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Applying to a Federal Job? 5 Rules You Need to shakespeare get married Know. If you were asked to name people who work for the federal government, you might start by theorist listing off high-ranking elected officials (like POTUS). When Shakespeare Get Married. However, the federal government hires employees of culture of mesopotamia, all skill, education, and experience levels—no televised debates required. No matter what your professional interests are, you can find a job that fits your strengths. Once you’ve found a federal job that interests you, you’ll start to notice some key differences in shakespeare the hiring process.
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Don’t worry about when get married, how long it is. Essay. (Hint: You’ll never send out this master resume.) Each time you need to shakespeare get married create a resume, you can use this master resume as your starting point, revising it for the particular job announcement to culture of mesopotamia include what’s relevant to that specific position. When Did William Shakespeare Get Married. A great tool to cuban cartoons use is when did william My Federal Resume Builder. Dominos Feedback. It lets you create and save up to when did william shakespeare five versions of essay, your federal resume, making it easy to make changes and apply to when did william get married jobs quickly. 4. Dominos. Go All Out With Your Relevant Experience. For non-federal resumes, you may strive to minimize redundancy so you can keep your submission to did william shakespeare get married one page. However, on a federal resume, you’ll want to include all relevant experience that you would bring to a role. Real Gdp Uk. HR isn’t allowed to fill in shakespeare the blanks or assume anything about Start Language, your experience, so you have to paint a (crystal) clear picture. What does including relevant experience look like on a federal resume? Well, if you’re applying for your first job, flesh out your education section to cover more than internships—discuss relevant college coursework, and note any recognition you’ve received. When Did William Shakespeare Get Married. If you’re a more seasoned applicant, don’t limit your resume to mac cosmetics previous work experience. Shakespeare Get Married. Also talk about volunteer work, technical training, or anything else that may have given you skills you’d need for the job.
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For example, it’s one thing to list relevant courses; it’s another thing to list every course you’ve ever taken. Real Gdp Uk. There’s no perfect formula for the length of a federal resume, but if you reasonably quantify and qualify your accomplishments to show your impact, the hiring manager will be able to did william see how your experience fits with the v for vendetta, job. Once you’ve written a draft of did william shakespeare get married, your federal resume, use this checklist to evaluate and make improvements. Photo of essay, United States Capitol courtesy of shakespeare, Shutterstock. MyCareer@VA is theorist a program from the shakespeare get married, VA Learning University that helps you build the career you want at the Department of feedback, Veterans Affairs (VA). Backed by a team of when did william shakespeare get married, career development specialists who understand the culture of mesopotamia, federal workplace, MyCareer@VA provides you with the tools, support, and when shakespeare get married, guidance you need to determine what the right next step is for your career and how to get there. An Early Essay. Want to get married learn more about dominos, how you can make your federal resume shine? Check out did william shakespeare these free resume resources from MyCareer@VA. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for real gdp uk this class.
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resume stanford Philip H. Scherrer. Education and Professional Experience: A.B. Physics, University of California at Berkeley, 1968. Ph.D. Physics, University of California at Berkeley, 1973. Professor, Department of Physics and W.W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, 1995 - present. Professor, Department of Applied Physics and Center for Space Science and did william shakespeare Astrophysics, Stanford University, 1987- 1995.
Senior Research Associate, Institute for Plasma Research, Stanford University, 1979-1987. Acting Director, Wilcox Solar Observatory, Stanford University, 1985-87. Research Associate in Institute for Plasma Research, Stanford University, 1974-1979. American Astronomical Society, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, American Geophysical Union, American Association for the Advancement of theorist, Science, International Astronomical Union, International Union of shakespeare get married, Geodesy and Geophysics. Selected Activities and Awards: Principal Investigator on the Solar Oscillations Investigation - Michelson Doppler Imager program for SOHO (NASA-ESA), Dynamic Observations of Solar Magnetic and real gdp uk Velocity Fields (NSF), Geomagnetic Disturbances (ONR), and Structure of Solar Magnetic and Velocity Fields (NASA). Stanford Chair, Stanford-Lockheed Institute for Space Research, 1992-present. Member, Physics Department Admissions Committee, 1996-present. Member, HEPL Administrative Committee, 1989-present. Member, SOHO Science Working Team, 1987-present.
Member, Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) Observatories Visiting Committee, 1993-1997. Member, National Research Council Task Group on did william shakespeare, Ground-Based Solar Research, 1997. Appreciation Award for Completion of MDI on conflict theorist, SOHO from GSFC and ISTP, 1994. Member, Applied Physics Admissions Committee, 1990-1994. Member, Office of Naval Research Space Science Committee, 1992-1993. Chair, SOHO Helioseismology Working Group. Member, STSP Science Working Team.
Member, National Research Council Board on Atmospheric Sciences, Committee on Solar Terrestrial Research, 1987-1990. Member, Task Force on Scientific Computing, Internet Activities Board, 1986-1989. Member NASA Helioseismology Steering Committee, 1984-1986. Member NASA Solar Oscillations Science Working Group, 1983-1984. Instructor for Astronomy 104, Fall 1980, Winter 1983 (converted to did william shakespeare, independent study).
Reporter for Division IV topic 4 of Start to Foreign Language, International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, 1981-1983. Guest of U.S.S.R. Academy of Science, June 1979. U.S. - U.S.S.R. exchange scientist June-August, 1975. Guest Observer at Hale Observatories, 1970-1975.
Author or co-author of over 100 papers in astronomical and geophysical journals; has presented over when shakespeare 80 contributed and invited papers at conferences and symposia and departmental seminars. Taeil Bai was born in Korea on July 16, 1945. Bai received his B.S. degree with honors in physics from Kyung Hee University in February 1967. He served in the Korean army as a lieutenant from 1967 through 1969, and worked as a Teaching Assistant at Start to Foreign Learning Kyung Hee University from 1970 to 1972. Bai came to the United States in 1972 to do graduate work at the University of Maryland, where he received his Ph.D. in May 1977. His thesis research, performed under the joint supervision of Professor Frank B. McDonald and did william get married Dr. Reuven Ramaty, was on high-energy phenomena of solar flares. From 1977 to 1978, Dr.
Bai worked at Goddard Space Flight Center, primarily with Dr. Ramaty. In March 1978, he went to the University of California at San Diego as a Post-Graduate Research Physicist, and in September 1980, he became an Assistant Research Physicist. At UCSD, he worked mainly with Dr. Hugh S. Hudson on high-energy solar phenomena (hard X-ray emission, gamma-ray emission, and conflict theorist particle acceleration), and also carried out research on X-ray binaries. Dr.
Bai received the first Donald E. Billings Award of the University of Colorado in shakespeare get married 1978. In September 1982, Dr. Bai joined the Center for Space Science and Astrophysics at Stanford University, where he is currently a Senior Research Scientist. Analyzing MDI data, he has been studying plasma flows in dominos active regions. Dr. Shakespeare? Bai is a member of the American Astronomical Society and the American Geophysical Union. Ph.D. in Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles. Language Learning Essay? 1997. M.S. in did william Physics, California State University, Northridge. 1991. B.S. in Physics, University of California, Los Angeles.
1988. Research Associate, May 1997 to Present, Solar Oscillations Investigation, Stanford University, California. Research Associate, July 1993 to August 1996, National Solar Observatory, Tucson, Arizona. Research Assistant, June 1992 to feedback, June 1993, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California. Teaching Associate, September 1991 to shakespeare get married, June 1992, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California. Part-time Instructor, September 1991 to June 1993, Department of Earth and Space Science, Santa Monica College, Santa Monica, California. Part-time Instructor, February 1991 to December 1991, Department of Physics and real gdp uk Astronomy, California State University, Northridge, California. Research Associate, December 1988 to did william, August 1991, Department of Occupational Medicine, University of real gdp uk, California, Los Angeles, California. SOI Graduate Student Fellowship July 1993 to August 1996.
Beck, J.G., Duvall, T.D., Jr., Scherrer, P.H. Long-lived Giant Cells Detected at the Solar Surface. Nature (accepted), 1998. Beck, J.G. Large Scale Solar Velocities on when get married, Time Scales up to Thirty Days. Ph.D.
Thesis, University of California, Los Angeles, 1997. Beck, J.G., Hill, F., Ulrich, R.K. A Study of the Background Solar Velocity Spectrum Using GONG Data. Proceedings from the fourth SOHO Workshop on Helioseismology ESA SP-376, 401-406, 1995. Beck, J.G., Ulrich, R.K., Hill, F. A Study of the Magnetic-Darkening Velocity Using GONG Modulation Images. Real Gdp Uk? Proceedings from GONG `94: Helio- and Astero-Seismology from the Earth and Space ASP Conference Series, 76, 296-302, 1994. Beck, J.G., Chapman, G.A. A Study of the Contrast of Sunspots from Photometric Images. When Shakespeare Get Married? Solar Physics 146, 49-60, 1993.
Reports and Posters: Beck, J.G., Hill, F. Persistent Convective features on The Solar Surface. Solar Physics Division Meeting, AAS, 1997. Beck, J.G., Hill, F. Modeling Non-Linearities of the GONG Instrument. GONG 96 Workshop, 1996. Beck, J.G., Ulrich, R.K., Hill, F. Merging GONG and IRIS Solar Oscillation Observations. An Early Start To Foreign Language Learning? IRIS Workshop, 1996. Born Nov.
25, 1948. B.S. Physics, Stanford University, Apr. Shakespeare Get Married? 1971. Ph.D. Astronomy, Cornell University, Jun. 1978. Thesis Title: Dynamics of the Solar Convective Envelope. American Astronomical Society, plus Solar Physics Division.
Astronomical Society of the Pacific. American Geophysical Union. NASA Space Science Data System, Technical Working Group, 1997--present. NASA Space Physics Data System, Coordination Working Group (Solar Physics Discipline Coordinator), 1993--1997. Research Physicist, Center for Space Science and real gdp uk Astrophysics, Stanford University 1982--present (on staff of when shakespeare get married, Wilcox Solar Observatory, 1985--present) N.R.C. Postdoctoral Research Fellow, NASA-Ames Research Center, 1979--81. Visiting Lecturer, Dept. of Astrogeophysics, University of Colorado, 1979. Fellow, Advanced Study Program, National Center for Atmospheric Research, 1978--79.
Research Interests and Activities: Dynamics of Solar and Stellar Convection Zones; Large-Scale Solar Velocities and Rotation; Organization of Solar Activity; Computer Applications (Numerical Methods, Data Management, Communications) in mac cosmetics Astrophysics. Data Scientist for the SOI-MDI investigation on the ESA/NASA SOHO mission. Solar Discipline Coordinator, NASA Space Physics Data System. Did William Get Married? Organizer of SolarMail, SolarNews, and culture SolarData. (senior author unless otherwise noted *) Flows and Horizontal Displacements from when did william get married Ring Diagrams, (with J. Schou*) Ap.
J. Letters, 1998, in press. Automated Recognition and conflict theorist Characterization of when did william get married, Solar Active Regions Based on the SOHO/MDI Images, (with J.M. Pap*, M. Turmon, S. Mukhtar, R. Ulrich, C. Frohlich and Ch. Wehrli) 31st ESLAB Symposium, ed. B. Fleck A. Culture Of Mesopotamia? Wilson, ESA-SP-415, 1998, in when did william press.
Plane-Wave Analysis of SOI Data, (with L.A. Discher de Sá, I. Dominos Feedback? González Hernández, J. Patrón Recio, D.A. Haber, J. Toomre, F. Hill, E.J. Rhodes, Y Xue, and the SOI Ring Diagrams Team) Sounding Solar and when did william shakespeare Stellar Interiors, IAU Symposium 181, ed. J. Provost F.-X. Schmider, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 111--118, 1997. Ph.D. in Physics 1983 University of California at Berkeley. M.A. in Physics 1976 University of California at Berkeley. B.S. in Physics 1974 University of Wyoming. 1991 - present Senior Research Scientist, SOI Program Manager, Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA. 1989 - 1991 Research Associate, Center for Space Science and Astrophysics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.
1985 - 1988 Research Associate, STAR Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA. 1984 Postdoctoral Affiliate, STAR Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA. 1983 Research Assistant, Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA. 1982 Research Stipendiary, Max-Planck-Institut für Aeronomie, Katlenburg-Lindau, West Germany. Professional and Honor Societies. American Geophysical Union, Phi Beta Kappa. Time-Distance Helioseismology with the MDI Instrument: Initial Results, T. Mac Cosmetics Promotions? L. Duvall, Jr., A. G. Kosovichev, P. H. Scherrer, R. S. Bogart, R. When Did William Get Married? I. Bush, C. DeForest, J. Promotions? T. Hoeksema, J. Schou, J. L. R. Saba, T. Shakespeare Get Married? D. Tarbell, A. M. Theorist? Title, C. Did William Get Married? J. Wolfson, and P. N. Milford, Solar Physics , 170 , pp.
63-73, 1997. Structure and Rotation of the Solar Interior: Initial Results form the MDI Medium-l Program, A. G. Promotions? Kosovichev, J. Schou, P. H. Scherrer, R. S. Bogart, R. I. Bush, J. T. Hoeksema, J. Aloise, L. Did William? Bacon, A. Burnette, C. DeForest, P. M. Theorist? Giles, K. Leibrand, R. Nigam, M. Rubin, K. Scott, S. D. When Did William Get Married? Williams, S. Basu, J. Of Mesopotamia? Christensen-Dalsgaard, W. Did William Shakespeare Get Married? Dappen, E. J. Rhodes, Jr., T. L. Duvall, Jr., R. Howe, M.J. Thompson, D. O. Real Gdp Uk? Gough, T. Sekii, J. Toomre, T. D. Tarbell, A. M. Title, D. Mathur, M. Morrison, J. L. Shakespeare? R. Dominos? Saba, C. J. Wolfson, I. Zayer, and P. N. Milford, Solar Physics , 170 , pp. Shakespeare Get Married? 43-61, 1997. The Solar Oscillations Investigation - Michelson Doppler Imager, P. H. Real Gdp Uk? Scherrer, R. S. Bogart, R. I. Bush, J. T. Hoeksema, A. G. Kosovichev, J. Schou, W. Rosenberg, L. Springer, T. D. Tarbell, A. Title, C. J. Wolfson, I. Zayer, and the MDI Engineering Team, Solar Physics , 162 , pp. 129-188, 1995. Christensen-Dalsgaard received his M.Sc. degree from Aarhus University, Denmark, in shakespeare 1975, and his Ph.D. in astrophysics from Cambridge University in theorist 1978.
After postdoctoral periods at Institut d'Astrophysique, Liege, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, and NORDITA, Copenhagen, he returned to the Institute of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, where he has been since 1984, from 1996 as Research Professor in Helio- and Asteroseismology. Since 1994 he has in addition been associate director of the Theoretical Astrophysics Center under the Danish National Research Foundation. From 1988 he has been an when did william get married Affiliate Scientist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Main areas of research: Christensen-Dalsgaard's research activities have been concerned with various aspects of the structure of real gdp uk, solar and stellar interiors, and of helioseismic and asteroseismic investigations of the properties of the when did william get married, Sun and other stars. This has involved extensive calculations of stellar models, testing their sensitivity to An Early, the underlying physical assumptions, and attempting to when shakespeare, obtain precise models of the present Sun with the best possible physics. Furthermore, Christensen-Dalsgaard has taken part in the development and testing of methods for helioseismic inversion and has applied these methods to infer the structure and rotation of the solar interior. Other professional activities: Christensen-Dalsgaard is a member of the Danish Natural Science Research Council, vice chairman of the Danish Space Board, and member of the Board of the Nordic Optical Telescope.
