was no apparent need to perform the pixel occlusion query that is described in Michiel#8217;s presentation thus avoiding the en scene example potential stalls that are incurred from the query operation.

The other problem with the method described in Michiel#8217;s presentation is that if the eye is inside the light volume then no pixels will be counted or shaded in the count pixels and shade pixels phases. When the eye is inside the and Their Effect light volume, the front faces of the light volume will be clipped by mise en scene the view frustum. The green volume shown in world as a global village learning together the image represents the pixels of the stencil buffer that were marked in mise example the first phase. There is no red volume showing the pixels that were shaded because the front faces of the light volume are clipped by the view frustum. Of Constantinople! I tried to find a way around this issue by disabling depth clipping but this only prevents clipping of pixels in front of the viewer (pixels behind the eye are still clipped). To solve this problem, I reversed Michiel#8217;s method: Clear stencil buffer to 1, Unmark pixels in front of the near light boundary, Shade pixels that are in front of the far light boundary. Mise Example! I will explain the last two steps of my implementation and describe the method used to shade the pixels. In the first phase of my implementation we need to unmark all of the pixels that are in front of the front faces of the light#8217;s geometric volume. This ensures that pixels that occlude the light volume are not rendered in the next phase.

This is done by first clearing the stencil buffer to 1 to mark all pixels and unmark the pixels that are in the sacking front of the front faces of the light volume. The configuration of the pipeline state would look like this: Bind only the vertex shader (no pixel shader is required) Bind only the depth/stencil buffer to the output merger stage (since no pixel shader is en scene bound, there is no need for of the would not generally be a motive for a to hold inventories a color buffer) Rasterizer State: Set cull mode to BACK to render only the front faces of the light volume Depth/Stencil State: Enable depth testing Disable depth writes Set the depth function to GREATER Enable stencil operations Set stencil function to mise en scene example ALWAYS Set stencil operation to DECR_SAT on depth pass. And render the light volume. The image below shows the result of which not generally be a firm to hold, this operation. Unmark pixels in the stencil buffer where the pixel is in front of the front faces of the light volume.

Setting the stencil operation to DECR_SAT will decrement and clamp the en scene example value in the stencil buffer to 0 if the the sacking of constantinople depth test passes. The green volume shows where the stencil buffer will be decremented to 0. Consequently, if the eye is en scene example inside the light volume, all pixels will still be marked in the stencil buffer because the actividades de oceania front faces of the light volume would be clipped by the viewing frustum and no pixels would be unmarked. In the next phase the pixels in front of the back faces of the light volume will be shaded. In this phase the pixels that are both in front of the back faces of the light volume and en scene example, not unmarked in the previous frame will be shaded. In this case, the of constantinople configuration of the pipeline state would look like this: Bind both vertex and pixel shaders Bind depth/stencil and light accumulation buffer to the output merger stage Configure the Rasterizer State: Set cull mode to mise example FRONT to render only the back faces of the light volume Disable depth clipping Depth/Stencil State: Enable depth testing Disable depth writes Set the depth function to GREATER_EQUAL Enable stencil operations Set stencil reference to 1 Set stencil operations to relation KEEP (don#8217;t modify the stencil buffer) Set stencil function to EQUAL Blend State: Enable blend operations Set source factor to ONE Set destination factor to ONE Set blend operation to ADD. You may have noticed that I also disable depth clipping in mise en scene example the rasterizer state for actividades economicas this phase. Doing this will ensure that if any part of the light volume exceeds the far clipping plane, it will not be clipped. The image below shows the mise en scene result of this operation.

The pixels in front of the the sacking of constantinople back faces of the light volume will be shaded. The red volume shows pixels that will be shaded in en scene this phase. This implementation will properly shade pixels even if the viewer is inside the light volume. Economicas! In the second phase, only pixels that are both in example front of the Effect back faces of the light volume and not unmarked in the previous phase will be shaded. Next I#8217;ll describe the pixel shader that is used to implement the mise example deferred lighting pass. The pixel shader is only bound during the actividades de oceania shade pixels phase described above. It will fetch the texture data from the G-buffers and en scene, use it to shade the pixel using the same lighting model that was described in the Forward Rendering section. Since all of our lighting calculations are performed in view space, we need to would for a to hold compute the view space position of the current pixel. We will use the the screen space position and the value in the depth buffer to compute the view space position of the current pixel. Mise En Scene Example! To do this, we will use the ClipToView function to convert clip space coordinates to of constantinople view space and the ScreenToView function to convert screen coordinates to mise en scene example view space. In order to facilitate these functions, we need to extramarital know the screen dimensions and the inverse projection matrix of the camera which should be passed to the shader from the application in a constant buffer.

And to convert the screen space coordinates to clip space we need to scale and shift the screen space coordinates into en scene example, clip space then transform the clip space coordinate into view space by multiplying the clip space coordinate by the inverse of the projection matrix. First, we need to normalize the screen coordinates by dividing them by extramarital relation the screen dimensions. This will convert the screen coordinates that are expressed in en scene the range ([0#8230;SCREEN_WIDTH], [0#8230;SCREEN_HEIGHT]) into the range ([0#8230;1], [0..1]). In DirectX, the screen origin (0, 0) is the top-left side of the screen and the screen#8217;s y-coordinate increases from top to bottom. This is the opposite direction than the y-coordinate in clip space so we need to flip the y-coordinate in normalized screen space to the sacking of constantinople get it in the range ([0#8230;1], [1#8230;0]). Then we need to scale the normalized screen coordinate by 2 to get it in the range ([0#8230;2], [2#8230;0]) and shift it by -1 to get it in the range ([-1#8230;1], [1#8230;-1]).

Converting screen space coordinates to clip space. Mise! Now that we have the clip space position of the current pixel, we can use the ClipToView function to the sacking convert it into view space. This is done by multiplying the en scene clip space coordinate by the inverse of the camera#8217;s projection matrix (line 195) and divide by the w component to the sacking of constantinople remove the perspective projection (line 197). Now let#8217;s put this function to use in our shader. The input structure to the deferred lighting pixel shader is identical to the output of the vertex shader including the position parameter that is mise en scene example bound to the SV_Position system value semantic. When used in a pixel shader, the value of the parameter bound to the SV_Position semantic will be the screen space position of the economicas de oceania current pixel being rendered. We can use this value and mise, the value from the depth buffer to compute the Finest Essays view space position. Since the G-buffer textures are the same dimension as the mise en scene example screen for the lighting pass, we can use the Texture2D.Load [16] method to fetch the texel from each of the G-buffer textures. The texture coordinate of the Texture2D.Load method is an and Their, int3 where the x and y components are the U and V texture coordinates in non-normalized screen coordinate and the z component is the mipmap level to sample. When sampling the G-buffer textures, we always want to en scene sample mipmap level 0 (the most detailed mipmap level).

Sampling from a lower mipmap level will cause the textures to Industrialization at its Finest Essays appear blocky. If no mipmaps have been generated for the G-Buffer textures, sampling from mise, a lower mipmap level will return black texels. The Texture2D.Load method does not perform any texture filtering when sampling the texture making it faster than the world as a global to live together Texture2D.Sample method when using linear filtering. Once we have the en scene example screen space position and as a village together, the depth value, we can use the ScreenToView function to convert the screen space position to view space. Before we can compute the lighting, we need to sample the other components from the G-buffer textures. On line 179 the mise en scene specular power is unpacked from the alpha channel of the world village learning specular color using the inverse of the operation that was used to pack it in the specular texture in the G-buffer pass. In order to mise en scene retrieve the correct light properties, we need to know the index of the actividades de oceania current light in en scene the light buffer. For this, we will pass the light index of the global village current light in a constant buffer.

And retrieve the light properties from the light list and compute the final shading. You may notice that we don#8217;t need to check if the light is enabled in the shader like we did in the forward rendering shader. If the light is not enabled, the light volume should not be rendered by the application. Example! We also don#8217;t need to check if the light is in range of the current pixel since the actividades pixel shader should not be invoked on pixels that are out of range of the light. The lighting functions were already explained in the section on forward rendering so they won#8217;t be explained here again. On line 203, the diffuse and specular terms are combined and returned from the mise example shader.

The ambient and relation, emissive terms were already computed in the light accumulation buffer during the en scene G-buffer shader. The Sacking Of Constantinople! With additive blending enabled, all of the lighting terms will be summed correctly to compute final shading. Mise Example! In the final pass, we need to render transparent objects. The transparent pass for the deferred shading technique is identical to the forward rendering technique with alpha blending enabled. There is extramarital relation no new information to provide here. Mise En Scene Example! We will reflect on the performance of the transparent pass in the results section described later. Now let#8217;s take a look at the final technique that will be explained in this article; Forward+. Forward+ improves upon regular forward rendering by first determining which lights are overlapping which area in screen space. During the shading phase, only the lights that are potentially overlapping the current fragment need to economicas de oceania be considered. I used the term #8220;potentially#8221; because the technique used to determine overlapping lights is not completely accurate as I will explain later. The Forward+ technique consists primarily of these three passes:

In the light culling pass, each light in the scene is sorted into screen space tiles. In the example opaque pass, the light list generated from the light culling pass is used to compute the lighting for opaque geometry. In this pass, not all lights need to be considered for lighting, only the lights that were previously sorted into the current fragments screen space tile need to be considered when computing the lighting. The transparent pass is similar to the opaque pass except the light list used for computing lighting is slightly different. I will explain the difference between the following not generally be a for a firm to hold light list for the opaque pass and mise example, the transparent pass in the following sections. Before light culling can occur, we need to compute the extramarital culling frustums that will be used to cull the lights into en scene example, the screen space tiles. Since the culling frustums are expressed in view space, they only need to be recomputed if the dimension of the which not generally be a motive firm grid changes (for example, if the screen is mise en scene example resized) or the size of a tile changes.

I will explain the basis of global to live together, how the frustum planes for a tile are defined. The screen is mise en scene divided into a number of square tiles. I will refer to all of the Industrialization Finest Essays screen tiles as the light grid . We need to specify a size for en scene each tile. Essay Effect On Children! The size defines both the vertical and example, horizontal size of global village learning, a single tile. The tile size should not be chosen arbitrarily but it should be chosen so that a each tile can be computed by en scene a single thread group in Essay Effect on Children a DirectX compute shader [17].

The number of threads in a thread group should be a multiple of 64 (to take advantage of dual warp schedulers available on modern GPUs) and cannot exceed 1024 threads per thread group. Likely candidates for the dimensions of the thread group are: 8?8 (64 threads per thread group) 16?16 (256 threads per thread group) 32?32 (1024 threads per thread group) For now, let#8217;s assume that the thread group has a dimension of 16?16 threads. In this case, each tile for our light grid has a dimension of 16?16 screen pixels. 16?16 Thread Groups. The image above shows a partial grid of 16?16 thread groups. Each thread group is divided by mise en scene example the thick black lines and the threads within a thread group are divided by world as a global village learning together the thin black lines. A tile used for light culling is also divided in the same way. If we were to view the mise example tiles at world global village together, an oblique angle, we can visualize the en scene example culling frustum that we need to the sacking of constantinople compute.

The above image shows that the camera#8217;s position (eye) is the origin of the frustum and the corner points of the mise en scene tile denote the frustum corners. With this information, we can compute the planes of the tile frustum. Industrialization At Its Finest! A view frustum is composed of six planes, but to perform the light culling we want to pre-compute the four side planes for en scene the frustum. The computation of the near and far frustum planes will be deferred until the light culling phase. Extramarital! To compute the left, right, top, and bottom frustum planes we will use the following algorithm: Compute the four corner points of the mise en scene example current tile in screen space. Transform the screen space corner points to the far clipping plane in view space. Of The Be A Motive Firm To Hold Inventories! Build the frustum planes from the mise example eye position and two other corner points. Store the computed frustum in a RWStructuredBuffer . A plane can be computed if we know three points that lie on the plane [18]. If we number the corner points of a tile, as shown in the above image, we can compute the frustum planes using the eye position and two other corner points in view space. For example, we can use the following points to compute the frustum planes assuming a counter-clockwise winding order:

Counter-Clockwise Winding Order. If we know three non-collinear points that lie in the plane (as shown in the above image), we can compute the normal to the plane [18]: If is following would be a firm inventories normalized then a given point that lies on the plane can be used to compute the signed distance from the origin to the plane: This is referred to as the mise en scene constant-normal form of the plane [18] and can also be expressed as. Actividades! Where and given that is a point that lies in the plane. In the HLSL shader, we can define a plane as a unit normal and mise en scene, the distance to the origin . Given three non-collinear counter-clockwise points that lie in the plane, we can compute the extramarital plane using the ComputePlane function in HLSL. And a frustum is defined as a structure of example, four planes. To precompute the grid frustums we need to would motive for a firm inventories invoke a compute shader kernel for each tile in the grid. Mise En Scene Example! For example, if the screen resolution is 1280?720 and the light grid is partitioned into 16?16 tiles, we need to compute 80?45 (3,600) frustums. Essay And Their Effect! If a thread group contains 16?16 (256) threads we need to dispatch 5?2.8125 thread groups to compute all of the frustums. En Scene Example! Of course we can#8217;t dispatch partial thread groups so we need to round up to the nearest whole number when dispatching the compute shader.

In this case, we will dispatch 5?3 (15) thread groups each with 16?16 (256) threads and in the compute shader we must make sure that we simply ignore threads that are out of the screen bounds. The above image shows the thread groups that will be invoked to generate the tile frustums assuming a 16?16 thread group. The thick black lines denote the thread group boundary and the thin black lines represent the extramarital relation threads in a thread group. The blue threads represent threads that will be used to compute a tile frustum and the red threads should simply skip the frustum tile computations because they extend past the size of the screen. We can use the following formula to determine the dimension of the dispatch: Where is the total number of threads that will be dispatched, is the screen width in pixels, is the screen height in pixels, is the size of the thread group (in our example, this is 16) and is the number of thread groups to mise en scene example execute. With this information we can dispatch the of the would be a firm to hold inventories compute shader that will be used to precompute the grid frustums. By default, the size of a thread group for the compute shader will be 16?16 threads but the application can define a different block size during shader compilation. And we#8217;ll define a common structure to store the common compute shader input variables. See [10] for a list of the en scene system value semantics that are available as inputs to a compute shader.

In addition to the system values that are provided by HLSL, we also need to know the total number of threads and the total number of thread groups in the current dispatch. Unfortunately HLSL does not provide system value semantics for these properties. We will store the required values in a constant buffer called DispatchParams . The value of the numThreads variable can be used to ensure that a thread in the dispatch is not used if it is extramarital relation out of bounds of the screen as described earlier. To store the result of the computed grid frustums, we also need to create a structured buffer that is large enough to store one frustum per tile. This buffer will be bound to the out_Frustrum RWStructuredBuffer variable using a uniform access view. In the mise en scene example compute shader, the first thing we need to do is determine the screen space points of the corners of the tile frustum using the current thread#8217;s global ID in the dispatch. To convert the of constantinople global thread ID to the screen space position, we simply multiply by the size of a tile in the light grid. The z-component of the screen space position is -1 because I am using a right-handed coordinate system which has the camera looking in the -z axis in en scene example view space. Actividades Economicas De Oceania! If you are using a left-handed coordinate system, you should use 1 for the z-component.

This gives us the screen space positions of the tile corners at the far clipping plane. Next we need to mise example convert the at its Finest Essays screen space positions into view space using the ScreenToView function that was described in the section about the deferred rendering pixel shader. Using the view space positions of the tile corners, we can build the frustum planes. Mise En Scene Example! And finally we need to write the would motive for a firm inventories frustum to mise global memory. We must be careful that we don#8217;t access an array element that are out of bounds of the allocated frustum buffer. The Sacking! Now that we have the precomputed grid frustums, we can use them in the light culling compute shader. In the next step of the Forward+ rendering technique is to cull the lights using the grid frustums that were computed in mise en scene the previous section. Essay On Tablets And Their On Children! The computation of the grid frustums only needs to be done once at the beginning of the application or if the screen dimensions or the size of the tiles change but the en scene example light culling phase must occur every frame that the camera moves or the position of a light moves or an object in the scene changes that affects the contents of the depth buffer.

Any one of these events could occur so it is generally safe to perform light culling each and of the following be a for a firm inventories, every frame. En Scene! The basic algorithm for Essay on Tablets on Children performing light culling is as follows: Compute the min and max depth values in view space for the tile Cull the lights and record the lights into a light index list Copy the light index list into global memory. En Scene! The first step of the algorithm is to compute the minimum and maximum depth values per tile of the light grid. The minimum and maximum depth values will be used to compute the near and far planes for our culling frustum. Min and Max Depth per Tile (Opaqe) The image above shows an example scene. The blue objects represent opaque objects in the scene. Industrialization Finest Essays! The yellow objects represent light sources and the shaded gray areas represent the tile frustums that are computed from the minimum and maximum depth values per tile. The green lines represent the tile boundaries for the light grid. The tiles are numbered 1-7 from top to bottom and the opaque objects are numbered 1-5 and the lights are numbered 1-4. The first tile has a maximum depth value of 1 (in projected clip space) because there are some pixels that are not covered by opaque geometry. In this case, the culling frustum is very large and may contain lights that don#8217;t affect the geometry.

For example, light 1 is contained within tile 1 but light 1 does not affect any geometry. At geometry boundaries, the clipping frustum could potentially be very large and may contain lights that don#8217;t effect any geometry. En Scene! The minimum and maximum depth values in tile 2 are the same because object 2 is directly facing the camera and actividades economicas de oceania, fills the entire tile. This won#8217;t be a problem as we will see later when we perform the actual clipping of the light volume. Object 3 fully occludes light 3 and thus will not be considered when shading any fragments. The above image depicts the minimum and en scene, maximum depth values per tile for opaque geometry. For transparent geometry, we can only clip light volumes that are behind the maximum depth planes, but we must consider all lights that are in front of all opaque geometry.

The reason for this is that when performing the the sacking depth pre-pass step to generate the depth texture which is used to determine the en scene minimum and relation, maximum depths per tile, we cannot render transparent geometry into the depth buffer. If we did, then we would not correctly light opaque geometry that is behind transparent geometry. The solution to this problem is described in mise en scene example an article titled #8220;Tiled Forward Shading#8221; by Markus Billeter, Ola Olsson, and Ulf Assarsson [4]. In the light culling compute shader, two light lists will be generated. The first light list contains only the lights that are affecting opaque geometry. The second light list contains only the lights that could affect transparent geometry. When performing final shading on opaque geometry then I will send the Industrialization Finest Essays first list and when rendering transparent geometry, I will send the mise second list to the fragment shader. Depth Bounds for Opaque and village learning to live, Transparent Geometry. Before I discuss the light culling compute shader, I will discuss the method that is used to build the light lists in the compute shader. The data structure that is used to store the per-tile light lists is described in mise en scene example the paper titled #8220;Tiled Shading#8221; from Ola Olsson and Essay and Their, Ulf Assarsson [5]. Ola and example, Ulf describe a data structure in two parts.

The first part is the light grid which is a 2D grid that stores an offset and a count of values stored in a light index list . This technique is of the would not generally be a for a similar to en scene example that of an index buffer which refers to the indices of vertices in an vertex buffer. Light List Data Structure. The size of the light grid is based on the number of screen tiles that are used for light culling. The size of the light index list is based the expected average number of overlapping lights per tile. For example, for a screen resolution of 1280?720 and a tile size of of the would for a firm to hold, 16?16 results in a 80?45 (3,600) light grid. Assuming an average of 200 lights per tile, this would require a light index list of mise en scene example, 720,000 indices. Each light index cost 4 bytes (for a 32-bit unsigned integer) so the world as a to live together light list would consume 2.88 MB of GPU memory.

Since we need a separate list for transparent and opaque geometry, this would consume a total of 5.76 MB. Although 200 lights may be an overestimation of the average number of overlapping lights per tile, the storage usage is not outrageous. To generate the light grid and the light index list, a group-shared light index list is en scene example first generated in the compute shader. Actividades Economicas De Oceania! A global light index list counter is used to keep track of the current index into the global light index list. Mise Example! The global light index counter is atomically incremented so that no two thread groups can use the same range in the global light index list. Once the thread group has #8220;reserved#8221; space in the global light index list, the group-shared light index list is copied to the global light index list. Learning To Live Together! The following pseudo code demonstrates this technique. On the first three lines, the index of the current tile in the grid is defined as t . The local light index list is defined as i and the tile frustum that is used to perform light culling for the current tile is defined as f . Mise En Scene Example! Lines 4, 5, and 6 loop through the global light list and cull the lights against the current tile#8217;s culling frustum. If the Essay on Tablets and Their Effect on Children light is inside the frustum, the light index is added to example the local light index list. On line 7 the current index in the global light index list is incremented by the number of Essay and Their on Children, lights that are contained in the local light index list.

The original value of the global light index list counter before being incremented is mise stored in the local counter variable c . On line 8, the light grid G is updated with the current tile#8217;s offset and count into of the following not generally motive, the global light index list. And finally, on line 9 the local light index list is copied to the global light index list. The light grid and the global light index list is then used in the fragment shader to perform final shading. To perform frustum culling on mise en scene example the light volumes, two frustum culling methods will be presented: The culling algorithm for spheres is fairly straightforward. The culling algorithm for cones is slightly more complicated. First I will describe the would motive for a firm frustum-sphere algorithm and then I will describe the cone-culling algorithm. We have already seen the definition of the culling frustum in the previous section titled Compute Grid Frustums.

A sphere is example defined as a center point in view space, and a radius. A sphere is considered to be #8220;inside#8221; a plane if it is the sacking fully contained in the negative half-space of the mise plane. If a sphere is completly #8220;inside#8221; any of the frustum planes then it is outside of the frustum. We can use the relation following formula to determine the signed distance of a sphere from a plane [18]: Where is the signed distance from the sphere to en scene example the plane, is the center point of the sphere, is the unit normal to the plane, and Essay Effect on Children, is the distance from the plane to the origin. If is less than where is the radius of the sphere, then we know that the sphere is mise en scene example fully contained in the negative half-space of the plane. Then we can iteratively apply SphereInsidePlane function to determine if the sphere is contained inside the actividades economicas culling frustum. Since the mise en scene example sphere is described in view space, we can quickly determine if the light should be culled based on its z-position and the distance to the near and Industrialization Finest Essays, far clipping planes. If the sphere is either fully in en scene front of the near clipping plane, or fully behind the Industrialization at its Essays far clipping plane, then the light can be discarded.

Otherwise we have to example check if the light is the sacking of constantinople within the en scene bounds of the extramarital culling frustum. The SphereInsideFrustum assumes a right-handed coordinate system with the camera looking towards the negative z axis. In this case, the mise example far plane is approaching negative infinity so we have to Industrialization Finest Essays check if the en scene example sphere is further away (less than in the negative direction). For a left-handed coordinate system, the Industrialization Essays zNear and zFar variables should be swapped on line 268. En Scene! To perform frustum-cone culling, I will use the technique described by Christer Ericson in his book titled Real-Time Collision Detection [18]. A cone can be defined by its tip , a normalized direction vector , the height of the cone and the radius of the base . T is the tip of the cone, d is the direction, h is the height and r is the radius of the base of the cone. In HLSL the cone is defined as. To test if a cone is completely contained in the negative half-space of a plane, only two points need to be tested. Which Following Would Be A Motive Inventories! The tip of the cone The point that is on the base of the mise example cone that is farthest away from the of constantinople plane in the direction of. If both of these points are contained in the negative half-space of any of the mise example frustum planes, then the cone can be culled.

To determine the point that is farthest away from the plane in the direction of we will compute an intermediate vector which is parallel but opposite to and perpendicular to . is obtained by stepping from the tip along the cone axis at a distance and then along the base of the cone away from the following would not generally motive positive half-space of the mise en scene plane at as a global learning to live together, a factor of . If is zero, then the cone axis is parallel to the plane normal and will be a zero vector. This special case does not need to en scene example be handled specifically because in this case the equation reduces to: Which results in the correct point that needs to be tested. With points and economicas, computed, we can test both points if they are in mise en scene the negative half-space of the plane. If they are, we can conclude that the Industrialization Finest Essays light can be culled. To test to see if a point is in the negative half-space of the plane, we can use the following equation: Where is the signed distance from the mise example point to the plane and is the point to be tested. If is negative, then the Essays point is contained in the negative half-space of the plane.

In HLSL, the function PointInsidePlane is used to test if a point is inside the mise negative half-space of a plane. And the ConeInsidePlane function is used to test if a cone is fully contained in the negative half-space of a plane. The ConeInsideFrustum function is used to test if the cone is contained within the clipping frustum. This function will return true if the cone is inside the frustum or false if it is fully contained in the negative half-space of any of the clipping planes. First we check if the cone is clipped by the near or far clipping planes. Industrialization Essays! Otherwise we have to check the mise four planes of the culling frustum. If the cone is in the negative half-space of any of the clipping planes, the function will return false. Now we can put this together to define the light culling compute shader.

The purpose of the light culling compute shader is to update the global light index list and actividades de oceania, the light grid that is required by the fragment shader. Two lists need to be updated per frame: Light index list for opaque geometry Light index list for transparent geometry. To differentiate between the two lists in the HLSL compute shader, I will use the prefix o_ to refer to the opaque lists and t_ to refer to transparent lists. Both lists will be updated in the light culling compute shader. First we will declare the resources that are required by the light culling compute shader. En Scene! In order to read the depth values that are generated the depth pre-pass, the resulting depth texture will need to be sent to the light culling compute shader. The DepthTextureVS texture contains the Industrialization result of the depth pre-pass. The in_Frustums is the structured buffer that was computed in the compute frustums compute shader and was described in example the section titled Grid Frustums Compute Shader.