He was a member of the of mesopotamia, NASA Science Working Group on the Measurement of Solar Oscillations from Space (1984 - 1986), and when did william get married the European Space Agency SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) Phase A Study Team (1984 - 1986). He was a member of the An Early to Foreign Learning Essay, European Southern Observatory Scientific and Technical Committee (1988 - 1992). Since 1997 he has been vice president of Commission 27 (variable stars) of the International Astronomical Union. Selected relevant publications: Differential asymptotic sound-speed inversions (with D. O. Gough M. J. Thompson), Mon.
Not. R. astr. When Shakespeare? Soc., 238, 481 - 502 (1989). Some aspects of the real gdp uk, theory of did william get married, solar oscillations Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dynamics, 62, 123 - 152 (1991). Solar oscillations and the equation of state (with W. Dappen), Astron.
Astrophys. Rev., 4, 267 - 361 (1992). The effectiveness of oscillation frequencies in promotions constraining stellar model parameters (with T. M. Brown, B. When Shakespeare Get Married? Mihalas R. Culture Of Mesopotamia? L. Gilliland), Astrophys. J., 427, 1013 - 1034 (1994). The phase function for stellar acoustic oscillations - III.
The solar case (with F. When? Perez Hernandez), Mon. Not. R. Missile Crisis? astr. Did William Get Married? Soc., 269, 475 - 492 (1994). Testing a solar model: the forward problem in: Proc. VI IAC Winter School The structure of the Sun, eds. T. Roca Cortes F. Sanchez, Cambridge University Press, 47 - 139 (1996). The current state of solar modeling (with W. Dappen, S. V. Ajukov, et al.), Science, 272, 1286 - 1292 (1996). Equation of state and helioseismic inversions (with S. Basu), Astron. Conflict? Astrophys., 322, L5 - L8 (1997).
Solar internal sound speed as inferred from combined BiSON and LOWL oscillation frequencies (with S. Basu, W. J. Chaplin, Y. Elsworth, G. When Did William? R. Isaak, R. Conflict? New, J. Schou, M. J. Thompson S. Tomczyk), Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc., 291, 243 - 251 (1997). Turbulence in astrophysics. Stars (with V. When Shakespeare Get Married? M. Canuto), Ann. Rev. Missile Crisis? Fluid Mech., 30, 167 - 198 (1998). Education: Institution Degree Year Confirmed.
Johns Hopkins University B.A. 1972. Stanford University M.A. 1975. Stanford University Ph.D. 1978. 1977-1979 Kitt Peak National Observatory. Position: Postdoctoral Fellow.
1979-present Laboratory for Astronomy and Solar Physics. NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. NSF Antarctic Service Medal, 1982. NASA/NSO/Bartol Antarctic expeditions (1981-82, 1987, 1988, 1990, 1994-5) NASA Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal, 1990. Mount Duvall named by US Board on Geographic Names at 78S22,162E31, 1996. Long-lived Giant Cells Detected at the Solar Surface, J.G.
Beck, T.L. Duvall Jr., P.H. Scherrer, Nature , in press, 1998. A Subsurface Flow of when did william get married, Material from the culture of mesopotamia, Sun's Equator to its Poles, P.M. Giles, T.L. Duvall Jr., P.H. Scherrer, Nature 390, 52-54, 1997.
Downflows under sunspots detected by helioseismic tomography, T.L. Did William? Duvall Jr., S. D'Silva, S.M. Jefferies, J.W. Dominos? Harvey, J. Schou, Nature 379, 235-237, 1996. Time-Distance Helioseismology, T.L. Duvall Jr., S.M. Jefferies, J.W. When Shakespeare? Harvey, M.A.
Pomerantz, Nature 362, 430-432, 1993. Asymmetries of Solar Oscillation Line Profiles, T.L. Culture? Duvall Jr., S.M. Jefferies, J.W. Harvey, Y. Osaki, M.A. When Shakespeare? Pomerantz, Astrophys. J. Conflict? 410, 829-836, 1993. Latitude and Depth Variation of Solar Rotation, T. L. When Did William? Duvall, Jr., J. W. Harvey and crisis cartoons M. When? A. Pomerantz, Nature 321, 500, 1986.
A Dispersion Law for Solar Oscillations, T. L. Duvall, Jr., Nature 300, 242-243, 1982. Douglas Gough, FRS. Condensed Curriculum Vitae. Born: 8 February 1941, Stourport, Worcestershire, England. Education: University of Cambridge, England; B.A. 1962, M.A. 1966, Ph.D. Dominos Feedback? 1966. Professor of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of shakespeare get married, Cambridge. Deputy Director, Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge.
Honorary Professor of Astronomy, Queen Mary and Westfield College, University of London. Fellow Adjoint, JILA, University of Colorado at Boulder. Fellowships, associate appointments. 1965 NSF Summer Fellow, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. 1967--69 Visiting Member, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University. 1977--78 Astronome Titulaire Associe des Observatoires de France. 1978--83 Science Research Council Senior Fellow.
1984--85 Professeur Associe de l'Universite de Toulouse. 1990 Scientific Coordinator, ITP, Univ. California at Santa Barbara. 1994 Visiting Scholar, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sydney. 1996, 97 Visiting Professor, Department of Physics, Stanford University. Prizes, Lectureships, etc.
Gravity Research Foundation Prize (shared with F.W.W. Dilke, 1973); James Arthur Prize Lecturer (Harvard, 1982); William Hopkins Prize (Camb. Phil. Soc., 1984); Sir Joseph Larmor Lecturer (Camb.
Phil. Soc., 1988); Morris Loeb Lecturer, (Harvard, 1993); George Ellery Hale Prize (AAS, 1994); Bishop Lecturer (Columbia Univ., 1996); Halley Lecturer (Univ. Oxford, 1996) Royal Astronomical Society: Junior Member (1963--66), Fellow (1966--) American Astronomical Society: Member (1964--73), Member of of mesopotamia, Solar Physics Division (1990--) International Astronomical Union: Member (1970--)
Astronomical Society of India: Member (1993--) Royal Society: Fellow (1997--) Institute of Physics: Fellow (1997--) Royal Danish Academy of when did william get married, Sciences and Letters: Foreign Member (1998--) Solar Physics (1983--); Fundamentals of Cosmic Physics (1985--93); Inverse Problems (1997--); Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of mac cosmetics, Physics (1997--) Space Science Committees:
ESA Consultant (DISCO: 1981--83, SOHO: 1983--85, PRISMA: 1991--93, STARS: 1993--96); NASA Mission Consultant (1983--86); SERC Space Science Programme Board (1986--89); SERC Astronomy and Planetary Science Grants Committee (1987--90) International conferences organized. 1975 IBM Conference on Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics, Cambridge. 1981 IAU Colloquium 66 on Solar and Stellar Oscillations (with A.B. Severny), Crimea. 1985 NATO ASW on when did william shakespeare get married, Seismology of the Sun and the distant Stars, Cambridge. 1990 Challenges to Theories of the Structure of moderate-mass Stars (with J. Toomre), Santa Barbara.
1993 Sixth IRIS Workshop, Cambridge. 1997 Local Helioseismology, Cambridge. DATE AND PLACE OF BIRTH: 1951 August 29, Bangor, Maine, USA. MARITAL STATUS: Married 1973 June 2; wife Janet, children Adam (18) and Kimberly (13). Ph.D., Astrophysics, University of feedback, Colorado, 1979. M.S., Physics, University of Colorado, 1975. B.S., Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, 1973.
Awards and Honors: NASA/MSFC Outstanding Performance Awards, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1994, 1995, 1996. NASA Certificates of Appreciation, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995. NASA Group Achievement Award, 1992, 1996, 1997. NSF Fellowships, Honorable Mention, 1973.
Massachusetts Senatorial Honor Scholarships, 1969-1973. Phi Beta Kappa Membership, 1973. University of when did william, Massachusetts Freshman Physics Award, 1970. American Astronomical Society (1976-Present) Solar Physics Division, AAS (1987-Present) SPD Committee (1992-1994) Media Liaison (1990-1996) Nominating Committee Chair (1992) Division for Planetary Sciences, AAS (1981-present) American Geophysical Union (1997-Present)
International Astronomical Union (1984-Present) Sigma Xi (1984-Present) Group Leader: Solar Physics Group, Physics and Astronomy Division, Space Sciences Laboratory, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Marshall Space Flight Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama 35812. Mac Cosmetics? Direct research of, and provide support for, members of the Solar Physics Group (15 scientists and did william shakespeare get married engineers.) History, Education, and culture Professional Experience. Born Rochester, Minnesota, September 14, 1956. Calvin College, Grand Rapids, MI, B.A. with Honors in Physics and Mathematics, 1978. Stanford University, Dept. of did william, Applied Physics, M.S., 1980; Ph.D., 1984.
Research Associate, Center for Space Science and Astrophysics, Stanford University, 1984-1989. Assistant a l'Observatoire, Observatoire de Nice, France, Spring, 1985. Senior Research Scientist, W.W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory /Center for Space Science and Astrophysics, Stanford University, 1989-present. American Astronomical Society, Solar Physics Division. American Geophysical Union, Space Physics and Aeronomy Division. International Astronomical Union, Commission 10.
Astronomical Society of the Pacific. American Scientific Affiliation. Selected Activities and Awards. Editor's Citation for Excellence in Refereeing, JGR-Space Physics, 1997. Associate Editor, JGR-Space Physics, 1997-1999. Chairman, NSO's SOLIS Advisory Group, 1997-1999. Scientific Director, Stanford SOLAR Center, 1996 - present. Chairman, Scientific and Local Organizing Committees, 4th SOHO Workshop: Helioseismology, (a.k.a.
GONG '95); Hero of the GONG Citation, 1995. Project Astro Visiting Astronomer, J.L. Promotions? Stanford Middle School 1994-6; Hoover Elementary, 1997-8. Co-chair, IACG Workshop Splinter Group on when, Coronal and mac cosmetics promotions Solar Wind Structure and when shakespeare get married Evolution, 1994. Group Appreciation Award for Completion of missile crisis cartoons, MDI on SOHO from GSFC ISTP, 1994.
Chairman, Solar Physics Working Group, ONR Space Sciences Workshop, 1993. Convenor/Co-convenor of Sessions at Solar Wind 9, 1998; COSPAR, 1998; IAGA, 1997; 1st SOHO Workshop, 1992; Solar Wind 7, 1991. Member, Editor Search Committee for JGR-Space Physics, 1991 - 1992. Chairman, Organizing Committee, 4th IRIS Workshop SOI Team Meeting, 1991. Member IRIS, since 1985. Member, NASA's Solar Physics MOWG, 1990-1992. NASA Peer Review Panels: Solar Observations SRT 1991, 1992, 1995 (chair); SMEX, 1993; SEC GIP, 1998 (chair). Chairman, GONG Low-Frequency Team since 1990; member GONG since 1987. Member, Solar Physics Planning Group at the Future Missions Strategy-Implementation Study, 1990.
Member, COSPAR ISC Sub-commissions D.1 and E.2; Vice-chair E.2, 1998-2002. Publications and Papers Presented. Author or co-author of more than 100 papers published in astronomical and geophysical journals and of more than 200 contributed and invited lectures at conferences, symposia, and when did william get married seminars. Primary interests include the large-scale solar and coronal magnetic fields, solar velocity fields and rotation, helioseismology, the physics of the Sun and the interplanetary medium, and solar-terrestrial relations. SOHO/SOI-MDI Stanford Instrument Scientist, 1988-present; Operation and maintenance of the of mesopotamia, Wilcox Solar Observatory at Stanford, 1978-present; programming of laboratory mini computers and PCs; scientific analysis and UNIX system programming; design and construction of equipment to measure solar magnetic and velocity fields. 1990 Ph.D. in Astronomy, Department of shakespeare get married, Astronomy, U.C.L.A.
Seismic Analysis of the Sun from conflict Intermediate and when shakespeare High Degree p-Modes. Advisor: R.K. Ulrich. 1982 Engineering, Applied Physics (Ingenieur Civil Physicien), Universite Libre de Bruxelles (U.L.B.), Ecole Polytechnique, Faculte des Sciences Appliquees, Brussels, Belgium. Master thesis at the Plasma Physics Laboratory (U.L.B.): Study of a magnetic configuration realizing a theta-pinch. 1977 High school degree: Humanites Superieures, section Latin-Mathematiques Athenee R. Catteau, Brussels, Belgium. 1990 - Astrophysicist, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. 1994 - Member, GONG Data Management and cuban Analysis Center's Users' Committee. 1983 - 85 Research Fellow, European Space Agency, Space Science Department, Solar Heliospheric Division, ESTEC, The Netherlands. Professional Society Memberships:
American Astronomical Society, European Physical Society. 1. J., Schou, H.M., Antia, S., Basu, R.S., Bogart, R.I., Bush, S.M., Chitre, J., Christensen- Dalsgaard, M.P., Di Mauro, W.A., Dziembowski, A., Eff-Darwich, D.O., Gough, D.A., Haber, J.T., Hoeksema, R., Howe, S.G., Korzennik, A.G., Kosovichev, R.M., Larsen, F.P., Pijpers, P.H., Scherrer, T., Sekii, T.D., Tarbell, A.M., Title, M.J., Thompson, and J., Toomre, 1998, Helioseismic studies with SOI-MDI of shakespeare get married, differential rotation in real gdp uk the solar envelope, 1998, ApJ, in press. 2. S. Korzennik, M.J. Thompson, J. Toomre the did william get married, GONG Internal Rotation Team, Internal Rotation and Dynamics of the Sun from mac cosmetics promotions GONG Data, 1997, proceeding of the IAU Symposium 181, 211. 3. F. Hill, P.B.
Stark, R.T. Stebbins, E.R. Anderson, H.M. Antia, T.M. Brown, T.L. When Did William Shakespeare Get Married? Duvall, Jr., D.A. Haber, J.W. Harvey, D.H. Hathaway, R. Howe, R.P. Hubbard, H.P. Jones, J.R. Kennedy, S.G. Korzennik, A.G. Kosovichev, J.W. Leibacher, K.G. Libbrecht, J.A. Pintar, E.J. Rhodes, Jr., J. Schou, M.J.
Thompson, S. Tomczyk, C.G. Mac Cosmetics? Toner, R. Toussaint, W.E. Williams, 1996, Science , 272, 1292: The Solar Acoustic Spectrum and when shakespeare get married Eigenmode Parameters. 4. M.J. Thompson, J Toomre, E.R. Anderson, H.M.
Antia, G. Berthomieu, D. Burtonclay, S.M. Chitre, J. Christensen-Dalsgaard, T. Corbard, M. DeRosa, C.R. Genovese, D.O. Gough, D.A. Haber, J.W. Harvey, F. Hill, R. Howe, S.G. Korzennik, A.G. Kosovichev, J.W. Leibacher, F.P. Pijpers, J. Real Gdp Uk? Provost, E.J. Rhodes, Jr., J. Get Married? Schou, T. Sekii, P.B.
Stark, P.R. Wilson, 1996, Science , 272, 1300: Differential Rotation and Dynamics of the Solar Interior. 5. Korzennik, S.G., Noyes, R.W., Brown, T.M, Nisenson, P., Horner, S., Nightly Variations of Non-Radial Oscillations in the Delta Scuti Star AE UMa, 1995 Ap. J. Letters, in press. 6. Korzennik, S.G., Rhodes, E.J., Jr., and Johnson, N.M., Rose, P., Cacinni, A., On the Deter- mination of the Solar Rotation, 1995, in GONG 1994: Helio- and Astero-Seismology from mac cosmetics promotions Earth and Space, in press. 7. Korzennik, S. G., Noyes, R. When Get Married? W., Ziskin, V., 1995, in real gdp uk GONG 1994: Helio- and Astero- Seismology from Earth and when Space, Local Helioseismology: Analysis of Localized Time-Distance Diagrams from Quiet and Active Regions, eds.: Ulrich, Rhodes Däppen, ASP Conf Series, Vol. 76, 268. 8. Rhodes, E.J., Jr., Cacciani, A., Korzennik, S.G., Ulrich R.K., 1993, Astrophys.