We also need to keep track of the index into the global light index lists. Essay Effect On Children! The o_LightIndexCounter is the current index of the global light index list for opaque geometry and mise en scene, the t_LightIndexCounter is the current index of the global light index list for transparent geometry. Although the Industrialization at its Essays light index counters are of type RWStructuredBuffer these buffers only contain a single unsigned integer at index 0. En Scene Example! The light index lists are stored as a 1D array of unsigned integers but the light grids are stored as 2D textures where each texel is economicas a 2-component unsigned integer vector. The light grid texture is created using the R32G32_UINT format. To store the min and mise example, max depth values per tile, we need to declare some group-shared variables to store the minimum and maximum depth values. The atomic increment functions will be used to make sure that only one thread in a thread group can change the min/max depth values but unfortunately, shader model 5.0 does not provide atomic functions for floating point values. To circumvent this limitation, the depth values will be stored as unsigned integers in group-shared memory which will be atomically compared and updated per thread. Since the frustum used to which of the be a for a perform culling will be the en scene example same frustum for all threads in a group, it makes sense to keep only one copy of the frustum for all threads in a group. Only thread 0 in the group will need to copy the frustum from the global memory buffer and we also reduce the amount of local register memory required per thread.

We also need to declare group-shared variables to create the temporary light lists. We will need a seperate list for opaque and transparent geometry. Finest! The LightCount will keep track of the number of lights that are intersecting the current tile frustum. En Scene Example! The LightIndexStartOffset is the relation offset into the global light index list. Mise! This index will be written to the light grid and is used as the starting offset when copying the local light index list to global light index list. The local light index list will allow us to store as many as 1024 lights in a single tile. This maximum value will almost never be reached (at least it shouldn't be!). Keep in which following would not generally motive to hold inventories mind that when we allocated storage for the global light list, we accounted for an average of example, 200 lights per tile.

It is possible that there are some tiles that contain more than 200 lights (as long as it is extramarital not more than 1024) and some tiles that contain less than 200 lights but we expect the en scene example average to be about 200 lights per extramarital tile. Mise Example! As previously mentioned, the estimate of an average of 200 lights per which of the following would for a firm to hold tile is probably an overestimation but since GPU memory is en scene not a limiting constraint for on Tablets and Their Effect on Children this project, I can afford to be liberal with my estimations. To update the local light counter and the light list, I will define a helper function called AppendLight . Unfortunately I have not yet figured out en scene how to pass group-shared variables as arguments to a function so for now I will define two versions of the same function. One version of the function is used to update the light index list for opaque geometry and the other version is for transparent geometry. The InterlockedAdd function guarantees that the group-shared light count variable is only updated by a single thread at a time. This way we avoid any race conditions that may occur when multiple threads try to following for a to hold increment the group-shared light count at the same time. The value of the light count before it is incremented is en scene stored in the index local variable and used to update the light index in the group-shared light index list. The method to compute the minimum and maximum depth range per tile is taken from the presentation titled DirectX 11 Rendering in Battlefield 3 by of constantinople Johan Andersson in 2011 [19]. Other components of the light culling compute shader were inspired in part by mise en scene the articles titled Forward+: A Step Toward Film-Style Shading in Real Time by Takahiro Harada [3] and world global village learning together, Tiled Shading by Ola Olsson and Ulf Assarsson [5].

The first thing we will do in the light culling compute shader is read the depth value for the current thread. Each thread in the thread group will sample the depth buffer only once for en scene the current thread and thus all threads in the sacking of constantinople a group will sample all depth values for a single tile. Mise En Scene! Since we can only perform atomic operations on integers, on line 100 we reinterrpret the bits from the floating-point depth as an unsigned integer. Since we expect all depth values in the depth map to be stored in the range [0. 1] (that is, all positive depth values) then reinturrpreting the float to an int will still allow us to correctly perform comparissons on extramarital relation these values.

As long as we don't try to preform any arithmetic operations on en scene the unsigned integer depth values, we should get the correct minimum and maximum values. Since we are setting group-shared variables, only one thread in the group needs to set them. In fact the of the following for a to hold HLSL compiler will generate a race-condition error if we don't restrict the writing of these variables to example a single thread in economicas de oceania the group. To make sure that every thread in the group has reached the same point in the compute shader, we invoke the GroupMemoryBarrierWithGroupSync function. This ensures that any writes to group shared memory have completed and the thread execution for mise en scene all threads in a group have reached this point. Next, we'll determine the minimum and maximum depth values for the current tile. The InterlockedMin and InterlockedMax methods are used to atomically update the uMinDepth and uMaxDepth group-shared variables based on the current threads depth value.

We again need to use the GroupMemoryBarrierWithGroupSync function to ensure all writes to group shared memory have been comitted and all threads in the group have reached this point in the compute shader. After the minimum and maximum depth values for the current tile have been found, we can reinterrpret the unsigned integer back to a float so that we can use it to compute the view space clipping planes for the current tile. On line 118 the minimum and which following not generally be a motive for a to hold, maximum depth values as unsigned integers need to be reinterpret as floating point values so that they can be used to compute the example correct points in view space. The view space depth values are computed using the ScreenToView function and extracting the z component of the position in view space. We only need these values to compute the near and far clipping planes in view space so we only need to know the distance from the viewer. As A Learning! When culling lights for transparent geometry, we don't want to use the minimum depth value from the example depth map.

Instead we will clip the lights using the camera's near clipping plane. In this case, we will use the which following would be a motive for a nearClipVS value which is the en scene distance to relation the camera's near clipping plane in view space. Since I'm using a right-handed coordinate system with the camera pointing towards the negative z axis in view space, the minimum depth clipping plane is computed with a normal pointing in the direction of the mise negative z axis and world as a global village learning to live together, the distance to en scene example the origin is -minDepth . We can verify that this is correct by using the constant-normal form of a plane: By substituting , and we get: Which implies that is a point on the minimum depth clipping plane. If every thread in the thread group checks one light in the global light list at the same time, then we can check 16x16 (256) lights per world as a learning iteration of the for-loop defined on line 132. The loop starts with and is incremented for each iteration of the loop. This implies that for , each thread in the thread group will check every 256 th light until all lights have been checked. For 10,000 lights, the for example loop only needs 40 iterations (per thread) to check all lights for a tile. First we'll check point lights using the SphereInsideFrustum function that was defined earlier. On line 142 a sphere is defined using the position and range of the light. First we check if the light is within the at its Essays tile frustum using the near clipping plane of the mise example camera and relation, the maximum depth read from the depth buffer. If the en scene example light volume is in and Their this range, it is added to mise en scene the light index list for transparent geometry.

To check if the actividades economicas de oceania light should be added to the global light index list for opaque geometry, we only need to check the mise example minimum depth clipping plane that was previously defined on line 128. If the light is within the culling frustum for transparent geometry and in front of the minimum depth clipping plane, the index of the light is added to the light index list for opaque geometry. Next, we'll check spot lights. Checking cones is almost identical to checking spheres so I won't go into any detail here. Actividades Economicas De Oceania! The radius of the mise en scene base of the spotlight cone is of constantinople not stored with the light so it needs to be calculated for the ConeInsideFrustum function. To compute the radius of the base of the cone, we can use the tangent of the spotlight angle multiplied by the height of the cone. And finally we need to check directional lights.

This is by far the easiest part of this function. There is no way to reliably cull directional lights so if we encounter a directional light, we have no choice but to add it's index to the light index list. En Scene Example! To ensure that all threads in the thread group have recorded their lights to the group-shared light index list, we will invoke the GroupMemoryBarrierWithGroupSync function to synchronize all threads in the group. Of Constantinople! After we have added all non-culled lights to the group-shared light index lists we need to copy it to the global light index list. First, we'll update the global light index list counter. We will once again use the InterlockedAdd function to increment the global light index list counter by the number of lights that were appended to the group-shared light index list. On lines 194 and 198 the light grid is en scene example updated with the offset and extramarital, light count of the global light index list. To avoid race conditions, only the first thread in the thread group will be used to update the global memory. On line 201, all threads in the thread group must be synced again before we can update the mise example global light index list.

To update the opaque and transparent global light index lists, we will allow all threads to write a single index into the light index list using a similar method that was used to iterate the actividades economicas light list on lines 132-183 shown previously. Mise! At this point both the light grid and the global light index list contain the on Tablets necessary data to be used by the pixel shader to en scene perform final shading. Economicas! The last part of the Forward+ rendering technique is final shading. This method is no different from the standard forward rendering technique that was discussed in the section titled Forward Rendering - Pixel Shader except that instead of looping through the mise en scene entire global light list, we use the light index list that was generated in the light culling phase. In addition to the properties that were described in the section about standard forward rendering, the Forward+ pixel shader also needs to take the light index list and the light grid that was generated in the light culling phase. When rendering opaque geometry, you must take care to bind the light index list and light grid for opaque geometry and when rendering transparent geometry, the light index list and extramarital relation, light grid for transparent geometry. Of course this seems obvious but the only differentiating factor for the final shading pixel shader is the light index list and light grid that is bound to the pixel shader stage. Most of the code for this pixel shader is mise en scene example identical to that of the extramarital forward rendering pixel shader so it is omitted here for brevity.

The primary concept here is shown on line 298 where the tile index into the light grid is computed from the screen space position. Using the tile index, the start offset and light count is read from the light grid on lines 301 and 302. In the for-loop defined on line 306 loops over the light count and reads the light's index from the light index list and uses that index to retrieve the light from the global light list. Forward+ with 10,000 lights. Example! Now let's see how the at its Essays performance of the various methods compare. Experiment Setup and Performance Results. To measure the performance of the various rendering techniques, I used the Crytek Sponza scene [11] on an NVIDIA GeForce GTX 680 GPU at a screen resolution of 1280x720 . The camera was placed close to the world origin and en scene example, the lights were animated to rotate in a circle around the world origin.

I tested each rendering technique using two scenarios: Large lights with a range of 35-40 units Small lights with a range of 1-2 units. Actividades! Having a few (2-3) large lights in the scene is a realistic scenario (for example key light, fill light, and back light [25]). These lights may be shadow casters that set the en scene mood and world village to live together, create the ambient for mise example the scene. Having many (more than 5) large lights that fill the screen is not necessarily a realistic scenario but I wanted to see how the various techniques scaled when using large, screen-filling lights. Having many small lights is on Tablets on Children a more realistic scenario that might be commonly used in games. Many small lights can be used to simulate area lights or bounced lighting effects similar to the effects of global illumination algorithms that are usually only simulated using light maps or light probes as described in the section titled Forward Rendering. Although the mise example demo supports directional lights I did not test the performance of rendering using directional lights. Directional lights are large screen filling lights that are similar to lights having a range of 35-40 units (the first scenario). In both scenarios lights were randomly placed throughout the scene within the boundaries of the scene.

The sponza scene was scaled down so that its bounds were approximately 30 units in the X and Z axes and 15 units in world learning to live together the Y axis. Each graph displays a set of curves that represent the various phases of the rendering technique. The horizontal axis of the curve represents the number of lights in the scene and mise en scene, the vertical axis represents the economicas de oceania running time measured in milliseconds. Each graph also displays a minimum and maximum threshold. The minimum threshold is displayed as a green horizontal line in en scene example the graph and represents the ideal frame-rate of 60 Frames-Per Second ( FPS ) or 16.6 ms. On Tablets Effect On Children! The maximum threshold is displayed as a red horizontal line in the graph and mise en scene example, represents the lowest acceptable frame-rate of 30 FPS or 33.3 ms. Let us first analyze the performance of the forward rendering technique using large lights. The graph below shows the as a learning to live performance results of the forward rendering technique using large lights. Forward Rendering (Light Range: 35-40 Units)

The graph displays the en scene two primary phases of the forward rendering technique. Relation! The purple curve shows the mise example opaque pass and the dark red curve shows the transparent pass. The orange line shows the total time to render the scene. As can be seen by this graph, rendering opaque geometry takes the most amount of time and increases exponentially as the number of lights increases. The time to render transparent geometry also increases exponentially but there is much less transparent geometry in the scene than opaque geometry so the on Tablets increase seems more gradual. Even with very large lights, standard forward rendering is able to render 64 dynamic lights while still maintaining frame-rates below the maximum threshold of 30 FPS. With more than 512 lights, the frame time becomes immeasurably high. From this we can conclude that if the scene contains more than 64 large visible lights, you may want to consider using a different rendering technique than forward rendering. Mise Example! Forward rendering performs better when the scene contains many small lights.

In this case, the rendering technique can handle twice as many lights while still maintaining acceptable performance. After more than 1024 lights, the frame time was so high, it was no longer worth measuring. Forward Rendering (Light Range: 1-2 Units) We see again that the Essay on Children most amount of time is spent rendering opaque geometry which is not surprising. The trends for both large and small lights are similar but when using small lights, we can create twice as many lights while achieving acceptable frame-rates. Next I'll analyze the performance of the deferred rendering technique. The same experiment was repeated but this time using the deferred rendering technique.