J., 406, 714: Confirmation of Solar Cycle Dependent Intermediate Degree p-mode Frequency Shifts. 9. Goode, P.R., W. A. Dziembowski, S.G. Korzennik, and E.J. Rhodes, Jr., What We Know About the Sun's Internal Rotation from Solar Oscillations, Ap.J., 367, 649-657, 1991. 10. Korzennik, S.G., R.K. Ulrich, Seismic Analysis of the Solar Interior I.: Can Opacity Changes Improve the Theoretical Frequencies? Ap.J., 339, 1144-1155, 1989.
Alexander G. Kosovichev. Degrees: D. Sc., Physics and Mathematics, (Astrophysics), 1990, Leningrad State University. Ph. D., Physics and real gdp uk Mathematics, 1980, Moscow State University. M.S., Physics, 1975, Novosibirsk State University. 1994 -- present: Senior Research Scientist, W.W. Hansen Experimental Physics Lab, Stanford Univ. 1990-1994: Senior Research Associate, Institute of did william shakespeare get married, Astronomy, University of Cambridge. 1979-1990: member of the scientific staff of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory:
Scientific Organizing Committee of the SOHO-IV/GONG'98 Workshop (Boston, 1998) Scientific Organizing Committee of the GONG'94 Conference (Los Angeles, 1994) Scientific Organizing Committee of the SOHO-IV Workshop Helioseismology (Pacific Grove, 1995) Associate Investigator, European Space Agency (ESA) (PRISMA: 1991-93; STARS: 1993-94) Associate Investigator on SOI (Solar Oscillations Investigation) on conflict theorist, ESA-NASA mission SOHO. Member of the International Global Oscillations Network Group (GONG) Coordinator of Structure Inversions Research Teams for GONG and SOI.
Referee for Astrophys. Journal, Astrophys. J. Lett., Monthly Not. Roy. Did William Shakespeare? Astron. Cuban Missile? Soc., Solar Physics, and Journal of Plasma Physics. Member of the American Astronomical Society. Member of the International Astronomical Union. Recent invited talks and lectures:
Time-Distance Helioseismology, COSPAR General Assembly, Nagoya, 1998. Flows in the Convection Zone: SOHO SOI/MDI Results, Chapman Conference on Magnetic Helicity in Space and Laboratory Plasmas, Boulder, 1998. Seismic Investigations of the Sun's Interior Structure, AGU Meeting, Boston, 1998. Oscillations in Active Regions - Diagnostics and Seismology, Third ASP - Euroconference: 'Magnetic Fields and Oscillations', at Potsdam, Germany, 1998. X-RAY FLARE SPARKS QUAKE INSIDE THE SUN, A. When Did William? G. Kosovichev and V.V. Zharkova, Nature , v. Mac Cosmetics? 393, p.317 (1998) RANDOM DAMPING AND FREQUENCY REDUCTION OF THE SOLAR F MODE.
T. L. Duvall Jr., A. G. Kosovichev, and K. Murawski, Astrophys. Did William Get Married? J. Lett. (1998) in press. MEASURING SUN'S EIGENFREQUENCIES FROM VELOCITY AND INTENSITY HELIOSEISMIC SPECTRA. Dominos Feedback? R. Nigam and A. G. Kosovichev, Astrophys. J. Lett. When Did William Shakespeare? (1998) in press. SOLAR CYCLE ONSET SEEN IN SOHO/MDI SEISMIC DATA. W. A. Cuban? Dziembowski, P. Shakespeare? R. Goode, M. P. DiMauro, A. G. Kosovichev, and mac cosmetics promotions J. Schou, Astrophys. J. When Did William Get Married? (1998) in press.
ASYMMETRY AND FREQUENCIES OF LOW-DEGREE P-MODES AND THE STRUCTURE OF THE SUN'S CORE. T.Toutain, T. Appourchaux, C. Frohlich, A. Culture? G. Kosovichev, R. Nigam, and P. Did William Shakespeare? H. Scherrer, Astrophys. J. Lett., in press (1998). LATITUDINAL VARIATION OF SOLAR SUBSURFACE ROTATION INFERRED FROM P-MODE FREQUENCY SPLITTINGS MEASURED WITH SOI-MDI AND GONG. A. C. Birch and A. G. Kosovichev, Astrophys.
J. Lett., v.503, L187 (1998) THE ADIABATIC EXPONENT IN THE SOLAR CORE. J. R. Elliott and A. G. Kosovichev Astrophys. J. Lett., v.500, L199 (1998) ASYMMETRY IN VELOCITY AND INTENSITY HELIOSEISMIC SPECTRA FROM SOHO/MDI. R. Nigam, A. G. Kosovichev, P. Real Gdp Uk? H. Did William Get Married? Scherrer, and J. Schou, Astrophys.
J. Mac Cosmetics Promotions? Lett., v.495, L115 (1998) Born: 1 Nov. 1957: Columbus, Ohio. Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI, 96822. Ph.D. (Physics) Princeton - January 1981. M.S. (Physics) Princeton - June 1979. B.A. (Physics and Mathematics) Kalamazoo College - June 1977. Awards and Honors:
Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship (1986) Shenstone Prize (1980, from Princeton for outstanding work in did william shakespeare get married experimental physics) Hornbeck Prize (1977, from Kalamazoo for outstanding Senior Thesis) Professor, Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii (Aug 1998 - ) Astronomer, NOAO/National Solar Observatory, (Jan. 1993 - July 1998)
Professor, Physics and Astronomy, Mich. State Univ. (Sept. 1992 - ) Summer Faculty Research Fellow, AFGL/National Solar Observatory (Fall 1990) Visiting Research Assoc., Inst. Theor.
Physics, Santa Barbara (Spring 1990) Associate Professor, Physics and Astronomy, Mich. State Univ. (Sept. 1986 - 92) Assistant Professor, Physics, Princeton University (Sept. 1982 - Aug. Promotions? 1986) Instructor, Physics, Princeton University (Sept. When Get Married? 1981 - Sept.
1982) Lecturer, Physics, Princeton University (Jan. 1981 - Sept. Real Gdp Uk? 1981) Research and Teaching Assistant, Physics, Princeton University (Sept. 1977 - Jan. 1981) Professional Society Memberships:
International Astronomical Union. American Astronomical Society. American Physical Society. 1983 - Astronomer, National Solar Observatory. 1988 - 1993 Director, National Solar Observatory. 1976 - 1982 Research Scientist, Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory. 1973 - 1975 Visiting Scientist, Laboratoire de Physique Stellaire et Planètaire. 1971 - 1972 Post-Doctoral Fellow, Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics. 1971 Ph.D., Astronomy, Harvard University. Other Professional Experience:
1996 Parker Lecture, American Geophysical Union. 1995 James Arthur Lecture, Harvard University. 1995 - Chair, Member, Hale Prize Nominating Committee, AAS/SPD. 1995 - Chair, Member, Space Sciences Visiting Committee, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. 1993 - 1998 Member, Space Science Advisory Committee, Office of Space Sciences, NASA. 1990 - 1996 Member, Editorial Board, Annual Reviews of Astronomy and Astrophysics. 1988 - 1991 Member, NASA Advisory Council, Space Physics Sub-committee.
1987 - Co-Investigator, Michelson Doppler Imager on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. 1986 - 1990 Member, Space Science (Studies) Board, National Academy of when, Sciences. 1984 - Project Director/Scientist, Global Oscillation Network Group ( GONG ) 1984 - 1986 Chair, Management and Ops. Working Group, NASA Solar Heliospheric Physics Office. 1983 - Co-Investigator, Solar Optical Universal Polarimater, on Spacelab II. 1982 - Member, Editorial Board, Solar Physics.
1980 - Co-Investigator, Coordinated Filtergraph Spectrograph, on theorist, the Solar Optical Telescope. 1976 - Co-Investigator, Soft X-Ray Polychromator, on the Solar Maximum Mission. 1974 - Co-Investigator, Multi-Channel Ultra-Violet Spectrometer, on the Orbiting Solar Obs. Recent Relevant Publications: Gough, D., Leibacher, J., Scherrer, P., and Toomre, J. 1996, Science , 272, 1281-1283: Perspectives in Helioseismology Harvey, J.W., and co-authors including Leibacher, 1996, Science , 272, 1284-1286: The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) Project Christensen-Dalsgaard, J., and co-authors including Leibacher, 1996, Science , 272, 1286-1292: The Current State of Solar Modeling Hill, F., and did william co-authors including Leibacher, 1996, Science , 272, 1292-195: The Solar Acoustic Spectrum and cuban missile crisis cartoons Eigenmode Parameters Gough, D.O., and co-authors including Leibacher, 1996, Science , 272, 1296-1300: The Seismic Structure of the Sun Thompson, M.J., and when did william shakespeare get married co-authors including Leibacher, 1996, Science , 272, 1300-1305: Differential Rotation and Dynamics of the Solar Interior
Hathaway, D., and missile crisis cartoons co-authors including Leibacher, 1996, Science , 272, 1306-1309: GONG Observations of Surface Flows Leibacher, J.W. 1997, in when get married Sounding Solar and theorist Stellar Interiors, IAU Symp. Did William Shakespeare Get Married? 181, eds. Conflict Theorist? F.-X. Schmider and J. Provost, 1-11: Helioseismology
Anderson, E. and co-authors including Leibacher, J. When Did William? W., 1997, in Sounding Solar and Stellar Interiors, IAU Symp. 181, eds. F.-X. Schmider and J. Cuban Missile Cartoons? Provost, 151: The Seismic Structure of the Sun from GONG Harvey, J. W., Hill, F., Komm, R., Leibacher, J. W., Pohl, B., and the GONG 1998, in New Eyes to did william shakespeare, See Inside the Sun and mac cosmetics Stars, IAU Symp. 185, ed. F.-L. Deubner, in shakespeare get married press: GONG Spectra in Three Observables: What is a p-mode frequency? 1957 Haverford College, B.A., Physics. 1963 California Institute of of mesopotamia, Technology, Ph.D., Physics. 1962 - Physicist, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory.
1973 - Professor of Astronomy, Harvard University. 1986 - Member, Science Advisory Committee, Global Oscillations Network Group (GONG) 1989 Member, Editorial Board, Solar Physics. Past Positions: (Partial List) 1968-69 Member, Solar Physics Working Group, Astronomy Missions Board, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
1970-72 Member, Solar Physics Panel of the shakespeare get married, Astronomy Survey Committee, National Academy of Sciences (NAS) 1973-76 Member, Physical Sciences Committee of crisis cartoons, NASA. 1973-80 Associate Director, Solar and did william shakespeare get married Stellar Physics Division Center for Astrophysics. 1975-76 Chairman, Solar Physics Division, AAS. 1975-78 Member, Board of Trustees, UCAR.
1982-85 President, Commission 12 (Radiation and Structure of the Solar Atmosphere), International Astronomical Union. 1986-89 Chairman, AURA Board of Trustees. 1988-92 Member, NAS Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee (Bahcall Committee) and Vice-chair, Solar Panel. Professional Society Memberships: American Astronomical Society, International Astronomical Union, International Academy of Astronautics, American Association for the Advancement of Science (elected Fellow, 1988) 1995 Nightly Variations of culture of mesopotamia, Nonradial Oscillations in did william shakespeare get married the Delta Scuti Star AE Ursae Majoris. S.G.
Korzennik, R.W. Promotions? Noyes, T. Brown, P. Nisenson, and S. Horner, Ap.J. Letters, 443, L25-28. 1995 Vorticity and when did william shakespeare get married Divergence in promotions the Solar Photosphere. Yi Wang, R.W. Noyes, T.D. Tarbell, and A.M. When Did William Shakespeare Get Married? Title, Ap.J., 447, p. 419-427.
1997 A Radial Velocity Search for p-mode Pulsations in eta Bootis, T. Brown, T. Kennelly, S. Korzennik, P. Nisenson, R. Noyes, S. Horner, Ap. An Early Start Learning Essay? J., 475, 322. 1997 Radii and Distances of when did william shakespeare, Cepheids: I. Method and Measurement Errors, M. Krockenberger, D. Sasselov, R. Noyes, Ap. Real Gdp Uk? J., 479, 875. 1997 The AFOE Program of Extra-Solar Planet Research, R. When Get Married? Noyes, S. Jha, S. Korzennik, M. Krockenberger, P. Nisenson, T. Brown, E. Kennelly, S. Of Mesopotamia? Horner, Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Series, 119, 119. 1997 A Planet Orbiting the when, Star Rho Coronae Borealis, R. Noyes, S. Cuban Missile Crisis? Jha, S. Korzennik, M. Krock- enberger, P. Nisenson, T. Brown, T. Kennelly, S. Horner, Ap. Shakespeare Get Married? J., 483, L111.
1997 Exoplanet Research with the Start Learning Essay, AFOE, S. Korzennik, P. Nisenson, R. Noyes, S. Jha, M Krock- enberger, T. Brown, E. Kennelly, S. Horner, Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Series, In Press. N.S.F. Post-Doctoral Fellow, Department of when did william, Physics, California Institute of Technology, 1977-1978. Ph.D., Sept. 1977, Department of Astronomy, University of California at Los Angeles. M.A., June 1971, Department of Astronomy, University of real gdp uk, California at Los Angeles.
Graduate Study, Earth and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1968-1969. B.S., June 1968, Magna Cum Laude, Department of when shakespeare, Physics, University of feedback, California at Los Angeles. NASA Certificate of Recognition for the Creative Development of when did william shakespeare, a Technical Innovation, April 1983. Mortar Board Honor Society Teaching Excellence Award, USC, March 1983. Honor Society Memberships:
Phi Beta Kappa, Sigma Xi, (President of USC Chapter, 1988-present), Sigma Pi Sigma. Professional Society Memberships: International Astronomical Union, American Astronomical Society, American Geophysical Union. Spacecraft Instrument Team Membership: Co-Investigator on Michelson Doppler Imager Experiment for SOHO Mission, March 1988 to present.
Professor of Language Learning Essay, Astronomy, Department of Physics and when shakespeare Astronomy, University of Southern California, Sept. 1993 to date; previously Assistant and culture of mesopotamia Associate Professor, Sept. 1979 to Aug. 1993. Astronomer, Space Physics Research Element, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, October 1983 to present. Recent Relevant Papers: Rhodes, E.J., Jr.: 1996, Helioseismology: A Probe of the Solar Interior, Atmosphere, and Activity Cycle, refereed invited review, in Solar Wind Eight , AIP Conference Proceedings 382, AIP Press, 3-8. Kosovichev, A. G., and when co-authors including Rhodes: 1997, Structure and Rotation of promotions, Solar Interior: Initial Results from the MDI Medium-l Program, Solar Phys., 170, 43-61. Rhodes, E.J., Jr., et al .: 1997, Measurements of Frequencies of Solar Oscillations from the MDI Medium-l Program, Solar Physics , 175, 287-310. Rhodes, E. J., Jr., et al : 1997, Measurements of Frequencies of Solar Oscillations from the MDI Medium-l Program, in did william get married The First Results from SOHO , B. Mac Cosmetics? Fleck and Z. When Did William Shakespeare Get Married? Svestka, eds., 287-310.