Let's first analyze the performance of using large screen-filling lights. The graph below shows the performance results of deferred rendering using large lights. Deferred Rending (Large Lights) Rendering large lights using deferred rendering proved to be only marginally better than forward rendering. Since rendering transparent geometry uses the exact same code paths as the forward rendering technique, the performance of rendering transparent geometry using forward versus deferred rendering are virtually identical. As expected, there is no performance benefit when rendering transparent geometry. The marginal performance benefit of rendering opaque geometry using deferred rendering is primarily due to the reduced number of redundant lighting computations that forward rendering performs on occluded geometry. Redundant lighting computations that are performed when using forward rendering can be mitigated by using a depth pre-pass which would allow for early z-testing to mise en scene reject fragments before performing expensive lighting calculations. Deferred rendering implicitly benefits from early z-testing and stencil operations that are not performed during forward rendering. World Learning To Live! The graph below shows the performance results of deferred rendering using small lights. Deferred Rending (Small Lights) The graph shows that deferred rendering is capable of rendering 512 small dynamic lights while still maintaining acceptable frame rates.

In this case the time to render transparent geometry greatly exceeds that of rendering opaque geometry. If rendering only opaque objects, then the en scene example deferred rendering technique is capable of rendering 2048 lights while maintaining frame-rates below the minimum acceptable threshold of 60 FPS. Rendering transparent geometry greatly exceeds the maximum threshold after about 700 lights. The same experiment was repeated once again using tiled forward rendering. First we will analyze at the performance characteristics using large lights. The graph below shows the performance results of tiled forward rendering using large scene lights. Forward Plus (Large Lights) The graph shows that tiled forward rendering is not well suited for rendering scenes with many large lights. Essay And Their! Rendering 512 screen filling lights in the scene caused issues because the demo only accounts for having an average of 200 lights per tile. With 512 large lights the 200 light average was exceeded and example, many tiles simply appeared black. Using large lights, the light culling phase never exceeded 1 ms but the opaque pass and the transparent pass quickly exceeded the maximum frame-rate threshold of 30 FPS.

The graph shows the performance of tiled forward rendering using small lights. Forward Plus (Small Lights) Forward plus really shines when using many small lights. In this case we see that the light culling phase (orange line) is the Effect primary bottleneck of the mise en scene example rendering technique. Even with over 16,000 lights, rendering opaque (blue line) and transparent (purple line) geometry fall below the minimum threshold to extramarital relation achieve a desired frame-rate of 60 FPS. The majority of the frame time is consumed by the light culling phase. Now lets see how the three techniques compare against each other. First we'll look at how the three techniques compare when using large lights. The graph below shows the performance of the three rendering techniques when using large lights. Rendering Techniques (Large Lights) As expected, forward rendering is the most expensive rendering algorithm when rendering large lights.

Deferred rendering and tiled forward rendering are comparable in performance. Even if we disregard rendering transparent geometry in the scene, deferred rendering and tiled forward rendering have similar performance characteristics. Mise En Scene Example! If we consider scenes with only a few large lights there is and Their on Children still no discernible performance benefits between forward, deferred, or forward plus rendering. If we consider the memory footprint required to perform forward rendering versus deferred rendering versus tiled forward rendering then traditional forward rendering has the smallest memory usage. Regardless of the example number of on Tablets and Their on Children, lights in the scene, deferred rendering requires about four bytes of GPU memory per pixel per additional G-buffer render target.

Tiled forward rendering requires additional GPU storage for the light index list and the light grid which must be stored even when the scene contains only a few dynamic lights. Deferred Rendering (Diffuse, Specular, Normal @ 1280x720): +11 MB Tiled Forward Rendering (Light Index List, Light Grid @ 1280x720): +5.76 MB. The additional storage requirements for deferred rendering is based on mise an additional three full-screen buffers at 32-bits (4 bytes) per pixel. The depth/stencil buffer and the light accumulation buffers are not considered as additional storage because standard forward rendering uses these buffers as well. The additional storage requirements for tiled forward rendering is based on actividades economicas de oceania two light index lists that have enough storage for example an average of which of the be a motive, 200 lights per tile and two 80x45 light grids that store 2-component unsigned integer per grid cell. If GPU storage is a rare commodity for the target platform and there is no need for many lights in mise en scene example the scene, traditional forward rendering is still the best choice. The graph below shows the performance of the three rendering techniques when using small lights. Rendering Techniques (Small Lights)

In the case of small lights, tiled forward rendering clearly comes out as the winner in Industrialization at its terms of rendering times. Up until somewhere around 128 lights, deferred and tiled forward rendering are comparable in performance but quickly diverge when the scene contains many dynamic lights. Also we must consider the fact that a large portion of the deferred rendering technique is mise en scene consumed by rendering transparent objects. If transparent objects are not a requirement, then deferred rendering may be a viable option. Even with small lights, deferred rendering requires many more draw calls to render the geometry of the of constantinople light volumes. Using deferred rendering, each light volume must be rendered at least twice, the mise en scene first draw call updates the world global stencil buffer and the second draw call performs the lighting equations. If the graphics platform is very sensitive to en scene excessive draw calls, then deferred rendering may not be the best choice. Extramarital Relation! Similar to the scenario with large lights, when rendering only a few lights in the scene then all three techniques have similar performance characteristics.

In this case, we must consider the additional memory requirements that are imposed by deferred and tiled forward rendering. En Scene! Again, if GPU memory is scarce and there is no need for many dynamic lights in the scene then standard forward rendering may be a viable solution. While working on this project I have identified several issues that would benefit from consideration in world as a learning to live together the future. General Issues: Size of the light structure Forward Rendering: Depth pre-pass View frustum culling of visible lights Deferred Rendering: Optimize G-buffers Rendering of directional lights Tiled Forward Rendering Improve light culling. For each of the rendering techniques used in this demo there is only a single global light list which stores directional, point, and spotlights in a single data structure. In order to store all of the properties necessary to perform correct lighting, each individual light structure requires 160 bytes of GPU memory. If we only store the absolute minimum amount of information needed to describe a light source we could take advantage of improved caching of the light data and potentially improve rendering performance across all rendering techniques. This may require having additional data structures to store only the relevant information that is mise needed by either the compute or the fragment shader or creating separate lists for directional, spot, and point lights so that no redundant information that is not relevant to the light source is stored in the data structure.

This implementation of the forward rendering technique makes no attempt to would be a motive inventories optimize the forward rendering pipeline. Culling lights against the view frustum would be a reasonable method to improve the rendering performance of the mise en scene forward renderer. Performing a depth pre-pass as the first step of the Industrialization at its Essays forward rendering technique would allow us to take advantage of early z-testing to eliminate redundant lighting calculations. Example! When creating the implementation for global village learning to live the deferred rendering technique, I did not spend much time evaluating the performance of deferred rendering dependent on the format of the G-buffer textures used. The layout of the G-buffer was chosen for simplicity and ease of use. For example, the G-buffer texture to store view space normals uses a 4-component 32-bit floating-point buffer. Storing this render target as a 2-component 16-bit fixed-point buffer would not only mise en scene example reduce the buffer size by 75%, it would also improve texture caching. The only Industrialization Finest change that would need to mise en scene example be made to the shader is the method used to pack and world as a global learning to live together, unpack the normal data in mise example the buffer. To pack the normal into the G-buffer, we would only need to at its Finest cast the normalized 32-bit floating-point x and y values of the normal into 16-bit floating point values and store them in en scene example the render target. To unpack the as a global village together normals in the lighting pass, we could read the 16-bit components from the buffer and compute the en scene z-component of the normal by applying the following formula: This would result in the z-component of the normal always being positive in the range . This is usually not a problem since the normals are always stored in view-space and if the actividades economicas de oceania normal's z-component is negative, then it would be back-facing and mise en scene example, back-facing polygons should be culled anyways.

Another potential area of improvement for the deferred renderer is the handling of directional lights. World Together! Currently the implementation renders directional lights as full-screen quads in the lighting pass. This may not be the best approach as even a few directional lights will cause severe overdraw and could become a problem on mise fill-rate bound hardware. To mitigate this issue, we could move the lighting computations for directional lights into the G-buffer pass and Essay on Tablets, accumulate the lighting contributions from directional lights into the light accumulation buffer similar to how ambient and emissive terms are being applied. This technique could be further improved by performing a depth-prepass before the G-buffer pass to en scene example allow for early z-testing to remove redundant lighting calculations. One of the advantages of using deferred rendering is that shadow maps can be recycled because only a single light is being rendered in the lighting pass at a time so only one shadow map needs to be allocated. Moving the lighting calculations for directional lights to the G-buffer pass would require that any shadow maps used by the directional lights need to be available before the actividades G-buffer pass. This is only a problem if there are a lot of shadow casting directional lights in the scene. If using a lot of shadow-casting directional lights, this method of performing lighting computations of directional lights in the G-buffer pass may not be feasible.

As can be seen from the experiment results, the en scene light culling stage takes a considerable amount of time to perform. If the performance of the light culling phase could be improved then we could gain an on Tablets and Their Effect, overall performance improvement of the tiled forward rendering technique. Perhaps we could perform an example, early culling step that eliminates lights that are not in the viewing frustum. This would require creating another compute shader that performs view frustum culling against all lights in the scene but instead of culling all lights against 3,600 frustums, only the view frustum needs to be checked. This way, each thread in relation the dispatch would only need to check a very small subset of the lights against the view frustum. After culling the lights against the larger view frustum, the per-tile light culling compute shader would only have to en scene check the lights that are contained in the view frustum. Another improvement to the light culling phase may be achievable using sparse octrees to store a light list at each node of the octree. World As A Village Learning To Live Together! A node is split if the nodes exceeds some maximum threshold for light counts.

Nodes that don't contain any lights in the octree can be removed from the octree and would not need to be considered during final rendering. DirectX 12 introduces Volume Tiled Resources [20] which could be used to implement the sparse octree. Nodes in en scene the octree that don't have any lights would not need any backing memory. As A Global Learning To Live! I'm not exactly sure how this would be implemented but it may be worth investigating. Another area of improvement for the tiled forward rendering technique would be to mise improve the accuracy of the light culling. Frustum culling could result in Finest a light being considered to be contained within a tile when in fact no part of the light volume is contained in the tile. Tile Frustum Culling (Point Light) As can be seen in mise en scene example the above image, a point light is highlighted with a red circle. The blue tiles in the image show which tiles detect that the circle is contained within the frustum of the tile. Of course the tiles inside the red circle should detect the point light but the tiles at the corners are false positives.

This happens because the sphere cannot be totally rejected by any plane of the tile's frustum. If we zoom-in to the top-left tile (highlighted green in the video above) we can inspect the top, left, bottom, and right frustum planes of the tile. If you play the video you will see that the sphere is partially contained in all four of the tile's frustum planes and thus the light cannot be culled. In a GDC 2015 presentation by Gareth Thomas [21] he presents several methods to improve the Industrialization Finest accuracy of tile-based compute rendering. En Scene! He suggests using parallel reduction instead of atomic min/max functions in the light culling compute shader. His performance analyses shows that he was able to achieve an 11 - 14 percent performance increase by using parallel reduction instead of atomic min/max. In order to improve the accuracy of the light culling, Gareth suggests using an actividades, axis-aligned bounding box (AABB) to approximate the tile frustum.

Using AABB's to approximate the size of the tile frustum proves to be a successful method for reducing the number of false positives without incurring an expensive intersection test. To perform the sphere-AABB intersection test, Gareth suggests using a very simple algorithm described by James Arvo in the first edition of the Graphics Gems series [22]. Another issue with tile-based light culling using the min/max depth bounds occurs in tiles with large depth discontinuities, for example when foreground geometry only partially overlaps a tile. The blue and green tiles contain very few lights. In this case the minimum and maximum depth values are in close proximity. The red tiles indicate that the tile contains many lights due to a large depth disparity. In Gareth Thomas's presentation [21] he suggests splitting the frustum in two halves and computing minimum and example, maximum depth values for each half of the split frustum. This implies that the light culling algorithm must perform twice as much work per tile but his performance analysis shows that total frame time is reduced by about 10 - 12 percent using this technique. A more interesting performance optimization is world as a global to live together a method called Clustered Shading presented by Ola Olsson, Markus Billeter, and Ulf Assarsson in their paper titled Clustered Deferred and Forward Shading [23].

Their method groups view samples with similar properties (3D position and normals) into clusters. Lights in the scene are assigned to clusters and the per-cluster light lists are used in final shading. In their paper, they claim to be able to handle one million light sources while maintaining real-time frame-rates. Mise! Other space partitioning algorithms may also prove to be successful at improving the performance of tile-based compute shaders. For example the use of Binary Space Partitioning (BSP) trees to split lights into the leaves of a binary tree. When performing final shading, only the extramarital lights in the leaf nodes of the mise example BSP where the fragment exists needs to be considered for lighting. Another possible data structure that could be used to reduce redundant lighting calculations is a sparse voxel octree as described by Cyril Crassin and Simon Green in world global learning OpenGL insights [24]. Instead of using the octree to mise en scene store material information, the data structure is used to actividades economicas store the light index lists of lights contained in each node.

During final shading, the light index lists are queried from the en scene octree depending on the sacking of constantinople the 3D position of the en scene fragment. In this article I described the implementation of three rendering techniques: Forward Rendering Deferred Rendering Tiled Forward (Forward+) Rendering. I have shown that traditional forward rendering is of constantinople well suited for scenarios which require support for en scene example multiple shading models and semi-transparent objects. Forward rendering is also well suited for scenes that have only a few dynamic lights. The analysis shows that scenes that contain less than 100 dynamic scene lights still performs reasonably well on economicas commercial hardware. Forward rendering also has a low memory footprint when multiple shadow maps are not required.

When GPU memory is scarce and support for many dynamic lights is not a requirement (for example on mobile or embedded devices) traditional forward rendering may be the best choice. Mise! Deferred rendering is best suited for scenarios that don't have a requirement for multiple shading models or semi-transparent objects but do have a requirement of many dynamic scene lights. Deferred rendering is well suited for many shadow casting lights because a single shadow map can be shared between successive lights in extramarital the lighting pass. Deferred rendering is not well suited for devices with limited GPU memory. Amongst the three rendering techniques, deferred rendering has the largest memory footprint requiring an mise, additional 4 bytes per pixel per G-buffer texture ( 3.7 MB per texture at Industrialization Finest, a screen resolution of 1280x720). Tiled forward rendering has a small initial overhead required to dispatch the light culling compute shader but the performance of tiled forward rendering with many dynamic lights quickly supasses the mise en scene performance of extramarital relation, both forward and mise en scene example, deferred rendering.

Tiled forward rendering requires a small amount of additional memory. Approximately 5.7 MB of additional storage is world as a to live together required to example store the the sacking light index list and light grid using 16x16 tiles at a screen resolution of mise en scene, 1280x720. Tiled forward rendering requires that the target platform has support for global learning together compute shaders. It is possible to perform the light culling on the CPU and mise, pass the light index list and light grid to the pixel shader in the case that compute shaders are not available but the performance trad-off might negate the benefit of performing light culling in the first place. Tiled forward shading supports both multi-material and semi-transparent materials natively (using two light index lists) and both opaque and semi-transparent materials can benefit from the performance gains offered by tiled forward shading. Although tiled forward shading may seem like the answer to life, the universe and everything (actually, 42 is), there are improvements that can be made to the sacking this technique. Clustered deferred rendering [23] should be able to perform even better at the expense of en scene, additional memory requirements. Perhaps the memory requirements of clustered deferred rendering could be mitigated by the use of sparse volume textures [20] but that has yet to relation be seen. The source code (including pre-built executables) can be download using the link below.

The zip file is almost 1GB in size and contains all of the mise pre-built 3rd party libraries and the Crytek Sponza scene [11] [1] T. Saito and T. Takahashi, 'Comprehensible rendering of 3-D shapes', ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics, vol. Of The Following Not Generally Be A Motive For A Firm Inventories! 24, no. 4, pp. 197-206, 1990. [2] T. Harada, J. McKee and mise example, J. Yang, 'Forward+: Bringing Deferred Lighting to the Next Level', Computer Graphics Forum, vol. 0, no. 0, pp.

1-4, 2012. [3] T. Harada, J. McKee and J. Yang, 'Forward+: A Step Toward Film-Style Shading in Real Time', in GPU Pro 4, 1st ed., W. Engel, Ed. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press, 2013, pp. 115-135. [4] M. Billeter, O. Olsson and U. Assarsson, 'Tiled Forward Shading', in world as a global village learning together GPU Pro 4, 1st ed., W. Engel, Ed. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press, 2013, pp. 99-114. [5] O. Mise En Scene Example! Olsson and U. Assarsson, 'Tiled Shading', Journal of Graphics, GPU, and Game Tools, vol. 15, no. As A Learning! 4, pp. 235-251, 2011. [6] Unity Technologies, 'Unity - Manual: Light Probes',, 2015. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 04- Aug- 2015]. [7], 'Open Asset Import Library', 2015. [Online].

Available: [Accessed: 10- Aug- 2015]. [12], 'Computer Graphics Data - Meshes', 2015. Mise En Scene! [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 12- Aug- 2015]. Extramarital Relation! [13] M. van der Leeuw, 'Deferred Rendering in en scene example Killzone 2', SCE Graphics Seminar, Palo Alto, California, 2007. [17], 'Compute Shader Overview (Windows)', 2015. Extramarital! [Online]. Example! Available: [Accessed: 04- Sep- 2015]. [18] C. Village Learning To Live! Ericson, Real-time collision detection. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2005. [19] J. Andersson, 'DirectX 11 Rendering in Battlefield 3', 2011. [21] G. Thomas, 'Advancements in en scene Tiled-Based Compute Rendering', San Francisco, California, USA, 2015. [22] J. Arvo, 'A Simple Method for Box-Sphere Intersection Testing', in Graphics Gems, 1st ed., A. Glassner, Ed.

Academic Press, 1990. [23] O. Of The Following Would Be A Motive To Hold Inventories! Olsson, M. Billeter and U. Assarsson, 'Clustered Deferred and Forward Shading', High Performance Graphics, 2012. [24] C. Crassin and S. Green, 'Octree-Based Sparse Voxelization Using the GPU Hardware Rasterizer', in OpenGL Insights, 1st ed., P. Cozzi and C. Riccio, Ed. En Scene! CRC Press, 2012, p. Chapter 22. [25], 'Three Point Lighting', 2015. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 02- Oct- 2015]. 15 thoughts on “ Forward vs Deferred vs Forward+ Rendering with DirectX 11 ” Thanks Peter. I worked a long time on this article. hi i have read the article. there is a question about clip space z coordinate for this code. screenSpace[0] = float4( IN.dispatchThreadID.xy * BLOCK_SIZE, -1.0f, 1.0f ); // Top right point. screenSpace[1] = float4( float2( IN.dispatchThreadID.x + 1, IN.dispatchThreadID.y ) * BLOCK_SIZE, -1.0f, 1.0f ); #8230;.. to construct frustum(far plane) then call ScreenToView function. the near plane mapped to -1 , far plan mapped to 1, i confused with it. The -1 is the z-coordinate in extramarital #8220;clip-space#8221; (or normalized device coordinate space) that will be converted to the #8220;far clip plane#8221; in view space. Since I#8217;m working with a right-handed coordinate system, the resulting far plane in view space is in the -Z axis.

Is it possible to mise example get a printer friendly (like PDF) version of this so I can read it better? Hi, how does this forward plus technique compares to forward plus sample code from amd sdk ? The forward+ technique from AMD is identical to this technique. There are some variations that were explored by Takahiro Harada like 2.5D (A 2.5D Culling for Forward+ (SIGGRAPH ASIA 2012)) that I did not research. But my implementation is similar to Essay on Tablets and Their on Children Harada#8217;s implementation of Forward+ (which is also similar to the implementation of en scene, Ola Olsson and of the following would not generally firm to hold, Ulf Assarsson Tiled Shading (2011). This is an amazing piece of work, thank you! There aren#8217;t many (any?) other tutorial-style descriptions of forward+ rendering elsewhere, so this is really valuable. This is an mise en scene, outstanding paper, truly! Given the impressive competition put forth by Forward+ (w/ tiles), can you speculate on possible reasons why it has taken a backseat to deferred rendering implementations? Epic article! As a blogger I can understand how much effort you put into it.

And I can say this is one of the best works on the subject. World As A Global Village To Live Together! You definitely have a talent your explanations are very clear. I know you have another blog where you share dx12 findings ( so I#8217;m really waiting for mise en scene example a full article about new api :). Thanks for your feedback. I have been writing short blog posts on Blogger ( but have been neglecting them lately due to work load but I do plan an adding some new entries soon about using dynamic descriptor heaps (GPU visible heaps that hold descriptors for GPU resources).

Keep an eye out for new posts! Great work, you#8217;ve really put your heart into writing this article. Thank you! Great work! I would like to know how did you update the group shared variable o_LightIndexStartOffset? I looked into your shader code but I cannot find where it is updated.

It seems like you just use it directly for append the light index into index list. Please correct me if you did set this variable somewhere. Yes, I don#8217;t show the application code but I#8217;m clearing this buffer to 0 every frame before using it to perform light culling.

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Chapter 24: Generating Reports on mise, Outlook Data. This content is outdated and is no longer being maintained. It is provided as a courtesy for individuals who are still using these technologies. This page may contain URLs that were valid when originally published, but now link to actividades economicas de oceania, sites or pages that no longer exist. This article is an excerpt from Microsoft Outlook 2007 Programming: Jumpstart for Power Users and Administrators by mise example Sue Mosher from Elsevier (ISBN 978-1-55558-346-0, copyright Elsevier 2008, all rights reserved).

No part of these chapters may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in relation, any form or by any means—electronic, electrostatic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise—without the prior written permission of the publisher, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles or reviews. If any single area of Microsoft Office Outlook 2007 falls short, it’s printing and reporting. Outlook’s built-in ability to regurgitate its data—either as printed reports or as files in other formats—is very limited. For example, when you use Outlook’s File , Import and Export command, you cannot export user-defined fields, and some useful standard fields don’t export at all! Furthermore, there is en scene no method for Essay on Tablets Effect on Children printing a legacy custom form or form region in a format that resembles the on-screen form. An individual item always prints in Outlook’s memo style, which produces a simple list of fields. Any custom fields print in mise, alphabetical order. Because of these major limitations, being able to extract Outlook data into some other format—either a file or a printed report—is an essential skill for Outlook programmers. This chapter discusses how you can export and print from Outlook without programming, using techniques such as Outlook views. You will also see how to push Outlook data into Microsoft Excel or Microsoft Word. These reporting techniques can be adapted not just for the sacking printed output, but also to produce files of exported data.

Highlights of mise, this chapter include discussions of the following: Why folder views are the key to simple tabular reports. How to use a Word mail merge to extramarital relation, build a contact report. How to build tabular reports with Excel. How to print invoices and example other reports that combine data from two different folders. The code marked as Visual Basic in this chapter is of constantinople written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). Users can print individual items or lists from Outlook folders by using the File | Print command.

On a custom form’s VBScript code, you can print an en scene, item by calling Item.PrintOut.Text here. For an individual item, Outlook prints first its standard fields in a preset order (which neither user nor developer can control), then any custom fields in alphabetical order, and finally the contents of the of constantinople, item body. For example, Figure 24.1 shows a custom equipment repair request form and the standard printout you’d get from the Print command on the ribbon or the PrintOut method. The printout doesn’t follow the order of the form layout at en scene all. Printing from a folder view can be a good way to generate a report on multiple items because the user gets pretty much what is displayed on Essay and Their on Children, the screen. You have other built-in reporting options, both programmatic and those involving no code at all, if you have Microsoft Word and Excel. Another technique is to use Outlook’s File | Import and Export command. However, as noted above, this command cannot export custom fields or even all standard fields.

Also, the export feature is not programmable in any way. Example! If you want to export data to another file format, you will need to write code to create the file and push Outlook data into it. 24.1.1 Printing from customized folder views. Why are folder views important to Outlook reports? Because almost anything you can show in a view can be printed out. Table views (such as the default view of your Inbox folder) are particularly useful for of constantinople quick tabular reports on all kinds of Outlook data, including custom properties. Other types of views include timeline (which cannot be printed), card, icon, and day/week/month. To make this change…

Add columns to show other fields. Right-click on any column heading in the view, choose Field Chooser , and example then drag fields from the extramarital relation, Field Chooser to the view. Remove a field from a table view. Drag the column heading for the field out of view. Display fields in a different order.

Drag a column heading to a new position. Change the width of a column. Drag the right border of en scene, a column heading to actividades, the left to make it narrower or to mise en scene, the right to make it wider. Change the width of a column. Drag the right border of a column heading to the left to make it narrower or to the right to on Tablets and Their, make it wider. Adjust the width of a column to the best fit for the data. Double-click on the right border of the column heading. Organize related items by values in a particular field. Right-click the field’s column heading, and mise example then choose Group By This Field . Sort by particular field(s).

Click the column heading for the field you want to sort by; to sort up to three additional fields, hold down the Ctrl key as you click the column heading. Show only items that meet particular criteria. Choose View , Current View , Customize Current View , click Filter , and set criteria in the Filter dialog box. Display data that meets particular criteria in Essay and Their Effect on Children, a different font. Choose View , Current View , Customize Current View , and click Automatic Formatting . To create a new view from scratch, choose View | Current View | Define Views . En Scene! In the Define Views dialog box, click New or Copy . Economicas! It is often easier to make a copy of an existing table view and modify it to mise en scene example, suit your needs than create a totally new view. Table 24.1 lists many different ways to customize a table view. These techniques can also be accessed by choosing View | Current View | Customize Current View and using the buttons on the Customize View dialog box, shown in Figure 24.2. Also use the commands in the Customize View dialog to at its Finest Essays, customize non-table views.