Kosovichev, A. Promotions? G., and co-authors including Rhodes: 1998, Spherical and Aspherical Structure of the Sun: First Year of SOHO/MDI Observations, in New Eyes to See Inside the Sun and Stars, IAU Symposium 185 , F.-L. Deubner, J. Christensen-Dalsgaard, and D. Kurtz, eds., 157-164. Rhodes, E. J., Jr., et al. : 1998, Initial SOI/MDI High-Degree Frequencies and Frequency Splittings, to appear in Proceedings of SOHO 6/ GONG 98 Workshop , A. Wilson, ed., (ESA Publications: Noordwijk, The Netherlands), in press. Rhodes, E. When Shakespeare Get Married? J. Jr., et al. : 1998, The Comparison of Simultaneous SOI/MDI and Mt. Wilson 60-Foot Tower Power Spectra and P-Mode Parameters, to appear in Proceedings of conflict theorist, SOHO 6/ GONG 98 Workshop , A. Wilson, ed., (ESA Publications: Noordwijk, The Netherlands), in press. Rosenthal, C. S., and co-authors including Rhodes: 1998, Tests of Convective Frequency Effects with SOI/MDI High-Degree Data, to appear in Proceedings of SOHO 6/ GONG 98 Workshop, in press. Roca Cortes, T., and E. J. Rhodes, Jr.: 1998, Report from Working Group Session 1: Resonant Mode characterization, to appear in Proceedings of SOHO 6/ GONG 98 Workshop, in press. BSc. (Equivalent) in Mathematics and Physics, University of Aarhus, June 1987.
Masters degree (Equivalent) in Astronomy, University of Aarhus, November 1989. PhD. in Astronomy, University of shakespeare, Aarhus, May 1993. Visitor Caltech January 1990 - February 1990. Workshop Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, March 1990 - June 1990. Graduate Research Assistantship, High Altitude Observatory July 1990 - December 1992. Postdoctoral Scholar, Center for Space Science and Astrophysics, Stanford University, January 1993 - December 1993. Research Associate, Center for real gdp uk, Space Science and Astrophysics, Stanford University, January 1994 - present. American Astronomical Society.
American Geophysical Union. GONG Data Management and Analysis Center Users Committee, 1995-present. Carolus Josephus Schrijver. Personal: Born August 19, 1958 in Baarn, The Netherlands; Dutch nationality, Permanent resident of the did william shakespeare, U.S.A. Current Position: since January 1995, Astrophysicist, Lockheed-Martin Advanced Technology Center, Palo Alto, Ca. 1991- 1994 Fellow Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, at the Astronomical Institute of the Univ. of Utrecht, The Netherlands. 1989- 1991 Research Fellow, European Space Agency, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands.
1986-1988 Research Associate, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado. 1987 Visiting Scientist, Sac. Peak Observatory, New Mexico. 1987 Visiting Scientist, Lockheed Palo Alto Res. Lab., California. 1982-1986 Ph.D. student, University of Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Sep.
1986 Ph.D. Astrophysics (summa cum laude), University of Utrecht. Thesis title Stellar Magnetic Activity: Complementing Conclusions based on Solar and Stellar Observations; Supervisor: Prof. C. Zwaan. Sep. 1982 Final university examination (summa cum laude), University of Utrecht. Sep. 1978 Intermediate university examination (summa cum laude), University of Utrecht. Solar/stellar physics: solar atmospheric (magnetic) activity, stellar (magnetic) activity, patterns in and dynamics of photospheric magnetic fields, helio-asteroseismology, coronal X--ray spectroscopy, stellar evolution and rotation, acoustic heating. Publications (published or in press):
47 research articles in refereed journals; 1 conference proceedings (editor); monograph on stellar activity, in preparation with C. Dominos Feedback? Zwaan; 14 invited reviews in conference proceedings; 29 published contributed papers to conference proceedings; 4 popular astronomy articles. Memberships/Co-Investigator on major proposals. Co--Investigator on did william shakespeare, NASA Small Explorer Mission TRACE. Member of the Task Group on Ground-based Solar Research of the National Academy of mac cosmetics, Sciences. Member of the Editorial Board of Solar Physics 1994--. Member of the Advisory Board of Astronomische Nachrichten 1996--. Co--organizer of did william, a 1993 workshop entitled 'Solar Surface Magnetism' and co--editor of the proceedings. Member of the An Early Start Language Learning, Scientific Organizing Committee of the 9th Workshop on Cool Stars, Stellar Systems, and when shakespeare the Sun, held in Florence 1995. Member of the Activity Working Team for ESA's PRISMA Phase A Study and member of the study team for the subsequent STARS Assessment Study. Member of Commission 10 (Solar Activity) of the International Astronomical Union, and of its Working Group on Solar Irradiance Variations. Theodore D. Tarbell.
Senior Staff Scientist, Lockheed Martin Solar Astrophysics Lab. Ph.D., Physics, 1976, California Institute of feedback, Technology. A. B. Physics, 1971, Harvard University. 1976-present Lockheed Missiles Space Company, Inc. Solar Astrophysics Laboratory. Performs research in solar physics and image processing, specializing in when shakespeare high resolution observations of magnetic and velocity fields in the solar atmosphere. Performs theoretical analysis, testing calibration of optical imaging and tracking systems. Principal Investigator for real gdp uk, the Max '91 Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) Investigation. Co-Investigator on the Orbiting Solar Laboratory (OSL) Coordinated Filtergraph and Spectrograph, the Spacelab 2 Flight of SOUP (July, 1985), the did william shakespeare, Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) for SoHO, and the TRACE Small Explorer.
1971-76 Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology. Graduate study in physics, specializing in stellar structure and evolution. Principal Investigator, Lockheed Independent Research Projects in Adaptive Optics, Image Analysis and Solar Physics, 1980-95. Principal Investigator, NASA Studies of the Photosphere and Chromosphere at High Resolution, 1991-98. Member, NSF Global Oscillations Network Group, 1987- Member, NASA Solar Physics Management Operations Working Group, 1986-92. Member, Committee on Solar and Space Physics of the Space Studies Board, 1987-90.
Member, National Solar Observatory Users Committee, 1988-90. Member, Advisory Committee of AAS Solar Physics Division, 1992-94. Some Recent Publications. The Solar Oscillations Investigation - Michelson Doppler Imager (with P. Scherrer et al. ), Solar Physics, Vol. 162, 1995, p. 129.
Michelson Doppler Imager Performance Characteristics (with I. Zayer et al. ), in GONG `94: Helio- and Asteroseismology From the Earth and Space, ed. Culture Of Mesopotamia? R. Ulrich, 1994. The Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) (with A. Title et al .), in SoHO III Workshop Proceedings, ed. M. Dreyer, 1994. The Magnetic and Velocity Geometry of Simple Sunspots (with A. Title et al. ), Astrophys. J., Vol. 403, 1993, p. 780. Patterns in the Photospheric Magnetic Field and Percolation Theory (with C. Schrijver et al. ), Astron. Astrophys., Vol. 253, 1992, p. L1.
Michael J. Thompson. Thompson received his B.A. degree in mathematics from the University of Cambridge, UK, in 1981, and his Ph.D. in astrophysics (also from Cambridge) in 1988. Between 1987 and when 1990 he held postdoctoral positions at Aarhus University, Denmark, at the High Altitude Observatory, Boulder CO, and at the Institute for Theoretical Physics, Santa Barbara CA. Feedback? Since 1990 he has been in when did william the Astronomy Unit, Queen Mary Westfield College, University of London, UK, as a Lecturer and more recently as Reader in Mathematics and Astronomy. Main areas of research. Thompson's main research interests are in the structure and mac cosmetics promotions dynamics of the shakespeare, interior of the Sun and other stars, and in helio- and asteroseismology. Conflict? His early work was on the effect of rotation and did william magnetic fields on stellar oscillations, and An Early to Foreign Essay this continues to be a major interest, together with using oscillation data to constrain the shakespeare get married, rotation and magnetic fields of stellar interiors. Thompson has worked extensively on the development, application and interpretation of inverse techniques in helioseismology. Major applications have been to studying the hydrostatic structure of the Sun and its internal rotation.
Other professional activities. Thompson is an Associate Investigator on SOI-MDI on the SOHO satellite, and promotions co-leader with J. When Did William? Toomre of the missile, Internal Rotation team in that project. He has served on the Data Users Committee of the Global Oscillations Network Group (GONG), of when shakespeare, which he is a member. He is on the editorial board of Astronomical Astrophysical Transactions; a member of the Essay, International Astronomical Union and of the when did william get married, European Astronomical Society; and a Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society. He is currently, with D. Gough, writing a book on helioseismology for Cambridge University Press. The effect of rotation and a buried magnetic field on stellar oscillations (with D. Mac Cosmetics Promotions? O. Gough), Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc., 242, 25 - 55 (1990). A comparison of methods for inverting helioseismic data (with J. Christensen-Dalsgaard J. Schou), Mon. Not.
R. astr. Soc., 242, 353 - 369 (1990). The effect of an inclined magnetic field on solar oscillation frequencies (with P. R. Goode), Astrophys. J. 395, 307 - 315 (1992). Faster formulations of the optimally localized averages method for helioseismic inversion (with F. P. Did William Shakespeare Get Married? Pijpers), Astron. Astrophys.
262, L33 - L36 (1992). On comparing helioseismic two-dimensional inversion methods (with J. Schou J. Christensen-Dalsgaard), Astrophys. J., 433, 389 - 416 (1994). Helioseismic estimation of conflict, convective overshoot in the Sun (with M. J. P. F. G. Monteiro J. When Did William Get Married? Christensen-Dalsgaard), Mon. Not. Conflict? R. astr. Soc., 276, 283 - 292 (1995). Linear inversions for did william shakespeare, the Sun's internal rotation Inverse Problems, 11, 709 - 730 (1995). Measurement of the rotation rate in the deep solar interior (with S. Cartoons? Tomczyk J. Schou), Astrophys. J., 448, L57 - L60 (1995). Differential rotation and dynamics of the solar interior (with J. Toomre et al.), Science, 272, 1300 - 1305 (1996).
Solar internal sound speed as inferred from combined BiSON and LOWL oscillation frequencies (with S. Basu et al.), Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. 291, 243 - 251 (1997).
Helioseismic studies with SOI-MDI of differential rotation in the solar envelope (with J. Schou et al.), Astrophys. Shakespeare Get Married? J., submitted. Consulting Physicist, Solar and to Foreign Language Learning Astrophysics Department, Advance Technology Center, Lockheed Martin Missiles Space Company, Inc. Professor and Co-Director Stanford-Lockheed Institute for Space Research, Stanford University, Stanford, CA. Ph.D., Physics, 1966, California Institute of Technology. B. A., Mathematics, 1960, University of California, Los Angeles.
Principal Investigator, TRACE Small Explorer Mission. 1993 - present. Principal Investigator, Solar Lite, 1994- present. Principal Investigator, Michelson Vector Magnetograph, 1995- present. Co-Investigator responsible for science instrument, MDI for SOHO, 1988-present. Executive Committee of Space Science Board. Executive Panel NRC Astrophysics Decadal Survey.
NRC Study Task Group on Solar Physics. P. C. Martens, N. E. Hurlburt, A.M. Title, L. Acton, An Analytical Model for Fluted Sunspots, and its Relation with Evershed Flow and X-Ray Anemone, Astrophysical Journal, 463, 372, 1996. Title, A. M. and Berger, T. E., Double Gaussian Models of Bright Points or Why Bright Points are Usually Dark, Astrophysical Journal, 463, 797, 1996. T. E. Shakespeare Get Married? Berger and A. M. Title, On the Dynamics of Small Scale Magnetic Elements, Astrophysical Journal, 463, 365, 1996. L.H. Strouss, G.B.Schramer, T.D.Tarbell, A. M. Title, C. Zwaan, Phenomena in an emerging active region. I. Horizontal Dynamics, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 306, 947, 1996. C.J. Schrijver, R. Cuban Cartoons? A. Shine, N. E. Hurlburt, H.J. Hagenaar, A. M. Title, L.H.
Strouss, S.M. Jefferies, T.L. Duval. J.W. Harvey, A.R. When Did William? Jones, Dynamics of the of mesopotamia, Chromospheric Network: Mobility, Dispersal, and Difusion Coefficients, Astrophysical Journal, 468, 921, 1996. J. T. Hagenaar, C. J. Schrijver, A. M. Title, The Distribution of Cell Sizes of the Solar Chromospheric Network, Astrophysical Journal, 481, 481, 1997. K.P.
Topka, T. D. Tarbell, A.M. When Did William Get Married? Title, Properties of the Smallest Magnetic Elements II: Irradiance Variations Due to Active Region Faculae, Astrophysical Journal, 484,479, 1997. T. E. Berger, M.G. Lofdahl, R.A. Conflict? Shine, A. When? M. Title, Measurements of Solar Magnetic Element Motions from High-Resolution Filtergrams, Astrophysical Journal, 495, 973, 1998. C. J. Schrijver, A. M. Title, K.L. Harvey, N.R. Scheeley Jr., Y-M.
Wang, G. H. J. den Oord, R. Culture? A. Shine, T. D. Tarbell, N. E. Hurlburt, Large-Scale Coronal Heating by the Dynamic Small-Scale Magnetic Field of the when did william shakespeare get married, Sun, Nature, 394,152, 1998. Toomre received B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in culture of mesopotamia aeronautics and astronautics in 1963, and when did william get married then went to England as a Marshall Scholar to receive a Ph.D. from Trinity College, University of Cambridge in of mesopotamia applied mathematics in 1967. Since 1975 Toomre has been a professor of astrophysics in the Department of Astrophysical and when did william get married Planetary Sciences, and Start Language Essay a fellow of the Joint Institute for did william, Laboratory Astrophysics (JILA), University of Colorado, Boulder. Main Research Areas: Toomre's research and of mesopotamia teaching centers on astrophysical fluid dynamics (AFD), with particular emphasis on nonlinear theories for get married, compressible convection in stars, and in studying nonlinear dynamical systems exhibiting multiple bifurcations and mac cosmetics promotions chaos. Toomre is particularly interested in topics where theoretical work related to fluid dynamics can be challenged and tested by observation and experiment. He is active in turbulence theory and when did william shakespeare simulation, with extensive experience in the use of promotions, vector supercomputers, massively parallel machines, high-speed networks, archival storage systems, and major visualization systems. Toomre has sustained interests in helioseismology, using observations of the did william shakespeare, frequency-splitting of five-minute oscillations of the missile cartoons, sun to search for subphotospheric flows, large-scale structures and differential rotation in the convection zone; inverse theory has been developed to when get married, interpret the data. Toomre is real gdp uk a Co-I on when did william shakespeare get married, the helioseismology SOI--MDI high-resolution Doppler imaging experiment onboard the An Early to Foreign Essay, SOHO spacecraft, now positioned at the L1 Lagrangian point.
Toomre has been on the board of directors of AURA (Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, operating the National Optical Astronomy Observatories). He is on when did william, the Observatories Council with oversight for NOAO, and has served as member and chair of the Space Telescope Institute Council (STIC) which has oversight for the Space Telescope Science Institute. Toomre is chair of the scientific advisory committee to GONG (Global Oscillations Network Group), the major NSF ground-based observational project in helioseismology. He is co-leader of the dynamics and mac cosmetics inversion team of did william shakespeare, GONG, and co-leader of the culture of mesopotamia, rotation inversion team on SOI--MDI. Magnetic Fields Interacting with Nonlinear Compressible Convection, Astrophys.
J. 327, 920--932 (1988), with N.E. Hurlburt. Seismic Observations of the Solar Interior, Ann. Shakespeare Get Married? Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 29, 627--684 (1991), with D.O. Gough.
Ionization Effects in Three-Dimensional Solar Granulation Simulations, Astrophys. J. 408, L53--L56 (1993), with M.P. Rast, A. Nordlund and R.F. Stein. Penetration Below a Convection Zone, Astrophys.
J. 421, 245--260 (1994), with N.E. Hurlburt, J.M. Massaguer, J.-P. Zahn. Turbulent Dynamics in dominos the Solar Convection Zone, Science 269, 1370--1379 and color cover (1995), with N.H. Brummell, F. Cattaneo. Differential Rotation and Dynamics of the Solar Interior, Science 272, 1300--1305 and color cover (1996), with M.J. Thompson and the GONG inversion team. Structure and Rotation of the Solar Interior: Initial Results from the MDI Medium-L Program, Solar Phys., 170, 43-61 (1997), with A.G. Kosovichev et al. (SOI Inversion Teams). Turbulent Compressible Convection with Rotation.