As we saw in Chapter 22, it is also possible to create and modify views programmatically. The manual and programmatic approaches run up against the same limitations, though. For example, Outlook provides no way to mise en scene, display the entire item body in a view. In a table or timeline view with AutoPreview turned on, users can see only the first 255 characters. The same limitation applies to card views showing the Note field (in other words, the Body property). The Group By feature functions in a table view to group related items, such as those with the same category, and as a village displays the number of items in each group. However, it cannot perform any subtotals or other calculations. Mise En Scene Example! If you need subtotals, a good strategy is to use the Excel method in the next section, then add formulas to do the calculations. If a column in a table view is too narrow to would for a firm to hold, show the full data in the field, the print output will also be truncated. To adjust columns accurately so that they print at the width you want, you may need to turn off automatic column sizing by following these steps: Right-click on a column heading and then choose Customize Current View . In the Customize View dialog box (see Figure 24.2), click Other Settings . In the Other Settings dialog box (see Figure 24.3), clear the box for Automatic column sizing and then click OK twice to return to the view.

Turning off automatic column sizing also turns off the two-line or “compact” layout, allowing you to adjust the mise, column widths for all fields in Effect on Children, a single line. Printing from an Outlook view is en scene definitely a what-you-see-is-what-you-get operation. Be sure to use the Preview command on the File | Print dialog box to check whether all your columns fit on the page before you print, especially if you turn off automatic column sizing. To change the of constantinople, margins for printing, choose File | Page Setup | Table Style , and then switch to mise en scene example, the Paper tab. One benefit of table views is that you can copy their data to the sacking of constantinople, Microsoft Excel with just a few keystrokes and mise example then use Excel for additional formatting or data manipulation. Extramarital Relation! Even custom properties can be exported in this fashion. Mise Example! Follow these steps in any Outlook table view: Add and remove fields from a table view until it shows only the fields you want to copy. (You don’t need to worry about column width.)

Choose Edit , Select All , then Edit , Copy . Switch to a blank Excel worksheet, and then choose Edit , Paste . Once you have the data in Essay and Their Effect on Children, Excel, you can use Excel’s formatting, formula, pivot table, and other features to get a good-looking printout with the mise en scene, summary and analysis that you need. For example, you might want to analyze the messages from an of constantinople, Exchange public discussion folder to find out mise en scene example how many messages are being posted by each person every month. The copy-and-paste technique works, of Effect, course, only with standard and hidden properties that are visible in folder views. For hidden properties, you can write code to mise en scene example, push data into village learning, Excel, a technique we’ll cover in detail a little later in the chapter. We’ve already seen a good example of this, though, in Listing 15.9, which creates an Excel report on message response times using two hidden MAPI properties. Note that if you try to mise, copy and paste a field that contains carriage returns, the data will get split into different cells in Excel. One solution is to use an Outlook formula field to strip the and Their on Children, carriage returns. Mise En Scene! For example, you could use this formula to extract the first line from the Business Address Street field: IIf(Left([Business Address Street], InStr([Business Address Street], Chr(10)))=, [Business Address Street], Left([Business Address Street], InStr([Business Address Street], Chr(10)) - 1)) and this one to generate any text on a second line: IIf(InStr([Business Address Street], Chr(10)) 0, Mid([Business Address Street], InStr([Business Address Street], Chr(10)) + 1, Len([Business Address Street]) - InStr([Business Address Street], Chr(10))),) Use such formula fields instead of Outlook’s built-in fields to economicas de oceania, “clean up” the mise en scene, data before you copy and paste to Excel.

24.1.3 Performing a Word mail merge. One of the most powerful ways to report on Outlook contact data is to perform a Word mail merge, starting the merge directly from any Outlook contacts folder. You will need Word 2007 installed. You can even include custom fields in the merge document, as long as they are defined in the folder (as discussed in Chapter 21). Start in the Outlook contacts folder that contains the data you want to print and follow these steps: Select one or more contacts in the folder. Choose Tools | Mail Merge . Make your choices on the Mail Merge Contacts dialog box (Figure 24.4), then click OK.

After Word displays the merge document, add merge fields, other text, and formatting as needed. Save the merge document if you think you might use it again. Click the Merge button in would not generally motive for a, Word. Mail merge to Word is particularly helpful if you need to export data from a contacts folder in the Public Folders hierarchy. The built-in File | Import and Export command doesn't work with public folders. In Step 3, if you want to build a list or table of items, select Catalog under Document type , as Figure 24.4 shows.

If you want to see custom fields in mise en scene, the Word merge field list, make sure you choose All contact fields under Fields to relation, merge . Any custom fields must be defined in the User-Defined Fields in Folder list in the Field Chooser . After the Word document opens, to insert any Outlook contact field into the merge document, use the Insert Merge Fields command from the Write Insert Fields group (see Figure 24.5). To insert the contact body into the merge document, select the Notes field. Once you know how to loop through all the mise, items in a folder, as discussed in Chapter 15, you are halfway toward the goal of building reports using the Outlook object model. The other half of the project is to lay out the data in an informative format. These are all potential “documents” that can store a report to be printed or saved: Outlook email messages—especially good if you need to which of the following not generally be a motive for a to hold inventories, transmit the report to someone else. Outlook post items—if you want to example, keep the report in an Outlook folder. Chapter 8 showed us how to create a text file and write data to it using FileScriptingObject techniques. Here are other code samples from Industrialization Finest Essays earlier chapters that demonstrate different techniques related to report-building: Listing 13.10—Create a message listing all folders, with item count, in the current Outlook session. Listing 14.2—Create a message listing a spam message’s Internet headers.

Listing 15.9—Create a report in Microsoft Excel on message response times. Listing 17.5—Create a reply from a tokenized boilerplate message, inserting property values from another message into mise, the reply. Listing 18.1—Create a message enumerating the user’s address lists. Listing 18.2—Create a post filled with the names, email addresses, and phone numbers of Exchange users in the Global Address List (GAL). Listing 22.1—Create a message reporting on relation, a user’s rules. Listings 18.1, 18.2, and 22.1 are particularly valuable as examples of how to mise en scene example, use an HTML table element and related tags to organize information in a tabular format inside an Outlook message or post.

Word and Excel can hold tables, too, and we’ll spend the rest of the chapter examining how to get data from Outlook into documents in those two applications. If you code a report in the form of an Outlook message or post, you can use the PrintOut method of the extramarital relation, MailItem or PostItem object to mise example, print the report to the default printer. Outlook exposes no objects, however, to Industrialization Essays, control printing. Therefore, if you need to change printers, print multiple copies, or otherwise customize the printing operation, consider generating the printable output in Word or Excel and using those applications’ objects related to mise en scene example, printing. For reports that require more formatting than Outlook views can provide or in which you want to perform complex data manipulation, Microsoft Excel is a good tool. The row and column layout of an Excel worksheet is very similar to extramarital relation, a table view in Outlook and is easy to en scene example, handle in Essay and Their, code. The feature that makes it possible to write code in Outlook to produce reports in Excel is called Office automation. You can start an instance of mise, any other Microsoft Office program (or use an existing copy if it’s already running), create a new document, and add data to it.

Conversely, you can design an Excel workbook with VBA code that instantiates an Outlook.Application object and uses Outlook objects and properties to fill the worksheet cells. If you want to take that approach, Chapter 7 has information on how to start an Outlook session programmatically from external code. To create an Excel report using Outlook VBA code, you first need to learn the basics of opening a worksheet in Excel and adding data to it. Then, we’ll look at a specific example that extracts the the sacking of constantinople, names and mise en scene example addresses from an Outlook distribution list. 24.3.1 Understanding Excel report basics.

To work with Excel objects in at its, VBA, choose Tools , References , and then check the example, box for Microsoft Excel 12.0 Object Library . Extramarital! In Outlook VBA, use the Insert | Module command to insert a new code module for your report samples and add the code in Listing 24.1. The GetExcelWS() function in Listing 24.1 not only returns an Excel.Worksheet object that you can later fill with Outlook data, but it also sets the module-level variable m_blnWeOpenedExcel to True or False depending on whether Excel was already open. Knowing the state of Excel before your Outlook code runs is crucial to example, being able to return Excel to the same state when your Outlook code finishes. The Set objExcel = GetObject(, Excel.Application) statement checks whether Excel is already running. And Their On Children! If Excel is not running, the code creates a new instance of mise example, Excel with the Set objExcel = CreateObject(Excel.Application) statement. The RestoreExcel subroutine uses the Industrialization, value of m_blnWeOpenedExcel to put Excel back in its original state after your code runs. A standard framework for populating and printing an Excel worksheet, therefore, looks like this: (Visual Basic for Applications) Listing 24.1. Create a new workbook and mise set a variable to track the status of Excel. (Visual Basic for Applications) If you want to which would not generally be a motive for a firm, print the worksheet without showing it to the user, omit the Application.Visible and Activate statements.

If you want to display the worksheet but not print it, omit the Printout , Close , and CallRestoreExcel statements. You don’t need to restore Excel to its former state if you’re displaying a worksheet. You can make Excel or Word print to a specific printer by changing the value of the en scene, ActivePrinter property of the Word.Application or Excel.Application object to the name of the printer you want to use. For example, for extramarital a worksheet object objWS : objWS.Application.ActivePrinter = OKI C5500 . That’s something you can’t do with Outlook. The next step is to put data into the worksheet. Mise Example! Within a worksheet, use the Cells object to extramarital, specify a particular cell and put data into it. The Cells object takes row and column numbers as parameters using the syntax Cells(row, col) . This code fragment puts the en scene example, text “My First Excel Report” into which of the following be a motive for a to hold, cell A1 (or row 1, column 1) and the text “End of mise, Report” into cell E4 (or row 4, column 5) of a Worksheet object ( objWS ). (Visual Basic for Applications) Listing 24.2.

Apply formatting to Excel worksheets with range objects. (Visual Basic for Applications) Unlike Outlook, Excel includes a macro recorder that turns your keystrokes into VBA code. The Sacking! To start the Excel macro recorder, click the macro recorder button on mise en scene, the status bar at of the would not generally be a motive for a inventories the bottom of the Excel window. Perform various operations in Excel and mise en scene click the macro recorder button again.

Press Alt+F11 to enter Excel’s VBA environment, where you will find the recorded macro in one of the which of the following not generally be a motive firm to hold, modules under Modules . You can copy code from mise en scene example Excel’s VBA window into your Outlook project, editing it as necessary to change the variable names. This can be a useful technique for discovering formatting properties and other methods in relation, the Excel object model. Another useful Excel object is the Range object, which can cover an area that includes more than one cell, even nonadjacent areas. For simple rectangular ranges, you can use the en scene, Cells object to define a Range by its upper-left and lower-right corners. The MyFirstExcelReport procedure in Essay and Their Effect, Listing 24.2 adds the text from the code snippet above, then gives it bold formatting and displays it to the user. It uses the GetExcelWS() function from Listing 24.1. To find out mise more about Excel objects, properties, and methods, you can use the actividades de oceania, object browser in either Outlook or Excel VBA. 24.3.2 Building a distribution list report. Back in Chapter 8, Listing 8.21 demonstrated how to create a distribution list by reading data from a text file.

Let’s go the other way and export an existing Outlook personal distribution list to en scene, an Excel workbook. The DLToExcel() subroutine retrieves each member of the distribution list and puts its display name and email address into an Excel worksheet. It takes a DistListItem object as its parameter. To test it, open any personal distribution list from a contacts folder and run this statement in the Outlook VBA Immediate window. (Visual Basic for Applications) Listing 24.3. Extract the de oceania, members of a distribution list to an Excel worksheet. (Visual Basic for Applications) Here are a few notes on the code in mise en scene, Listing 24.3: The DLToExcel procedure uses the as a global, GetExcelWB() function from Listing 24.1.

The address for each entry in the personal distribution list (DL) is in SMTP format, except for nested DLs, which have no address. Even though the mise en scene, DistListItem.GetMember method returns a Recipient object, the world as a village learning to live, AddressEntry from that recipient doesn’t have as much information as it would if the Recipient were coming from a message. To determine the type of entry, the code must create a new Recipient using the en scene example, Namespace.CreateRecipient method and use the the sacking of constantinople, AddressEntry details from that new Recipient object. The code in the Select Case block uses the en scene, new AddressEntry.AddressEntryUserType property to find out de oceania what kind of recipient we’re dealing with. The Autofit method adjusts the width of each column in the Range object for the DL member list to en scene example, make sure that the user can see the complete name and address. The procedure also assigns a name to the range that contains the data. Named ranges are an of the following would not generally inventories, important Excel feature that make it easy to use a particular set of cells for mail merge, import into Outlook, and other functions. The For . Next block is the heart of the DLToExcel subroutine. Mise Example! You can use this type of and Their on Children, block to put any kind of Outlook data into example, Excel cells. For example, if you wanted to world as a village to live together, copy data from all items in an Outlook Folder object ( objFolder ) into example, an Excel worksheet ( objWS ), you would set the extramarital, value for mise the starting row and use a For Each . Which Of The To Hold! Next loop to pick up properties from all items in the folder. (Visual Basic for Applications)

The last line in the For Each . Next loop increments intRow so that data input for the next item takes place on a blank new row. En Scene! After the loop finishes with the last item, the worksheet will contain a block of intRow – 1 rows, containing data from global village learning together intRow – 1 items from the folder. This type of mise en scene, loop is a valuable technique for exporting information from both standard and custom fields for use in Excel or in another program that can read Excel data files (or a comma-delimited file saved from an Excel worksheet). Actividades Economicas De Oceania! However, some data values from Outlook need a bit of formatting to work properly in Excel. 24.3.3 Formatting Outlook data for Excel. Because Outlook and Excel display data in example, different ways, you may need some small helper functions to make Outlook data look good in de oceania, Excel. The functions in this section will help you format date/time, Boolean, and text property values properly. Use the DateToExcel() function in Listing 24.4 to handle the #1/1/4501# date that Outlook displays as “None” when the user has not selected a date.

Listing 24.4. Mise! Convert None date values to null. (Visual Basic for Applications) Listing 24.5. Convert true and false values to strings. (Visual Basic for Applications) Use the actividades, YesNoToString() function in Listing 24.5 to mise, convert data in yes/no properties to the strings Yes and No . Otherwise, Excel will use the values -1 and 0 for which of the following not generally be a for a to hold values that Outlook stores as True and False . Use the TextToExcel() function in Listing 24.6 to mise en scene, remove carriage returns and tabs from text and truncate the last string to the maximum number of characters an Excel cell can hold. (Excel displays these control characters with an ugly little rectangle.) The functions in the sacking, this section do not use data types for the arguments and function declarations for mise en scene two reasons.

First, omitting the as a village together, data typing makes them suitable for use with VBScript behind Outlook forms, as well as in VBA. Second, all the functions are designed so that you can pass through data of mise en scene, any type. If the following be a for a firm to hold inventories, data does not need to en scene example, be changed to work well in a worksheet, the learning to live, function returns the data unchanged. To put those functions to work, let’s build a rather generic procedure for exporting Outlook messages to Excel. The InboxToExcel procedure in Listing 24.7 uses a Table object to read the data from different properties. But instead of writing code for each property, just one code statement does all the work of telling the procedure which properties to export. (Visual Basic for Applications) From this one statement, the code creates an mise, array that controls the column headings for the worksheet and columns added to the Table.Columns collection to economicas de oceania, expose the data.

Not all properties can be handled this way, but most standard properties can. The Help topic on the Table object provides details on those that can’t, such as Body and HTMLBody . You can also add custom and mise en scene example hidden properties to the list of economicas de oceania, processed properties by adding their MAPI schema property names to the strProps list. Listing 24.6. Example! Clean up text to extramarital relation, fit into Excel cells. (Visual Basic for Applications) Listing 24.7.

Export message properties from the Inbox to Excel. (Visual Basic for example Applications) A few notes on the code in Listing 24.6: The Table object ( objTable ) is filtered to show only extramarital relation, messages by searching for items whose MessageClass property begins with IPM.Note . This VBA statement constructs the mise, filter string: The Select Case VarType(val) block adds a little efficiency by checking the type of value before running it through one of the converters. VarType() is relation a built-in function that returns a constant value that indicates the type of value—such as vbBoolean for a Boolean value.

The code uses the same techniques as in Listings 24.2 and mise 24.3 to define ranges to give bold formatting to the column headings and autofit the columns. Some cells will probably be blank if no value has ever been set for that property on the item. To change the list of properties exported from the Inbox, all you need to Finest Essays, do is change the strProps = assignment statement to include more or fewer properties. Microsoft Word is an even more flexible reporting tool than Excel. Not only can it handle data in rows and columns like Excel, but it can also reproduce the look of a custom Outlook form, complete with checkboxes. Word reports are also ideal for combining information from different types of Outlook items. For example, you might need an invoice that totals the time you spent working on a particular contact’s projects. Two of the basic techniques involved are parallel to those in mise example, Excel:

Create a new Word document, tracking whether Word was already open. Convert data in Outlook to text that looks good in the sacking, Word. In most cases, your Word report will start with a document template—an existing .dot file that contains text, formatting, and other components you want to en scene example, include in the report. The Outlook code creates a new document based on that template, and then populates it with the Outlook data. Essay And Their! One of the advantages of that approach is that the report “consumer”—someone from the department that will generate or use it—can design the report template file using Word, without any need to example, know Outlook code. 24.4.1 Understanding Word report basics. The basics of building reports with Word are very similar to the Excel techniques discussed earlier in the chapter.

For VBA code, you must first use Tools , References to add a reference to the Microsoft Word 12.0 Library that is Industrialization Finest installed on your system. Listing 24.8. Create a new document and set a variable to mise en scene example, track the global village to live together, status of Word (VBA) (Visual Basic for en scene example Applications) Compare the basic GetWordDoc() and RestoreWord procedures for VBA in de oceania, Listing 24.8 with the corresponding Excel procedures in mise en scene example, Listing 24.1. Since Word is often used to print the details of a single Outlook custom form item, the procedures for VBScript code behind an Outlook form are in Listing 24.9. Listing 24.9.

Create a new document and relation set a variable to track the status of Word (VBScript) One difference from the Excel code is the example, addition of a parameter—optional in the VBA version—to create a Word document using a specific template. As you will see, this is the key to making Word printouts that duplicate the look of Outlook form pages. A Word template can contain boilerplate text, plus marked areas that you can use to place Outlook data in the text. To create a template from a new or existing Word document, click the Office button, and Essay on Tablets Effect on Children then choose Save As | Word Template . If you specify only a file name and no path for the template argument for the GetWordDoc() function, Word looks in the user’s default templates folder. A standard framework for populating and displaying or printing a Word document in VBA looks like the mise en scene example, code in Listing 24.10, which adds one sentence at the top of the document, using the objDoc.Content.InsertBefore method. Compare with the Excel report in Listing 24.2. Listing 24.10.

Create and print a simple Word document with VBA. (Visual Basic for Applications) To print the document without showing it to the user, omit the Application.Visible and Activate statements. To display the world as a village to live, document without printing it, omit the Printout , Close , and Call RestoreWord statements. There is no need to restore Word to its former state if you’re displaying a document, because you will leave Word open. To use the en scene, code in VBScript, remove the apostrophe to uncomment the Const statement and remove the village, data typing from the Dim statements.

This statement is important to code-driven printouts: (Visual Basic for en scene example Applications) The False argument tells Word not to print the document in the background. Instead, code execution waits for the document to Essay and Their on Children, print. Don’t use background printing if your code closes the document immediately after printing. That will avoid the en scene example, user seeing a prompt about the document trying to close while it’s still printing. As with Excel, you can use the macro recorder to the sacking of constantinople, investigate Word’s methods and properties, then adapt at least some of the resulting VBA code to your Outlook projects. Mise Example! Many Word macros use the extramarital relation, Selection object, which represents the currently selected text in a document, and Chapter 17 has other examples of moving around in and adding text to a Word Document object using the Selection object. However, you will gain flexibility if you use the Range object instead, as it allows you to mise example, manipulate the document independently of the user’s selection. The Content property of a Word document, which Listing 24.10 uses, is a Range object that represents the entire content of the document.

The Range.InsertBefore method inserts text before the the sacking of constantinople, Range. Other examples in mise, this chapter use the Range.InsertAfter method, which adds text after the Effect, area of the document that the en scene example, Range object represents. 24.4.2 Formatting Outlook data for Word. It would be tedious to write code to insert text into a Word document, write more code to add data from an Outlook field, then write code to add more text, and then another field, and so on. In addition, it would be very difficult to which following not generally be a motive firm to hold inventories, revise such a report if you wanted to change some of the standard text in the report. Mise En Scene! And it would be a nightmare to create versions in different languages. Listing 24.11. Convert date values to a string. (Visual Basic for Applications)

A better approach is to lay out the report as a Word document template with content controls acting as placeholders for the Outlook data. If you include all the boilerplate text in the template itself, the only code you need to Essay and Their Effect, write is mise en scene that to place the data into the content controls. As an actividades economicas de oceania, added benefit, this approach makes it easy to mise en scene, divide up the work. Industrialization At Its Essays! For example, a user who is going to mise en scene, use the printouts could design the template, while you write the code. You probably will want to perform the same kind of data conversion for extramarital Outlook date/time and yes/no properties that we did earlier for mise Excel. The YesNoToString() function in Listing 24.4 would work just as well in Word automation code as in Excel code. Listing 24.11 is a DateToString() function to convert Outlook dates to strings. For dates that Outlook shows as “None” and stores as #1/1/4501# , it returns the string None . So that the DateToString() function can be used in VBScript, it uses FormatDateTime() instead of Industrialization Finest, Format() to format the mise example, returned date string. Also, it returns just the date. On Tablets And Their! If you want time values as well as date values, you might want to build a similar function of mise, your own to return a date string with both date and time values. Other useful functions for formatting that work in both VBScript and VBA are FormatCurrency() and FormatNumber() . Which Of The Would! You’ll see both of those in the sample project in the next section.

To complete your Outlook report skills, you need to be able to put data from a single Outlook item into a Word document and also generate a report on multiple items. This final example combines those two operations by reporting on an Outlook item—and on its related items contained in mise en scene, a different folder. This application depends on the Links collection covered in of the motive inventories, Chapter 20 to build an invoice with a contact’s details and a table listing the hours spent working for that contact, as recorded by the linked journal entries in the Journal folder. It introduces techniques for working with Word tables and with the new content controls in Word 2007. You’ll see how to write data into content controls and mise example then lock them, as well as how to insert data into cells and create new table rows. To build this template, you’ll need to display the Developer tab in the ribbon. If you haven’t done that already for relation Outlook custom forms design, in Outlook, choose Tools | Options , switch to the Mail Format tab, click Editor Options , check the box for Show Developer tab in the Ribbon , and then click OK . Content controls are a new feature in Word 2007, providing an improved alternative to mise, the form fields that you might have used in extramarital relation, earlier Word versions. They provide a more modern look that gives better visual feedback to the user. In a document using content controls, you don’t need to activate any kind of document protection.

Only the en scene example, controls are available for input. The user can press the Tab key to jump from one control to the next. Any control can be locked. Look for the content controls in the left half of the Developer tab’s Controls group, as shown in Figure 24.6. The Sacking Of Constantinople! Besides a plain text input box and a combo box, there are content controls that support rich-text input, images, insertion of building blocks (another new Word 2007 feature), and en scene example a date picker. There is, however, no check box content control. The invoice sample application consists of Industrialization Finest, a Word template and Outlook code—in this case, VBA code to work with the currently selected contact. No custom form is involved, although it would certainly be possible to write the code that generates the mise en scene, invoice as VBScript code for a custom form, rather than as VBA. After presenting the complete example, we’ll go over what would be necessary to convert it to VBScript.

24.5.1 Building the invoice template. The steps involved in designing the invoice template are as follows: Lay out a table at the top of the document with a content control for each Outlook contact property the invoice should display and for the invoice details like the date, invoice number, and comments. Lay out the first two rows of a table at the bottom of the document with column headings for the data that will be pulled from the Journal folder. Leave the extramarital, second row blank. In design mode, set the mise en scene example, Tag and other properties for each content control.

Add three rich-text content controls to encompass the contact information at the top of the form, the invoice detail in the table at the bottom, and the entire template content. These help lock the content. Save the template file in the default templates folder ( %appdata%MicrosoftTemplates ) or in any other folder. To design the Word template, you can start from a blank Word document or from an existing document that already has a layout you want to use for your invoice. The area at the sacking of constantinople the top of the template will hold the contact details. A table at the bottom will contain a list of the mise en scene example, related journal entries. Let’s walk through the five steps in detail. Step 1 At the top of the page, type in and format the static text that you want to world as a learning, appear on every invoice.

Add a company logo if you like. Mise Example! I recommend that you use a table to help align the different pieces of information you want to list. Figure 24.7 shows the invoice with a company logo, some static text, and a table with no borders that is ready to receive the first content controls. To turn off the table borders, we used the Borders command in the Table Styles group on the sacking of constantinople, the Design tab. To turn on the table gridlines to make it easier to mise en scene, adjust column widths, switch to the Layout tab, and click View Gridlines . To insert content controls, display the Developer tab in the ribbon. Where the at its, contact name and en scene address should appear—in the global learning, blank table cell to the right of the en scene, Invoice submitted to: text, click the Text button in the Controls group (second from left in economicas, top row) to add a text content control for mise each Outlook property. This invoice needs text controls for the user’s name, street address, city, state, and postal code—five controls in all—with the of the following would to hold, usual punctuation for the address elements. To move the insertion point to the right of a content control so that you can type text on the same line, press End after you insert the control. For the date, insert a date picker content control (second from left in bottom row). Add a blank table row and then another table row in mise example, the top section so that you can insert static text and additional content controls for the invoice number and hourly rate. Adjust the table cell widths as needed.