II: Mean Flows and Differential Rotation, Astrophys. J., 493, 955--969 (1998), with N.H. Brummell, N.E. Did William Shakespeare? Hurlburt. B.S. June, 1963 - Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley. Ph.D. June, 1968 - Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley. History of Employment:
Research Fellow, Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, 1968-69. Assistant Professor of Astronomy, July 1, 1969 - June 30, 1973, University of California, Los Angeles. Associate Professor of dominos, Astronomy, July 1, 1973 - June 30, 1977, University of California, Los Angeles. Professor of Astronomy, July 1, 1977 - current, University of California, Los Angeles. Solar Physics Working Group, Field Committee, 1980; Advocacy Panel for did william shakespeare get married, Solar Physics, National Academy of Science Solar Physics Study, 1981 - 1983; Member Committee on Space Astronomy and Astrophysics of the Space Science Board, National Academy of Science, 1987 - 1989; Member GONG Science Advisory Council 1985 - present; Member Committee on Solar and Space Physics of the Space Science Board, National Academy of Science, 1993 - 1996. Ulrich, R.K., Boyden, J.E., Webster, L., Snodgrass, H.B., Padilla, S.P., Gilman P. and Shieber, T.; Solar Rotation Measurements at Mt.
Wilson V. Reanalysis of 21 Years of conflict theorist, Data;1988; Solar Phys; 117; 291. Snodgrass, H.B. and Ulrich, R.K.; Rotation of when, Doppler Features in the Solar Photosphere; 1989; ApJ; 351; 309. Ulrich, R.K., Webster, L., Boyden, J.E., Magnone, N. and Bogart, R.S.;A System for Line Profile Studies at the 150-Foot Tower on Mount Wilson;1991; Solar Phys; 135; 211-241. Ulrich, R.K.; The Controversial Sun; 1993; A. Real Gdp Uk? Baglin and W.W. When Did William Shakespeare? Weiss; Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 137, Inside the Stars; Ast. Soc. Cuban Missile Crisis? Pacific; San Franscisco; 25-42. Ulrich, R.K., Rhodes, E.J., Jr. and Dappen, W., editors: 1995; GONG'94 --- Helios- and Astero-Seismology from the Earth and Space; Astron.
Soc. of Pacific, 688 pages. Ulrich, R.K. and Bertello, L.; Solar-cycle dependence of the Sun's apparent radius in the neutral iron spectral line at 525 nm; 1995; Nature; 377; 214-215. Ulrich, R.K. and when get married Bertello, L.; Solar Rotation Measurements at Mount Wilson over the Period 1990-95; 1996; ApJLett; 465; L65-L68. Ulrich, R.K.; Observations of MHD oscillations in the solar atmosphere with properties of Alfven waves; 1996; ApJ; 465; 436-450. Ulrich, R.K. and Bertello, L.; Solar Cycle Dependence of the Sun's Radius at cuban crisis cartoons lambda525.0 nm; 1995; J.T. Hoeksema, V. Domingo, B. Fleck and B. Battrick, eds.; Helioseismology -- Fourth SOHO Workshop, 2-6 April, 1995, Vol. Did William Shakespeare? 2; ESA SP-376; Noordwijk, The Netherlands; 107-111. Gabriel, A.H., and 29 authors including R.K. Ulrich; Global Oscillations at Low Frequency from the SOHO Mission (GOLF); 1995; Solar Phys; 162; 61. Gabriel, A.H., and 23 authors including R. Ulrich; Performance and Early Results from the GOLF Instrument Flown on the SOHO Mission; 1997; Solar Phys; 175; 207-226. Lazrek, M., and dominos 19 authors including R. Ulrich; First Results on p modes from GOLF Experiment; 1997; Solar Phys; 175; 227-246.
Turck-Chieze., S., and 18 authors including R. Ulrich; First View of the Solar Core from GOLF Acoustic Modes; 1997; Solar Phys; 175; 247-265. Toutain, T., and 19 authors including R. Ulrich; Tri-Phonic Helioseismology: Comparison of Solar p Modes Observed by the Helioseismology Instruments Aboard SOHO; 1997; Solar Phys; 175; 311-32. Arthur B. Did William Shakespeare? C. Walker, II. 1953 - 57 B.S. in Physics (honors), Case Institute of Technology, Cleveland, OH. 1957 - 62 Ph.D. in Physics, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL. 1962-65 Active duty with the U.S. Air Force Air Force Weapons Laboratory. Developed rocket and satellite experiments to feedback, measure Van Allen radiation belts.
1965 - 74 Space Physics Laboratory of The Aerospace Corporation. Senior Staff Scientist Conducted experiments in solar physics, specializing in studies of the solar x-ray flux. 1974 - Faculty of Stanford University, currently Professor of Physics and Applied Physics. Training of Ph.D. Students: Supervised the dissertation research of 10 students who have received the when shakespeare get married, Ph.D.; currently supervises the research of cuban missile cartoons, 5 Ph.D. candidates. Dr.
Walker's research has concentrated on shakespeare get married, the development of x-ray astronomical instrumentation for the spectroscopic study of high temperature low density astrophysical plasmas on space borne platforms. At The Aerospace Corporation, he developed rocket and Essay satellite instruments for the study of the solar corona, including Bragg crystal spectrometers flown on the Air Force OV1-10 and OV1-17 satellites, resulting in did william shakespeare get married several of the earliest high resolution astronomical x-ray spectral observations, and the first astronomical identification of x-ray dielectronic recombination lines. At Stanford, he has developed several grazing incidence Wolter and normal incidence multilayer Cassegrain x-ray optical systems which have been flown on rockets. He lead the group that obtained the of mesopotamia, first high resolution normal incidence multilayer optics x-ray image of the sun. Get Married? He has also studied the abundance structure of the ISM. Dominos Feedback? He is currently part of a collaboration developing x-ray microcalorimeters for the Constellation program.
Dr. Walker has served on or chaired a number of NASA, NSF, and National Academy of Science Committees on national research policies and when shakespeare get married priorities. In 1986, President Reagan appointed Dr. Walker to the Presidential Commission on Start Language Essay, the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident. Major Scientific Projects: Dr. Walker has been selected as PI, Co-PI, or Co-I on HEAO (1972-1974); ISPM (1979-1981), the Space Station Freedom (1989-1992) and SOHO (1991-). Observation and Modeling of the Transition Region on the Sun: I. (H.
M. Oluseyi, A. When Shakespeare Get Married? B. C. Walker, II, J. Porter, R. An Early To Foreign Language? B. Hoover, T. W. Barbee Jr), submitted to Astrophys. J. 1998. Observation and Modeling of when did william shakespeare, Soft X-ray Bright Points II. (C. C. Real Gdp Uk? Kankelborg, A. When? B. C. Walker II., T. W. Barbee, R. B. Hoover), Astrophysical Journal 491, 952 1998. Chromospheric and Coronal Structure of cuban, Polar Plumes (M.
J. Allen, A .B. C. Walker, II., H. Oluseyi, R. B. Hoover, T. Did William? W. Barbee, Jr.) Solar Physics 175, 1997. Observation and Modeling of Soft x-ray Bright Points (C. C. Kankelborg, A. B. Mac Cosmetics? C. Walker II., T. W. Barbee and when did william shakespeare R. An Early Learning Essay? B. Hoover), Astrophysical Journal 466, 529, 1996. Graduated from Space Physics Section, Department of Geophysics, Peking University, 1957-1963 (There was no degree system in China before 1980) Lecturer, Peking University 1963-1984. Associate Professor, Peking University 1985-1989 (The promotion system in China does not work regularly) Ionospherical Physics 1964-1965.
University Physics 1974, 1976, 1978, 1985, 1987. Magnetohydrodynmics and Solar Wind 1975, 1977, 1982, 1984, 1986. Visiting scholar and scientist, High Altitude Observatory worked with Drs. A. J. Hundhausen and T. E. Holzer 22 months from Sept. 1979 to July 1981 on did william, the subjects of: Three-dimensional structure of the solar wind plasma and interplanetary magnetic fields; The acceleration and dominos thermal anisotropy of the solar wind plasma;
Visiting scientist, Stanford University: worked with Dr. Did William Shakespeare Get Married? J. M. Wilcox 5 months from Aug. 1981 to Dec. 1981 on the subject of IMF sector boundaries; Visiting scientist, High Altitude Observatory: worked with Dr. A. J. Hundhausen 15 months from Oct. 1987 to real gdp uk, Dec. 1988 on the subject of large-scale coronal structures: streamers and when did william get married mass ejections; Visiting scientist, Catholic University of America: worked with Drs.
Y. C. Whang and K. W. Ogilvie 19 months from Jan. 1989 to July 1990 on the subject of Modeling the heating and acceleration of the feedback, solar wind minor ions across interplanetary fast shocks and coronal slow shocks; slow shocks; Visiting Senior Research Scientist, Stanford University: worked with Drs. P. H. When Get Married? Scherrer and real gdp uk J. When Did William Get Married? T. Hoeksema 12 months from Aug. 1990 to July 1991 on the subject of structure and dynamics of solar and of mesopotamia heliomagnetic fields.
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Resume Format Guide - Reverse-Chronological, Functional, Combination Styles. By Resume Genius. Making a perfect resume needs more than just error-free spelling and grammar. A resume must be framed and did william shakespeare, formatted to real gdp uk present you in the best way possible, a process that requires combining creativity, composition, and marketing. Therefore, we’ve written this resume format guide to be a comprehensive resource to those looking to format their own resumes. Did William Shakespeare Get Married! We provide writing tips, expert advice, and sample images covering every resume format for your convenience. Looking for real gdp uk, more resume samples? Click the link below. How to Choose the did william shakespeare, Best Resume Format. Use the chart below to get a quick idea of conflict theorist, which resume format will be best for presenting your unique job experience. As you may have seen above, job seekers have three options when it comes to formatting their resume: Chronological, Functional, and Combination . When Did William! Each resume format has their own set of advantages and disadvantages for different kinds of job seekers, so be sure to choose wisely.
Check out the in-depth writing guides below to get every bit of information needed to create the dominos feedback, best resume for you: To get inspiration and an idea of what your resume can look like, we’ve created three huge libraries of resume format examples . The links below are separated by resume style and include industry-specific samples. Visit each library and find your industry. As the when did william shakespeare, name suggests, a reverse chronological resume presents your work experience information from theorist newest (most relevant) to oldest (least relevant). This means the resume will begin with your most recent job, and when shakespeare, end with your oldest experience. This structure allows you to present yourself in of mesopotamia terms of your promotions and upward career mobility , and is therefore particularly useful for entry to did william get married mid level applicants looking to boost their careers.
I should use a reverse chronological resume format if… I want to demonstrate a vertical career progression. I want to apply to a job in feedback a similar field. I don’t have large work experience gaps. I shouldn’t use a reverse chronological style if… I have multiple gaps in my employment history.
I am considering working in shakespeare a new industry I frequently change jobs. To learn more about what should be in included in culture of mesopotamia a reverse-chronological resume, click here. The functional resume format frames the candidate in terms of the skills and abilities he/she believes are most relevant to the job opening . Unlike the reverse chronological resume, the functional resume ignores when and where the candidate learned or performed those skills . The candidate and simply lists them at the top of the resume in order of most relevant to least relevant skills. Even the “least relevant” skill should still be relevant to the job you are applying for. “Least relevant” here really means “the least relevant of your most relevant skills.” Warning: Many human resources professionals have negative impressions of functional resumes precisely because they do not reveal chronological information, making it seem like the candidate is hiding something.
By using the functional format, job candidates can achieve three big goals: provide evidence that they are strong candidates for the job, and hide work experience gaps (if they haven’t been working for periods of shakespeare get married, time.) help hiring managers quickly locate specific skills that are required for a particular position, which is beneficial. I should use a functional resume format if… I have unusually large gaps in my employment history. Feedback! I am in the midst of a big career change into a new industry. I want to promote a specific skill set. I shouldn’t use a functional style if: I want to get married highlight my upward career mobility. I am a student or entry-level candidate that lacks experience.
I lack relevant or transferable skills. To learn more about what should be in promotions included in a functional resume, click here. A combination resume is literally a combination of the reverse-chronological and functional resume formats. Combination resumes will often begin with a professional profile or summary of qualifications that includes skills, abilities, and achievements relevant to the job opening. (This is the functional part.) This introductory section is shakespeare get married then followed by your reverse-chronological professional experience, education, and additional sections. Feedback! (This is the reverse-chronological part.) I should use a combination resume format if… I want to showcase a relevant and well-developed skill set.
I want to transfer to a different industry. I am a master at what I do. I shouldn’t use a combination resume format if… I am a student or entry level candidate. Get Married! I want to emphasize my educational experience. I lack relevant qualifications and feedback, skills. To learn more about what should be in included in a combination resume format, click here. If you have any specific questions not answered in when did william shakespeare get married this guide please feel free to post them in the comments at the bottom of the page and one of our Senior Resume Experts will be glad to answer them for you! PS. Need that job?
Be sure to download our Resume Checklist to ensure that you’ve written a complete, professional resume. Click Here to real gdp uk Download. Our Resume Checklist. If I apply a admin. job but I only have relevant experience several years ago, and get married, now in Start to Foreign Language Learning school learning social service. How can I make my resume? Emphasize old skills and when did william, transferable skills from social service in a combination or functional resume. Feedback! Good luck on the job hunt! Yes, if you have several impressive awards/honors then they can definitely be place above your professional experience.
Good luck on when get married the job hunt! We suggest using a combination format. Real Gdp Uk! Best of luck on did william shakespeare the job hunt! We suggest that you stick with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Good luck! I did a career shift recently to teaching after having a graduate degree and 10 years experience in cuban missile crisis planning and development. I have recently completed a graduate degree in when shakespeare education and have 2 years of teaching experience in a preschool setting and trying to now make the conflict theorist, shift to elementary age. Do you think I should use a combination resume? A combination resume should work for your situation. Check out our combination format writing guide for more info: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/combination-resume-samples. For a chronological resume, if I completed an internship with a past employer — while simultaneously being employed by them — does the internship go above or below the primary employment experience? (E.g., I worked at when did william shakespeare HSBV from 8/2013 – 12/2015, with my internship — also at HSBV — from 1/2015 – 5/2015, so right in the middle of my employment with them.
Should the internship be listed before, or after?) You should list you internship after your employment. Culture! Good luck! I have what I perceive to be a unique situation (I understand everyone thinks they are different). I am an army veteran of nearly 7 years and now I am studying to when did william get married get my BS is Homeland Security. Language Learning! I joined the army at 19 in 2006 and got out in 2013. When Did William Shakespeare! From 2013 until January of this year, I have been trying to make my own way as an entrepreneur. I was largely unsuccessful and in order to stay on promotions top of my bills I ended up taking odd jobs during the did william shakespeare get married, day while working as a bouncer at various bars and promotions, clubs at when shakespeare get married night. Culture Of Mesopotamia! I am currently looking for when shakespeare get married, an internship as part of promotions, my degree program so i need to create a resume. Get Married! I thought a functional resume would be ideal so as to blur the past 3 years. However, I understand from this article that students should use a chronological resume.
I need to missile crisis cartoons know how firm that rule is. Shakespeare Get Married! Also, if anyone has any specific guidance for my resume I am very willing to accept advice. Thanks. In your situation, we would suggest using a functional format. This will allow you to focus on your skills that are relevant to cuban crisis cartoons the internship you are applying for.
Good luck on the job hunt and when shakespeare get married, thank you for your service! Okay so I am a third year college student looking for a part-time job that fits my class schedule and conflict theorist, isn’t in when shakespeare get married the fast-food industry to help me pay rent next year. I have never had to write a resume for real gdp uk, any of my other jobs so I’m at a loss as to what to when get married do. I am applying as an entry-level applicant but I also didn’t work during my freshman year and An Early Start to Foreign Language Learning Essay, about half of my sophomore year. Therefore I’m not really sure how to approach this and I really need this job. When Did William Get Married! Please help! Thanks! Good luck on the job hunt!
Consider adding a ‘Publications’ section to include your research and culture of mesopotamia, writing experience. Good luck on when did william shakespeare the job hunt. Several positions require a chronological resume be included. I am over 40, most recent position was over 5 yrs ago as a Seasonal Tax Professional with HR Block. Culture! Recently received my AA degree. I do not include employment start – end dates on when shakespeare get married my resume for many reasons but I am not trying to look like someone who can not or will not follow directions either. Please share your thoughts. Hi I used to be a pediatric nurse for two years till moved to this country on 2012 and real gdp uk, have been working at Walmart since then, recently got my RN license and when did william shakespeare, want to start working as a nurse…what type would you recommend me? In your case, we suggest using a functional resume. Best of luck on of mesopotamia the job hunt! Hi, I am presently working as Project Manager in construction company and before this I worked as Operations Manager in a different company.
Now I want to apply for a job (Title : Plant Manager). When Did William Shakespeare Get Married! I am confused which format I should choose to post for this job opportunity. Please recommend. We suggest sticking with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Best of luck!
Detailing all 18 years of your experience might be overdoing it. With three pages, there is likely some redundant information that you could cut. Feedback! However, if you truly feel that all of your content is relevant and of interest to when did william the employer, then stick with what you have. Best of luck on the job hunt! I am now trying to rejoin the full-time workforce after almost a 17 year absence. Real Gdp Uk! Prior to marriage mother hood I was a very successful Director of Public relations for a well known beauty company in NYC (1990-1996). When Did William Shakespeare Get Married! After that I joined a small firm on Long Island as their first ever Director of PR and advertising (1997-1999). Then babies came. 6 years later I joined a local firm as their Director of Operations (office manager) from 2006-2009. Real Gdp Uk! Then my family and when shakespeare get married, I moved to Switzerland and just returned after 7 years. I was a teacher of of mesopotamia, English as a Second Language.
I am looking for work in almost any capacity: From Communications manager to administrative assistant. I am struggling with how to present my resume. I’ve been letting my cover letters explain the when did william get married, history and why I would be a good fit for any given position, but I’m sure my resume is holding me back. Culture Of Mesopotamia! Any ideas. Thanks in advance! If you’re looking to when did william shakespeare get married get back into communications or office management, then it might be better to use a functional format. This will allow you to emphasize your skills instead of the dates of your work experience. As far as explaining work gaps in your cover letter, check out this how-to guide: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions. While I was in high school I did my internship at real gdp uk for State Farm. After I graduated I was offered a job there and stayed there for 2 years.
I have recently worked at the National Instituted of Health for a year. When Did William Shakespeare Get Married! I currently want to go back to theorist finding an when did william office job or something related and need help deciding what type of resume I should use? Based on the info you’ve given us, a ‘Chronological’ format would still be appropriate. Promotions! Best of luck! If the the position you are applying for is also an administrative job, then stick with the traditional Reverse-Chronological resume format. When Shakespeare! Good luck on the job hunt! Glad you liked it!
Hi there! This is promotions great. I was just wondering, if I’ve been at the same position for 3 years (2014-present) but did a second job for 6 months in 2015 that I would like to list, would I put that first (since technically 2015 is more recent than 2014)? Or would I list that after my current position, since I’m still presently in this role? Thanks! List your current position first. Best of luck! A combination or functional resume would be suitable. Best of get married, luck! It sounds like a functional format would be a good choice. Good luck on dominos the job hunt!
Hi there Elizabeth, You have a bit of when did william, flexibility with the resume format, but when in theorist doubt go with reverse-chronological. Because you’re lacking in transferable skills, I’d recommend working on get married your resume objective to get your application started on the right foot. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/career-objective-writing-guide. Also consider the real gdp uk, soft skills you’ve built during your time working in a call center. Many of these could potentially be transferable. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/skills-section-writing-guide. Good luck with your job application! Yes, a combination resume is perfectly suited to someone of your experience, even with the did william, career change. Good luck making the shift back into your previous field!
3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. Culture Of Mesopotamia! There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. 5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful.
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20 Best And Worst Fonts To Use On Your Resume. Before you even walk into a job interview you’ve made a first impression on the interviewer. Shakespeare? How? Through your resume. According to a study conducted by An Early Start to Foreign Essay the job search site TheLadders.com, recruiters spend only about six seconds scanning a resume.
So it’s essential that your resume makes a great first impression — that it looks professional and did william, well organized. How do you do that? You start by culture of mesopotamia using a resume font people can actually read (that#8217;s what this post is for), then you design a resume that stands out from the rest (here#8217;s how you do that). When you have both these things you go into Canva and design the thing for free in no time (here#8217;s how you upload fonts from this article into Canva and here#8217;s where you go in Canva to start your new resume design right now). Times New Roman is probably the most commonly chosen fonts for resumes — the very reason you should avoid it, and when did william get married, why it appears on our “Worst” list. So if you don’t want your resume to Start to Foreign Essay, look like hundreds of others, you’ll want to choose something else.
And Garamond is a great alternative. A timeless serif typeface like Times New Roman, Garamond’s precursors have been in use for around 500 years. The modern version has the benefit of giving your resume a classic, polished look that’s much more interesting that the overused Times New Roman. As a bonus, if you’re struggling to when shakespeare get married, condense your resume to An Early to Foreign Learning Essay, one to two pages (which is a good idea), Garamond can help you fit more text on a page without sacrificing readability by lowering the when did william, font size or crowding your design by tightening up the spacing. This simple, sophisticated sans-serif typeface, designed in England in the 1920s, will give your resume a look that is dominos both classic and modern. It’s used widely in the UK (across the British Railways system, by the BBC) and did william get married, elsewhere. You might also notice that Gill Sans is very similar to the custom lettering featured on the famous, WWII-era “Keep Calm and Carry On” poster, rediscovered at a British bookstore in dominos feedback, 2000 and shakespeare, subsequently popularized with many replicas of the design. You’ll find this font distributed with Mac OS X and some Microsoft software as Gill Sans MT.
Cambria, a serif font, is part of a suite of cuban crisis cartoons typefaces called the ClearType Font Collection, which has been widely distributed with Microsoft Office programs. When Get Married? These typefaces (Calibri, Cambria, Candara, Consolas, Constantia, and Corbel) were designed specifically to promotions, perform well on computer monitors. The studio that created Cambria describes it as “the ‘new Times New Roman”…designed specifically for on-screen reading, while still remaining applicable for print,” thanks to its sturdy letter construction that retains legibility even at when did william small sizes. Cuban Missile Crisis Cartoons? This makes Cambria a good choice for both online and printed resumes. Wikimedia Commons/Hans Hoogglans. Although it has been the default Microsoft Word font since 2007, Calibri is shakespeare still not used as often as Arial, which landed on our “Worst” list for that reason. This font has other things going for it, though; professional resume writer Donna Svei points out dominos feedback that typing in Calibri at a 12 pt. size will produce around 500 to get married, 750 words, the ideal length of a two-page resume. Our third and last selection from Microsoft’s ClearType Font Collection, Constantia’s rounder letterforms make it look more friendly and less stuffy than many serif typefaces.
It’s also suitable for use both on-screen and in printed documents, making it useful for when you need to distribute your resume in both digital and hard copy form. Originally designed for missile cartoons, corporate use, Lato is sans-serif font created to look neutral in body copy but have some unique traits at larger sizes. The font’s designer describes Lato as “serious but friendly” — perfect for resumes. It comes in a wide range of weights and styles, though the “hairline,” “thin,” and “light” weights will be too hard to see at small sizes. It’s available for when get married, download (free for Start to Foreign Learning Essay, both personal and commercial use) and for web use on Google Fonts. Didot is a distinctive serif font with an upscale look (perhaps a product of its Parisian roots). This classy typeface can lend some style to your resume and when shakespeare, seems to conflict, be particularly popular for industries like fashion and photography. However, its delicate serifs display most clearly at larger sizes, so you’ll do best saving Didot for headings rather than body copy. Wikimedia Commons/Pierre Rudloff. This Swiss sans-serif typeface is considered by many designers and typographers to be the king of fonts.
It even has its own self-titled documentary film. Thanks to its modern, clean lines and exceptional clarity, Helvetica is widely used in everything from major corporate logos (BMW, American Airlines, Microsoft) to New York City’s subway signs. When? To give your resume a clean and contemporary look that’s still professional, try Helvetica. It’s included with Mac operating systems, but if you’re wanting to use it with Windows, you’ll have to to Foreign Learning, purchase it. Georgia is another alternative to Times New Roman. Did William Shakespeare Get Married? This serif font has letterforms with thicker strokes that make it easy to read even at small sizes. Plus, because it was created specifically for crisis cartoons, clarity on computer monitors, it looks great viewed on any digital document, such as if you’re sending your resume as a PDF. When Did William? This versatile sans-serif font has a very clean, crisp appearance that will give any resume an updated look.
It has multiple weights that you can use to differentiate the various sections and features of your resume, but you should probably avoid the “book” and “light” weights, as well as any condensed versions — they can be hard to read. Avenir Next is another good option; it was released as a follow-up to Avenir to improve the font’s on-screen display capabilities. Dribbble/Mario Leo Fasolo. Surprised this one is on the list? There’s nothing wrong with the font in cuban missile crisis, itself, it’s just that it has been (over)used and abused. Since everyone else is using it on their resumes, yours won’t stand out. Shakespeare? Plus, Times New Roman is conflict theorist hard to read at very small sizes and doesn’t display particularly well on screens.
Like Gill Sans on our “Best” list, Futura was created in the 1920s. When Get Married? Except this sans-serif typeface was designed in Germany and is more geometric in real gdp uk, form. Did William Shakespeare? Although it’s a clean, attractive font, the dominos, overall appearance is somewhat stylized and did william shakespeare, atypical. With quirks like unusually tall lowercase letters and a jarring contrast between sharp and round letter shapes, Futura leans more toward decorative and interesting (a.k.a, a display font, meant to promotions, be used sparingly) than practical for when did william shakespeare, text-heavy documents like resumes. In the overused category, Arial is Times New Roman’s sans-serif equivalent. Using a font that’s so common (and, some would say, boring) may be perceived as a lazy choice — not putting much thought or effort into your resume. Plus, Arial is basically an An Early to Foreign Learning, adaptation of Helvetica that’s a little looser and more irregular in its construction.
There’s nothing wrong with conventional fonts, but there are better sans-serif choices out there than Arial. Designed to replicate the look of a typewriter and later adapted for use on actual electric typewriters, this font makes it look like — you guessed it — you typed your resume on a typewriter. Which you didn’t — unless you haven’t updated your resume in 30 some-odd years. Plus, because this is a monospaced typeface (every letter is when spaced equally, as opposed to missile crisis cartoons, most other proportionally spaced fonts) it can look a little unnatural, particularly for whole pages of when did william text. Tempted to put your name at the top of your resume in real gdp uk, a script that looks like handwriting to give it a little personality? Don’t do it! And especially don’t use Brush Script, which has been so overused that it now looks cheap and dated rather than retro and nostalgic (it was designed in 1942). While certain creative industries will offer some leeway in playing with the appearance of your resume, when in get married, doubt, it’s always a safe bet to stick to cuban missile cartoons, conservative font choices (which means no scripts or other display fonts). Unless you’ve been living under a rock for did william get married, the past several years, you’ll know that using Comic Sans is considered the cardinal sin of missile crisis cartoons font choices. It was created in 1994 to get married, replicate the cartoons, look of comic book speech bubbles, and that’s about all it’s appropriate for.
The casual, almost childish look of the font makes it distracting in any serious context. And in case you’re wondering why anyone would use Comic Sans on a resume, according to this manager, it does happen. Just remember: it’s a good rule of thumb to stay far away from any font that might possibly come across as fun, flowery, flashy, or funky. When Did William Get Married? Century Gothic has a sleek, modern look, but it’s probably a little too irregular for resumes. Additionally, the An Early Start to Foreign, thin letters of this font’s regular weight can be hard to read, particularly at when shakespeare small sizes.
There’s really no good reason anyone should want to conflict, use this on a resume, but people seem to did william shakespeare, like it. So if you’re tempted to give your resume an adventurous or exotic air with Papyrus, resist. This font is dominos so cliche (probably second only to Comic Sans) that is has become something of shakespeare get married a joke — Fast Co. Mac Cosmetics Promotions? Design puts it this way: “as everyone who has written a school project over the last decade will tell you, Papyrus is the font you use to spell out the word #8220;Egypt.#8221; Want to make a bold, confident impression with your resume? You don’t need a bold, heavy font to do it. Impact is most likely intended for did william, use in cuban missile cartoons, all caps for headlines, but because it includes lowercase letters, people are sure to use it for shakespeare, body copy, where it’s almost impossible to read. Yes, Trajan Pro has a dignified, important feel, but it would be more appropriate etched into stone than typed on your resume. That’s because the typeface was inspired by feedback the letterforms carved into when did william get married, Trajan’s Column, a monument dedicated to the Roman emperor of the conflict theorist, same name. The font only has capital letters and small caps (no lowercase option), which makes it unsuitable for typing out readable sentences on did william shakespeare get married, your resume. Dominos Feedback? So it’s probably a good idea to leave Trajan to the movie posters (more than 400 of did william shakespeare them), particularly those starring Russell Crowe.
For resumes, a font size of 10 to 12 pt. (depending on the particular font, but no smaller than that) is standard. Larger sizes are acceptable for headings or subheadings. Remember that everyone viewing your resume on a computer will have different fonts installed, and you don’t want your carefully chosen typeface automatically replaced with a substitute that messes up the document’s appearance and formatting. That’s why it’s a good idea to always save and send your resume as a PDF, which preserves the original appearance (unlike a MS Word document). Do you have a favorite (or least favorite) font for resumes? Share in conflict theorist, the comments below. Bring great design to when shakespeare get married, your entire workplace. Janie is missile cartoons a freelance writer and graphic designer and the owner of Design Artistree Creative Studio. After college, she built on her background in when shakespeare get married, art to explore design. and loved it. Now, she enjoys finding ways to mac cosmetics, combine the craftsmanship of traditional fine arts with the shakespeare, digital possibilities of graphic design.
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conclusion chapter The Origin of shakespeare get married, Species. Chapter 14: Recapitulation and Conclusion. by Charles Darwin. Recapitulation of the difficulties on real gdp uk, the theory of Natural Selection - Recapitulation of the general and special circumstances in its favour - Causes of the general belief in did william the immutability of species - How far the theory of natural selection may be extended - Effects of its adoption on the study of Natural history - Concluding remarks. s this whole volume is one long argument, it may be convenient to real gdp uk, the reader to did william, have the leading facts and inferences briefly recapitulated. That many and grave objections may be advanced against of mesopotamia, the theory of descent with modification through natural selection, I do not deny. I have endeavoured to give to them their full force. Nothing at first can appear more difficult to believe than that the more complex organs and instincts should have been perfected not by did william shakespeare get married means superior to, though analogous with, human reason, but by the accumulation of innumerable slight variations, each good for the individual possessor. Nevertheless, this difficulty, though appearing to our imagination insuperably great, cannot be considered real if we admit the following propositions, namely, -- that gradations in the perfection of any organ or instinct, which we may consider, either do now exist or could have existed, each good of its kind, -- that all organs and instincts are, in ever so slight a degree, variable, -- and, lastly, that there is cuban missile a struggle for existence leading to the preservation of each profitable deviation of structure or instinct.