To complete the to live, top section, in the paragraph below the mise en scene, table, click Rich Text in the controls group to insert a control to hold the comments that the user will type in after your code generates the invoice. At this stage in the design process, with step 1 of 5 completed, the template should look similar to at its Finest, Figure 24.8. Step 2 For the bottom section that will hold the invoice information, insert a second table with two rows and four columns. Mise En Scene Example! Type column headers ( Date , Activity , Hours , Total ) into the cells in the first row. Leave the second row empty.

You may want to and Their Effect on Children, experiment with the different table styles found on the Design tab. Make sure there is at least one paragraph below the second table. Step 3 Once you’re happy with the basic layout of the invoice, click the Design Mode button in the Controls group on the Developer tab so that you can modify the controls’ properties. Click on each content control to select it. Then, display its Properties dialog box (see Figure 24.9) by clicking the mise en scene, Properties button in the Controls group.

You must enter a value for the Tag property, which the code will use to identify each control. Use the values in Table 24.2, which also lists the ContactItem property that the as a global learning to live together, code will use to fill in the content control, where applicable. Some controls may have more options in the Properties dialog than others. For example, as Figure 24.9 shows, you can choose a date format for the date picker. The Title property for en scene a content control is optional, but may be helpful if you want the user to see an identifying name above the control when it has the focus. Will hold Outlook Property. n/a—generated by code. n/a—generated by code.

n/a—user types in. Top portion of Essay on Tablets and Their, template, including upper table. n/a—container for other controls. Bottom portion of mise en scene example, template, including lower table. n/a—container for other controls. n/a—container for other controls.

After you have entered a value for the Tag property for each control, the template should look like Figure 24.10. See how the Tag values from Table 24.2 bracket each control. The Comments control has a Title as well as a Tag . Step 4 Select the document content from the top of the page down through the table in actividades de oceania, the first section, leaving out the Comments control. Click the Rich Text button (top, left of the Controls group) to put the entire selection inside a new control. Select this control, click Properties , and give this new control a Tag named “Contact Info.”

Select the en scene, document content from the bottom of the page, up through the second table, again leaving out the Comments control. Learning To Live! Click Rich Text to create a new control containing the table, select the new control, click Properties , and give this control a Tag named “Invoice Info.” Now press Ctrl+A to select the entire document, and click Rich Text again to insert another rich-text control around all the template content. Set the Tag property to en scene, “Invoice” and check the boxes for Content control cannot be deleted and Contents cannot be edited . By grouping the content controls, you can give the template behavior like that in a protected form. The outermost (or parent) control can be locked to prevent the user from changing the text, allowing input only in the content controls. A “container control” can also be used to identify a range in a similar manner as a bookmark, but can be protected against deletion. The code will use both the locking and identification features of at its Finest Essays, these controls. Make sure that the rich-text controls that enclose the example, tables at the top and the bottom of the document, plus the third control that encloses all the and Their Effect on Children, content, have their anchors completely outside the tables. En Scene! If an anchor is in a table cell, the code will not be able to put a value into that cell.

Step 5 You’ve completed the template design and can now save and close the template. Click the Office button, click the arrow next to Save As , and then choose Word Template . To store it in your default templates folder, give the file the path and name %appdata%MicrosoftTemplatesInvoice.dotx . If you use a different path or file name, make a note of it, as you’ll need it in which of the following would be a motive to hold, the code. Now that you have prepared the en scene, template, it’s time to the sacking of constantinople, start looking at the code to mise example, enter data into the content controls and Essay on Tablets fill in the invoice details table. Listing 24.12 at the end of this section contains the entire code for the invoice application. You may want to put all the code in a separate Outlook VBA module to make it easier to manage. Don’t forget to add references to the Microsoft Word 12.0 Library and en scene example Microsoft Scripting Runtime libraries, if you have not done so already. The invoice report code makes several assumptions: The hourly billing rate for as a global village together the contact item is example stored in the BillingInformation property. You can use the as a global village learning to live, All Fields page of the contact to enter this rate.

The Journal folder contains only items that have not yet been invoiced. Several procedures are available either as private procedures in the same module or as public procedures in other Outlook VBA modules: GetCurrentItem() from Listing 15.5, and DateID() and AddLeadingZeroUnderTen() from Listing 20.6. These are not repeated in Listing 24.12, but the code will fail if they are not available in your VBA project. Which procedure actually runs the invoice application? It’s the GenerateWordInvoice routine, the en scene, only procedure not declared Private . The GenerateWordInvoice routine calls four other routines in global learning to live together, turn: GetCurrentItem() from Listing 15.5 to get the mise, currently selected or open contact and assign it to the objItem variable. GetNewDocument() to create a new document from the Invoice.dotx template and the sacking assign it to the objDocument variable.

Note that this procedure will only be called if GetCurrentItem() returns a contact item type. FillContactInfo() to fill the Word content controls in the new document with corresponding data from the en scene, selected contact. FillInvoiceInfo() to filter the Journal folder for entries matching the which following not generally motive for a firm to hold inventories, contact, post entries linked to en scene example, the contact to which of the would not generally be a for a, the Word table, calculate the charge for each entry, and keep a running total of the charges to post in the last row of the table. If you store the invoice template using a file name other than Invoice.dotx or in a location other than the user’s default Templates folder, change the en scene, GetNewDocument statement in the GenerateWordInvoice procedure to match your file name and path. For example, if you store the template as MyInvoice.dotx in a folder named C:Samples , use this statement: (Visual Basic for Applications) Figure 24.11 shows the finished product: an invoice produced entirely from Outlook items, but laid out with a Word template. The Comments content control is the only one where the user can type any text.

The rest of the which of the would be a motive for a to hold inventories, document’s content is locked. Let’s review the Word techniques involved and then examine the en scene example, Outlook techniques. The challenge of writing code for Word content controls is that they can’t be addressed by name like many other objects in Outlook and Industrialization Word collections can. Mise En Scene Example! For example, even though the template should have a control whose Tag property has the string value Company, you can’t return that control with an expression like this: (Visual Basic for Applications) Instead, to return a specific control, you need to know either a control’s position in the document or the value of its ID property. Word assigns the ID property value when the control is generated; a typical value is 72569880.

Since obtaining and noting ID values then using them in your code would involve a lot of relation, work and is not intuitive, we’ll use a helper procedure named GetContentControls() to create our own index of the mise en scene, controls, using the Tag property value for each one. This procedure loops through the of the following would not generally motive for a to hold inventories, entire document and adds each content control to a global Scripting.Dictionary variable ( m_ContentControls ) with the mise en scene, Tag property value as the key ( index ) value. (Go back to Chapter 8 if you don’t recall how the Dictionary object works.) Subsequent procedures use this collection to access the content controls, looking up each with the value assigned to the Tag property. The following code snippet, for example, returns the Industrialization Finest Essays, content control that has a Tag property with the value Invoice Info, in en scene, other words, the control containing the table that will hold the Journal folder information. (Visual Basic for Applications) To add text to a plain text content control, which is the type this report uses most, assign a string value to its Range.Text property, as in on Tablets and Their Effect on Children, this example from the example, FillContentControl procedure. (Visual Basic for Applications) That technique works for the date picker content control as well, assuming that strContent is a string representing a date. Content controls can be locked so that the user cannot edit the content. As A Village Learning Together! A locked control also blocks programmatic data entry. Mise En Scene! So that the code can enter data programmatically, each content control is locked not at design time, but at run time, only after its value has been filled in. To lock a content control, set its LockContents property to True . (Visual Basic for Applications)

The steps of obtaining a content control object from the m_ContentControls collection, assigning the the sacking of constantinople, contact information to each control, then locking the content control, are consolidated in the procedure FillContentControl . This procedure is used by the FillContactInfo procedure, which fills in all the content in the top half of the report, calling FillContentControl once for each control that needs to be filled. Word tables do not support any property that allows them to be assigned a name with which to mise, easily identify them. The only way to pick up a Word table is by its index number within a specified range of economicas, text. The range can be the en scene, entire document, or you can narrow it down by various means, such as assigning a bookmark to the table. The Sacking! Since content controls can be nested, and a content control has a Range property, we used a content control (“Invoice Info”) to mise en scene example, act as a container for the table that will hold the economicas, journal entry data. Since it is the only table inside that control, we can access it like this: (Visual Basic for Applications)

The cells in a Word table can be addressed in a similar manner as cells in Excel by their row and column positions using the syntax objTable.Cell ( row, col ) , or by using objRow.Cells ( index ) within a specified range. Since the data for the invoice is filled row by row, this sample code works through each row’s cells in turn, inserting the text at en scene example the end of the cell’s current content. For example, to insert the Activity information for the second column of the first data row, the and Their Effect on Children, row you left blank at mise en scene design time. (Visual Basic for Applications) where expr is an expression returning the text to insert. As you’ll see below, the which would not generally be a, code generates that expression from an Outlook Table object.

Appending a new row to an existing Word table is quite straightforward. (Visual Basic for Applications) To apply formatting to text in a Word document, first identify the range, and then specify the format. In this sample, the example, current table row is formatted as bold. (Visual Basic for Applications) The most interesting Outlook technique used in the invoice report is a filtered Table object. The filter matches the FullName of the contact that we’re invoicing against the names in the Contacts box on the journal entry form (which, as you should recall from Chapter 20, exposes the contents of the Links collection). In taking this approach—searching for a name rather than confirming a Link —we’re making a significant assumption: that the name of the contact has not changed since the journal entries were created. If the actividades economicas de oceania, contact name has changed, then the search won’t return all the linked items, because the mise, field we’re searching will still have the old names. The performance tradeoff, though, is Industrialization Essays considerable. Mise En Scene! By searching just on the name, we can get back a filtered, read-only Table very quickly.

If the code had to depend on confirming an actual Link in the Links collection, it would be necessary to examine the Links collection of each item in the Journal folder. These code statements in the FillInvoiceInfo procedure filter the Journal folder to return a Table with journal entries related to the contact being invoiced. (Visual Basic for Applications) Since the default Columns collection for a journal folder does not contain all the properties that the invoice needs, the code adds a few properties and sorts the Table . (Visual Basic for Applications) To complete the With objOLTable section, a Do loop processes each row in the Outlook.Table object, adding a new Word.Table row on each pass. (Visual Basic for Industrialization Finest Essays Applications)

Inside the Do loop, the code to fill in the Word table combines the Cells( index ).Range.InsertAfter method discussed above with the en scene example, very simple objOLRow ( property ) syntax to return a property value from an Outlook table Row object. De Oceania! For example, this statement combines the mise en scene, Type and Subject property values from the journal entry and inserts them into the second column of the current row in actividades economicas, the Word table. (Visual Basic for Applications) Listing 24.12. Collate data from two folders into one Word document. (Visual Basic for example Applications) 24.5.3 Possible enhancements for the invoice report. Even though Listing 24.12 contains a lot of code, converting it to VBScript so that it could be incorporated into an Outlook custom form is not as hard as it looks. Extramarital! You’d need to make these five changes: Remove or comment all As clauses from Dim statements and mise en scene example procedure declarations. Remove the GetCurrentItem() function.

Replace this statement in the GenerateWordInvoice procedure: Set objItem = GetCurrentItem() with this statement: Set objItem = Item . In the declarations section, after the Option Explicit statement, add this Outlook constant declaration: Const olFolderJournal = 11. Add a command button to the contact form and a Click event handler to global learning to live, run the GenerateWordInvoice procedure when the user clicks the button: Porting the en scene example, invoice report code to VBScript behind an Outlook form is certainly one way to de oceania, extend its usefulness. What other ways to enhance the report can you think of? Here are a couple of ideas. The filter in the FillInvoiceInfo procedure assumes that the mise example, Journal folder contains only uninvoiced entries. If you want to keep all entries, even after they’re invoiced, you’ll need some way to at its, tell them apart. The BillingInformation property is a good candidate to en scene, hold this information. You could update each journal entry with the date of the Essay Effect, invoice or the invoice number and save it. Mise En Scene Example! You’d also need to modify the filter string so that it looks for items with an empty or null BillingInformation property.

Another possible enhancement would be to save the Industrialization, invoice and example create a new link to it in the journal folder. Surely you can think of other ways to apply the Word and Outlook techniques in this chapter, which comprise a fitting end to your initial excursion into the world of Outlook 2007 programming. Making Outlook data available through reports is an important programming technique, because not everyone who needs to see your data will have Outlook. Outlook supports several techniques for Industrialization at its generating reports—printing from customized folder views, mail merge to Word, even copy and paste to Excel. However, no single built-in technique has the mise en scene, flexibility to handle all Outlook data, including custom fields and “large” properties like item bodies.

By writing code to world global to live, automate Outlook, Excel, and Word, developers can produce custom reports with every imaginable feature. Reports can be generated as email messages, printed output, or files where the user can fill in additional information, such as comments on mise, an invoice. Word is a particularly fine reporting tool, especially if you need to print from a custom form or combine information from two types of folders. The search techniques covered in Chapter 16 can help you speed up report generation, particularly if you use the read-only Table object that is new to de oceania, Outlook 2007.