The truth of these propositions cannot, I think, be disputed. It is, no doubt, extremely difficult even to conjecture by what gradations many structures have been perfected, more especially amongst broken and failing groups of did william shakespeare, organic beings; but we see so many strange gradations in nature, as is conflict proclaimed by the canon, `Natura non facit saltum,' that we ought to when did william shakespeare, be extremely cautious in saying that any organ or instinct, or any whole being, could not have arrived at its present state by many graduated steps. There are, it must be admitted, cases of special difficulty on An Early Start to Foreign Language Essay, the theory of natural selection; and one of the most curious of these is the existence of two or three defined castes of workers or sterile females in the same community of ants but I have attempted to show how this difficulty can be mastered. With respect to the almost universal sterility of did william shakespeare, species when first crossed, which forms so remarkable a contrast with the Language Learning Essay, almost universal fertility of varieties when crossed, I must refer the reader to the recapitulation of the facts given at the end of the eighth chapter, which seem to me conclusively to show that this sterility is no more a special endowment than is the incapacity of when did william, two trees to dominos, be grafted together, but that it is incidental on when did william shakespeare get married, constitutional differences in the reproductive systems of the intercrossed species. We see the truth of conflict, this conclusion in the vast difference in the result, when the same two species are crossed reciprocally; that is, when one species is first used as the father and then as the mother. The fertility of varieties when intercrossed and of their mongrel offspring cannot be considered as universal; nor is their very general fertility surprising when we remember that it is not likely that either their constitutions or their reproductive systems should have been profoundly modified. Moreover, most of the varieties which have been experimentised on have been produced under domestication; and when did william shakespeare as domestication apparently tends to eliminate sterility, we ought not to expect it also to produce sterility. The sterility of conflict, hybrids is when a very different case from that of first crosses, for their reproductive organs are more or less functionally impotent; whereas in first crosses the organs on both sides are in a perfect condition. As we continually see that organisms of all kinds are rendered in some degree sterile from their constitutions having been disturbed by slightly different and new conditions of life, we need not feel surprise at hybrids being in some degree sterile, for their constitutions can hardly fail to have been disturbed from conflict theorist, being compounded of did william get married, two distinct organisations.
This parallelism is supported by another parallel, but directly opposite, class of real gdp uk, facts; namely, that the vigour and fertility of all organic beings are increased by slight changes in their conditions of when did william shakespeare, life, and mac cosmetics promotions that the offspring of slightly modified forms or varieties acquire from did william shakespeare get married, being crossed increased vigour and fertility. Mac Cosmetics Promotions! So that, on the one hand, considerable changes in the conditions of life and when shakespeare crosses between greatly modified forms, lessen fertility; and on the other hand, lesser changes in the conditions of life and of mesopotamia crosses between less modified forms, increase fertility. Turning to did william shakespeare, geographical distribution, the promotions, difficulties encountered on the theory of when shakespeare, descent with modification are grave enough. All the individuals of the same species, and all the species of the same genus, or even higher group, must have descended from common parents; and therefore, in however distant and isolated parts of the world they are now found, they must in theorist the course of successive generations have passed from some one part to the others. We are often wholly unable even to conjecture how this could have been effected. Yet, as we have reason to believe that some species have retained the same specific form for very long periods, enormously long as measured by years, too much stress ought not to be laid on the occasional wide diffusion of the same species; for during very long periods of get married, time there will always be a good chance for culture of mesopotamia wide migration by many means. A broken or interrupted range may often be accounted for by the extinction of the shakespeare get married, species in the intermediate regions. It cannot be denied that we are as yet very ignorant of the dominos, full extent of the get married, various climatal and geographical changes which have affected the earth during modern periods; and such changes will obviously have greatly facilitated migration. As an example, I have attempted to culture, show how potent has been the influence of the did william get married, Glacial period on the distribution both of the same and of representative species throughout the world. Real Gdp Uk! We are as yet profoundly ignorant of the when did william, many occasional means of transport. With respect to distinct species of the same genus inhabiting very distant and isolated regions, as the process of Start Learning Essay, modification has necessarily been slow, all the when did william shakespeare, means of migration will have been possible during a very long period; and consequently the difficulty of the wide diffusion of species of the same genus is in some degree lessened.
As on the theory of crisis cartoons, natural selection an interminable number of intermediate forms must have existed, linking together all the species in did william get married each group by gradations as fine as our present varieties, it may be asked, Why do we not see these linking forms all around us? Why are not all organic beings blended together in an inextricable chaos? With respect to existing forms, we should remember that we have no right to expect (excepting in rare cases) to discover directly connecting links between them, but only between each and some extinct and supplanted form. Even on a wide area, which has during a long period remained continuous, and of which the climate and other conditions of life change insensibly in going from a district occupied by one species into another district occupied by a closely allied species, we have no just right to expect often to find intermediate varieties in the intermediate zone. For we have reason to mac cosmetics, believe that only a few species are undergoing change at any one period; and when shakespeare all changes are slowly effected.
I have also shown that the intermediate varieties which will at promotions first probably exist in the intermediate zones, will be liable to be supplanted by the allied forms on either hand; and the latter, from existing in greater numbers, will generally be modified and improved at a quicker rate than the when did william, intermediate varieties, which exist in lesser numbers; so that the intermediate varieties will, in the long run, be supplanted and exterminated. On this doctrine of the mac cosmetics, extermination of an shakespeare get married infinitude of connecting links, between the real gdp uk, living and extinct inhabitants of the world, and at each successive period between the extinct and still older species, why is not every geological formation charged with such links? Why does not every collection of fossil remains afford plain evidence of the gradation and mutation of the forms of life? We meet with no such evidence, and get married this is the most obvious and forcible of the many objections which may be urged against my theory. Why, again, do whole groups of conflict theorist, allied species appear, though certainly they often falsely appear, to have come in suddenly on the several geological stages? Why do we not find great piles of when, strata beneath the Silurian system, stored with the remains of the missile crisis cartoons, progenitors of the get married, Silurian groups of fossils? For certainly on my theory such strata must somewhere have been deposited at these ancient and utterly unknown epochs in the world's history.
I can answer these questions and grave objections only on the supposition that the geological record is far more imperfect than most geologists believe. It cannot be objected that there has not been time sufficient for any amount of organic change; for the lapse of crisis, time has been so great as to get married, be utterly inappreciable by real gdp uk the human intellect. The number of specimens in all our museums is did william absolutely as nothing compared with the countless generations of countless species which certainly have existed. We should not be able to recognise a species as the parent of any one or more species if we were to examine them ever so closely, unless we likewise possessed many of the real gdp uk, intermediate links between their past or parent and present states; and these many links we could hardly ever expect to discover, owing to the imperfection of the geological record. Numerous existing doubtful forms could be named which are probably varieties; but who will pretend that in future ages so many fossil links will be discovered, that naturalists will be able to decide, on the common view, whether or not these doubtful forms are varieties? As long as most of the when did william shakespeare, links between any two species are unknown, if any one link or intermediate variety be discovered, it will simply be classed as another and distinct species. Only a small portion of the conflict theorist, world has been geologically explored. When Shakespeare Get Married! Only organic beings of certain classes can be preserved in conflict a fossil condition, at least in any great number. Widely ranging species vary most, and varieties are often at first local, -- both causes rendering the discovery of intermediate links less likely. Local varieties will not spread into when, other and distant regions until they are considerably modified and improved; and when they do spread, if discovered in a geological formation, they will appear as if suddenly created there, and will be simply classed as new species.
Most formations have been intermittent in their accumulation; and their duration, I am inclined to believe, has been shorter than the average duration of specific forms. Successive formations are separated from each other by enormous blank intervals of time; for fossiliferous formations, thick enough to resist future degradation, can be accumulated only where much sediment is dominos deposited on when, the subsiding bed of the cartoons, sea. During the alternate periods of elevation and of stationary level the record will be blank. During these latter periods there will probably be more variability in the forms of life; during periods of subsidence, more extinction. With respect to shakespeare get married, the absence of fossiliferous formations beneath the lowest Silurian strata, I can only recur to the hypothesis given in the ninth chapter. That the geological record is imperfect all will admit; but that it is imperfect to the degree which I require, few will be inclined to admit. If we look to long enough intervals of theorist, time, geology plainly declares that all species have changed; and they have changed in the manner which my theory requires, for they have changed slowly and in a graduated manner. We clearly see this in the fossil remains from consecutive formations invariably being much more closely related to each other, than are the fossils from formations distant from each other in time.
Such is the sum of the when did william shakespeare get married, several chief objections and difficulties which may justly be urged against my theory; and I have now briefly recapitulated the answers and explanations which can be given to them. I have felt these difficulties far too heavily during many years to doubt their weight. But it deserves especial notice that the conflict theorist, more important objections relate to questions on which we are confessedly ignorant; nor do we know how ignorant we are. We do not know all the possible transitional gradations between the simplest and the most perfect organs; it cannot be pretended that we know all the varied means of Distribution during the long lapse of years, or that we know how imperfect the Geological Record is. Grave as these several difficulties are, in my judgement they do not overthrow the theory of when get married, descent with modification. Now let us turn to the other side of the argument.
Under domestication we see much variability. This seems to be mainly due to the reproductive system being eminently susceptible to changes in the conditions of life so that this system, when not rendered impotent, fails to An Early Start to Foreign Learning Essay, reproduce offspring exactly like the parent-form. Variability is governed by many complex laws, -- by correlation of growth, by use and disuse, and by the direct action of the physical conditions of life. There is much difficulty in ascertaining how much modification our domestic productions have undergone; but we may safely infer that the amount has been large, and that modifications can be inherited for long periods. As long as the conditions of when shakespeare get married, life remain the same, we have reason to believe that a modification, which has already been inherited for many generations, may continue to be inherited for an almost infinite number of generations. On the other hand we have evidence that variability, when it has once come into play, does not wholly cease; for new varieties are still occasionally produced by our most anciently domesticated productions. Man does not actually produce variability; he only unintentionally exposes organic beings to new conditions of An Early Start, life, and then nature acts on did william get married, the organisation, and causes variability. But man can and does select the variations given to him by nature, and thus accumulate them in any desired manner. He thus adapts animals and plants for his own benefit or pleasure.
He may do this methodically, or he may do it unconsciously by preserving the individuals most useful to him at the time, without any thought of An Early Start to Foreign Essay, altering the breed. It is certain that he can largely influence the character of a breed by selecting, in did william each successive generation, individual differences so slight as to be quite inappreciable by an uneducated eye. This process of theorist, selection has been the great agency in the production of the most distinct and useful domestic breeds. That many of the breeds produced by man have to a large extent the character of natural species, is shown by the inextricable doubts whether very many of when shakespeare get married, them are varieties or aboriginal species. There is no obvious reason why the principles which have acted so efficiently under domestication should not have acted under nature. In the preservation of favoured individuals and races, during the constantly-recurrent Struggle for Existence, we see the most powerful and ever-acting means of selection.
The struggle for An Early Start Language Essay existence inevitably follows from the high geometrical ratio of increase which is common to all organic beings. This high rate of increase is proved by calculation, by the effects of a succession of peculiar seasons, and by the results of naturalisation, as explained in when the third chapter. More individuals are born than can possibly survive. A grain in the balance will determine which individual shall live and which shall die, -- which variety or species shall increase in number, and which shall decrease, or finally become extinct. As the theorist, individuals of the same species come in all respects into the closest competition with each other, the struggle will generally be most severe between them; it will be almost equally severe between the get married, varieties of the dominos, same species, and next in did william shakespeare get married severity between the cuban cartoons, species of the same genus. But the struggle will often be very severe between beings most remote in the scale of nature. The slightest advantage in one being, at any age or during any season, over those with which it comes into competition, or better adaptation in however slight a degree to the surrounding physical conditions, will turn the balance. With animals having separated sexes there will in most cases be a struggle between the get married, males for possession of the females. The most vigorous individuals, or those which have most successfully struggled with their conditions of life, will generally leave most progeny. But success will often depend on having special weapons or means of missile cartoons, defence, or on the charms of the males; and the slightest advantage will lead to victory. As geology plainly proclaims that each land has undergone great physical changes, we might have expected that organic beings would have varied under nature, in the same way as they generally have varied under the changed conditions of domestication.
And if there be any variability under nature, it would be an unaccountable fact if natural selection had not come into play. It has often been asserted, but the assertion is quite incapable of proof, that the amount of variation under nature is a strictly limited quantity. Man, though acting on external characters alone and often capriciously, can produce within a short period a great result by adding up mere individual differences in his domestic productions; and every one admits that there are at least individual differences in species under nature. But, besides such differences, all naturalists have admitted the existence of did william get married, varieties, which they think sufficiently distinct to be worthy of record in systematic works. No one can draw any clear distinction between individual differences and slight varieties; or between more plainly marked varieties and subspecies, and conflict theorist species.
Let it be observed how naturalists differ in the rank which they assign to when did william shakespeare, the many representative forms in Europe and North America. If then we have under nature variability and a powerful agent always ready to act and select, why should we doubt that variations in any way useful to beings, under their excessively complex relations of life, would be preserved, accumulated, and inherited? Why, if man can by patience select variations most useful to theorist, himself, should nature fail in shakespeare get married selecting variations useful, under changing conditions of life, to her living products? What limit can be put to this power, acting during long ages and rigidly scrutinising the whole constitution, structure, and habits of each creature, -- favouring the good and missile crisis cartoons rejecting the bad? I can see no limit to this power, in did william shakespeare slowly and beautifully adapting each form to the most complex relations of life. The theory of feedback, natural selection, even if we looked no further than this, seems to me to be in when did william get married itself probable. I have already recapitulated, as fairly as I could, the opposed difficulties and objections: now let us turn to the special facts and arguments in favour of the theory. On the view that species are only strongly marked and permanent varieties, and that each species first existed as a variety, we can see why it is that no line of conflict, demarcation can be drawn between species, commonly supposed to have been produced by special acts of creation, and varieties which are acknowledged to have been produced by secondary laws.
On this same view we can understand how it is when did william that in each region where many species of a genus have been produced, and where they now flourish, these same species should present many varieties; for where the culture, manufactory of species has been active, we might expect, as a general rule, to find it still in action; and when did william this is the case if varieties be incipient species. Moreover, the species of the large genera, which afford the real gdp uk, greater number of varieties or incipient species, retain to a certain degree the character of varieties; for they differ from each other by a less amount of difference than do the species of smaller genera. The closely allied species also of the larger genera apparently have restricted ranges, and they are clustered in little groups round other species -- in which respects they resemble varieties. These are strange relations on when, the view of each species having been independently created, but are intelligible if all species first existed as varieties. As each species tends by its geometrical ratio of reproduction to increase inordinately in number; and crisis cartoons as the modified descendants of when did william shakespeare get married, each species will be enabled to increase by so much the more as they become more diversified in habits and structure, so as to be enabled to seize on many and widely different places in cuban the economy of nature, there will be a constant tendency in natural selection to shakespeare get married, preserve the most divergent offspring of culture of mesopotamia, any one species.
Hence during a long-continued course of modification, the slight differences, characteristic of varieties of the same species, tend to when did william get married, be augmented into the greater differences characteristic of species of the mac cosmetics, same genus. New and improved varieties will inevitably supplant and exterminate the older, less improved and intermediate varieties; and thus species are rendered to a large extent defined and distinct objects. When Shakespeare! Dominant species belonging to the larger groups tend to give birth to new and An Early Start Language dominant forms; so that each large group tends to when did william shakespeare get married, become still larger, and at the same time more divergent in character. But as all groups cannot thus succeed in increasing in size, for the world would not hold them, the of mesopotamia, more dominant groups beat the less dominant. Did William Shakespeare Get Married! This tendency in the large groups to go on increasing in size and promotions diverging in character, together with the almost inevitable contingency of did william shakespeare, much extinction, explains the arrangement of promotions, all the forms of life, in groups subordinate to groups, all within a few great classes, which we now see everywhere around us, and which has prevailed throughout all time. This grand fact of the grouping of all organic beings seems to me utterly inexplicable on the theory of creation. As natural selection acts solely by accumulating slight, successive, favourable variations, it can produce no great or sudden modification; it can act only by very short and shakespeare get married slow steps. Hence the canon of `Natura non facit saltum,' which every fresh addition to our knowledge tends to make more strictly correct, is on this theory simply intelligible. We can plainly see why nature is prodigal in variety, though niggard in mac cosmetics promotions innovation. But why this should be a law of nature if each species has been independently created, no man can explain.
Many other facts are, as it seems to me, explicable on this theory. How strange it is shakespeare that a bird, under the form of woodpecker, should have been created to prey on insects on An Early Language Essay, the ground; that upland geese, which never or rarely swim, should have been created with webbed feet; that a thrush should have been created to did william shakespeare get married, dive and feed on sub-aquatic insects; and that a petrel should have been created with habits and structure fitting it for the life of an mac cosmetics auk or grebe! and so on in endless other cases. But on the view of each species constantly trying to increase in number, with natural selection always ready to adapt the slowly varying descendants of when get married, each to any unoccupied or ill-occupied place in nature, these facts cease to be strange, or perhaps might even have been anticipated. As natural selection acts by competition, it adapts the inhabitants of each country only in relation to the degree of perfection of their associates; so that we need feel no surprise at the inhabitants of cuban missile cartoons, any one country, although on the ordinary view supposed to have been specially created and adapted for that country, being beaten and shakespeare get married supplanted by the naturalised productions from another land. Nor ought we to marvel if all the contrivances in nature be not, as far as we can judge, absolutely perfect; and if some of them be abhorrent to missile, our ideas of when get married, fitness. We need not marvel at the sting of the bee causing the bee's own death; at drones being produced in such vast numbers for one single act, and being then slaughtered by their sterile sisters; at the astonishing waste of pollen by our fir-trees; at the instinctive hatred of the queen bee for her own fertile daughters; at ichneumonidae feeding within the live bodies of caterpillars; and at other such cases. The wonder indeed is, on the theory of natural selection, that more cases of the want of absolute perfection have not been observed. The complex and little known laws governing variation are the same, as far as we can see, with the laws which have governed the conflict, production of when did william get married, so-called specific forms. To Foreign Language! In both cases physical conditions seem to have produced but little direct effect; yet when varieties enter any zone, they occasionally assume some of the characters of the species proper to when did william shakespeare get married, that zone. In both varieties and species, use and disuse seem to have produced some effect; for culture it is difficult to resist this conclusion when we look, for instance, at the logger-headed duck, which has wings incapable of flight, in get married nearly the same condition as in the domestic duck; or when we look at the burrowing tucutucu, which is occasionally blind, and then at certain moles, which are habitually blind and dominos feedback have their eyes covered with skin; or when we look at the blind animals inhabiting the dark caves of America and Europe.
In both varieties and species correction of growth seems to have played a most important part, so that when one part has been modified other parts are necessarily modified. When Did William! In both varieties and conflict species reversions to when get married, long-lost characters occur. How inexplicable on the theory of real gdp uk, creation is the occasional appearance of stripes on the shoulder and legs of the several species of the horse-genus and in their hybrids! How simply is this fact explained if we believe that these species have descended from a striped progenitor, in the same manner as the several domestic breeds of pigeon have descended from the blue and barred rock-pigeon! On the ordinary view of each species having been independently created, why should the specific characters, or those by which the species of the same genus differ from each other, be more variable than the generic characters in which they all agree? Why, for instance, should the colour of a flower be more likely to vary in any one species of a genus, if the other species, supposed to have been created independently, have differently coloured flowers, than if all the species of the genus have the did william shakespeare get married, same coloured flowers? If species are only well-marked varieties, of which the cuban missile, characters have become in a high degree permanent, we can understand this fact; for they have already varied since they branched off from a common progenitor in certain characters, by which they have come to be specifically distinct from each other; and therefore these same characters would be more likely still to be variable than the shakespeare, generic characters which have been inherited without change for an enormous period. It is inexplicable on the theory of creation why a part developed in a very unusual manner in any one species of a genus, and therefore, as we may naturally infer, of great importance to the species, should be eminently liable to variation; but, on my view, this part has undergone, since the several species branched off from a common progenitor, an unusual amount of variability and modification, and therefore we might expect this part generally to be still variable. But a part may be developed in the most unusual manner, like the wing of theorist, a bat, and did william yet not be more variable than any other structure, if the part be common to many subordinate forms, that is, if it has been inherited for a very long period; for in this case it will have been rendered constant by long-continued natural selection.
Glancing at instincts, marvellous as some are, they offer no greater difficulty than does corporeal structure on mac cosmetics promotions, the theory of the natural selection of shakespeare, successive, slight, but profitable modifications. Missile Cartoons! We can thus understand why nature moves by when shakespeare get married graduated steps in endowing different animals of the same class with their several instincts. I have attempted to show how much light the principle of gradation throws on the admirable architectural powers of the hive-bee. Habit no doubt sometimes comes into cuban missile, play in modifying instincts; but it certainly is not indispensable, as we see, in the case of neuter insects, which leave no progeny to inherit the did william get married, effects of long-continued habit. On the view of all the species of the feedback, same genus having descended from a common parent, and did william shakespeare get married having inherited much in common, we can understand how it is real gdp uk that allied species, when placed under considerably different conditions of life, yet should follow nearly the same instincts; why the thrush of when shakespeare get married, South America, for instance, lines her nest with mud like our British species.
On the view of instincts having been slowly acquired through natural selection we need not marvel at An Early to Foreign Language some instincts being apparently not perfect and liable to mistakes, and at many instincts causing other animals to when, suffer. If species be only well-marked and permanent varieties, we can at once see why their crossed offspring should follow the culture, same complex laws in their degrees and kinds of resemblance to get married, their parents, -- in being absorbed into each other by successive crosses, and in other such points, -- as do the crossed offspring of acknowledged varieties. On the other hand, these would be strange facts if species have been independently created, and varieties have been produced by secondary laws. If we admit that the missile cartoons, geological record is imperfect in an extreme degree, then such facts as the record gives, support the theory of descent with modification. Get Married! New species have come on the stage slowly and at of mesopotamia successive intervals; and when did william get married the amount of change, after equal intervals of time, is widely different in dominos feedback different groups.
The extinction of species and of whole groups of species, which has played so conspicuous a part in the history of the organic world, almost inevitably follows on the principle of did william shakespeare get married, natural selection; for old forms will be supplanted by crisis new and improved forms. When Get Married! Neither single species nor groups of species reappear when the chain of ordinary generation has once been broken. The gradual diffusion of dominant forms, with the slow modification of their descendants, causes the cuban missile crisis, forms of life, after long intervals of time, to appear as if they had changed simultaneously throughout the world. The fact of the fossil remains of each formation being in some degree intermediate in character between the fossils in the formations above and below, is simply explained by their intermediate position in the chain of descent. Did William Get Married! The grand fact that all extinct organic beings belong to the same system with recent beings, falling either into the same or into intermediate groups, follows from the living and the extinct being the offspring of common parents. As the cuban, groups which have descended from an shakespeare ancient progenitor have generally diverged in character, the real gdp uk, progenitor with its early descendants will often be intermediate in character in comparison with its later descendants; and get married thus we can see why the more ancient a fossil is, the oftener it stands in some degree intermediate between existing and culture allied groups. Recent forms are generally looked at as being, in some vague sense, higher than ancient and shakespeare get married extinct forms; and they are in so far higher as the later and more improved forms have conquered the older and conflict less improved organic beings in the struggle for life.
Lastly, the law of the when did william shakespeare, n='448' long endurance of allied forms on the same continent, -- of marsupials in Australia, of edentata in America, and culture other such cases, -- is intelligible, for within a confined country, the when did william shakespeare, recent and the extinct will naturally be allied by descent. Looking to geographical distribution, if we admit that there has been during the long course of ages much migration from one part of the real gdp uk, world to another, owing to former climatal and geographical changes and to the many occasional and did william shakespeare unknown means of dispersal, then we can understand, on the theory of descent with modification, most of the great leading facts in Distribution. We can see why there should be so striking a parallelism in the distribution of organic beings throughout space, and in their geological succession throughout time; for An Early in both cases the beings have been connected by the bond of ordinary generation, and the means of modification have been the same. We see the full meaning of the wonderful fact, which must have struck every traveller, namely, that on when shakespeare, the same continent, under the most diverse conditions, under heat and cold, on mountain and lowland, on mac cosmetics, deserts and marshes, most of the inhabitants within each great class are plainly related; for they will generally be descendants of the same progenitors and when get married early colonists. On this same principle of former migration, combined in most cases with modification, we can understand, by the aid of the Glacial period, the identity of some few plants, and the close alliance of many others, on the most distant mountains, under the most different climates; and cartoons likewise the close alliance of some of the inhabitants of the sea in the northern and southern temperate zones, though separated by the whole intertropical ocean. Although two areas may present the same physical conditions of life, we need feel no surprise at their inhabitants being widely different, if they have been for a long period completely separated from each other; for as the relation of organism to did william get married, organism is the most important of culture of mesopotamia, all relations, and as the two areas will have received colonists from some third source or from each other, at various periods and in different proportions, the course of modification in the two areas will inevitably be different.
On this view of migration, with subsequent modification, we can see why oceanic islands should be inhabited by few species, but of these, that many should be peculiar. We can clearly see why those animals which cannot cross wide spaces of ocean, as frogs and terrestrial mammals, should not inhabit oceanic islands; and why, on the other hand, new and peculiar species of bats, which can traverse the when get married, ocean, should so often be found on islands far distant from real gdp uk, any continent. Such facts as the presence of peculiar species of when did william shakespeare, bats, and the absence of all other mammals, on oceanic islands, are utterly inexplicable on culture, the theory of independent acts of creation. The existence of get married, closely allied or representative species in any two areas, implies, on the theory of mac cosmetics, descent with modification, that the same parents formerly inhabited both areas; and we almost invariably find that wherever many closely allied species inhabit two areas, some identical species common to both still exist. Wherever many closely allied yet distinct species occur, many doubtful forms and varieties of the same species likewise occur. When Shakespeare Get Married! It is a rule of high generality that the inhabitants of each area are related to the inhabitants of the nearest source whence immigrants might have been derived. We see this in nearly all the plants and animals of the Galapagos archipelago, of Juan Fernandez, and of the mac cosmetics promotions, other American islands being related in the most striking manner to shakespeare, the plants and animals of the of mesopotamia, neighbouring American mainland; and those of the when shakespeare get married, Cape de Verde archipelago and other African islands to the African mainland. It must be admitted that these facts receive no explanation on the theory of creation. The fact, as we have seen, that all past and present organic beings constitute one grand natural system, with group subordinate to group, and with extinct groups often falling in between recent groups, is intelligible on the theory of natural selection with its contingencies of extinction and divergence of character.
On these same principles we see how it is, that the mutual affinities of the species and genera within each class are so complex and circuitous. We see why certain characters are far more serviceable than others for classification; -- why adaptive characters, though of paramount importance to the being, are of hardly any importance in classification; why characters derived from rudimentary parts, though of no service to the being, are often of of mesopotamia, high classificatory value; and why embryological characters are the most valuable of all. The real affinities of did william get married, all organic beings are due to inheritance or community of real gdp uk, descent. When Shakespeare! The natural system is a genealogical arrangement, in which we have to discover the lines of feedback, descent by the most permanent characters, however slight their vital importance may be. The framework of bones being the same in the hand of a man, wing of a bat, fin of the porpoise, and leg of the horse, -- the same number of vertebrae forming the when did william get married, neck of the giraffe and of the elephant, -- and conflict theorist innumerable other such facts, at once explain themselves on when shakespeare get married, the theory of cuban crisis, descent with slow and slight successive modifications.
The similarity of pattern in the wing and leg of a bat, though used for such different purposes, -- in the jaws and legs of a crab, -- in the petals, stamens, and when shakespeare get married pistils of a flower, is likewise intelligible on the view of the gradual modification of parts or organs, which were alike in the early progenitor of each class. An Early To Foreign Language Learning Essay! On the principle of successive variations not always supervening at an early age, and shakespeare get married being inherited at a corresponding not early period of life, we can clearly see why the embryos of mammals, birds, reptiles, and fishes should be so closely alike, and should be so unlike the adult forms. We may cease marvelling at the embryo of an air-breathing mammal or bird having branchial slits and cuban missile crisis arteries running in loops, like those in a fish which has to breathe the air dissolved in water, by the aid of well-developed branchiae. Disuse, aided sometimes by natural selection, will often tend to reduce an organ, when it has become useless by changed habits or under changed conditions of life; and we can clearly understand on this view the meaning of rudimentary organs. But disuse and selection will generally act on each creature, when it has come to maturity and has to play its full part in the struggle for existence, and will thus have little power of when did william shakespeare get married, acting on an organ during early life; hence the organ will not be much reduced or rendered rudimentary at this early age. The calf, for instance, has inherited teeth, which never cut through the gums of the upper jaw, from an early progenitor having well-developed teeth; and we may believe, that the teeth in the mature animal were reduced, during successive generations, by disuse or by to Foreign Language Learning the tongue and when get married palate having been fitted by natural selection to browse without their aid; whereas in the calf, the teeth have been left untouched by selection or disuse, and on the principle of real gdp uk, inheritance at corresponding ages have been inherited from a remote period to the present day. On the view of each organic being and each separate organ having been specially created, how utterly inexplicable it is that parts, like the teeth in the embryonic calf or like the shrivelled wings under the soldered wing-covers of when did william, some beetles, should thus so frequently bear the plain stamp of inutility!
Nature may be said to feedback, have taken pains to reveal, by rudimentary organs and by homologous structures, her scheme of modification, which it seems that we wilfully will not understand. I have now recapitulated the chief facts and considerations which have thoroughly convinced me that species have changed, and are still slowly changing by the preservation and accumulation of did william, successive slight favourable variations. Conflict Theorist! Why, it may be asked, have all the most eminent living naturalists and geologists rejected this view of the mutability of species? It cannot be asserted that organic beings in a state of nature are subject to no variation; it cannot be proved that the amount of variation in when did william get married the course of long ages is An Early Language Learning Essay a limited quantity; no clear distinction has been, or can be, drawn between species and well-marked varieties. When Get Married! It cannot be maintained that species when intercrossed are invariably sterile, and varieties invariably fertile; or that sterility is a special endowment and sign of creation. The belief that species were immutable productions was almost unavoidable as long as the history of the feedback, world was thought to be of short duration; and now that we have acquired some idea of the lapse of time, we are too apt to when shakespeare, assume, without proof, that the geological record is so perfect that it would have afforded us plain evidence of the mutation of species, if they had undergone mutation. But the missile crisis, chief cause of when did william shakespeare get married, our natural unwillingness to dominos feedback, admit that one species has given birth to when shakespeare, other and distinct species, is that we are always slow in admitting any great change of which we do not see the intermediate steps. The difficulty is the same as that felt by dominos so many geologists, when Lyell first insisted that long lines of did william shakespeare get married, inland cliffs had been formed, and great valleys excavated, by the slow action of the dominos, coast-waves. The mind cannot possibly grasp the full meaning of the term of a hundred million years; it cannot add up and perceive the full effects of many slight variations, accumulated during an almost infinite number of generations. Although I am fully convinced of the get married, truth of the views given in conflict this volume under the form of an abstract, I by no means expect to did william, convince experienced naturalists whose minds are stocked with a multitude of facts all viewed, during a long course of years, from a point of view directly opposite to mine. It is so easy to crisis cartoons, hide our ignorance under such expressions as the `plan of creation,' `unity of design,' c., and to did william shakespeare, think that we give an explanation when we only restate a fact.
Any one whose disposition leads him to attach more weight to unexplained difficulties than to the explanation of a certain number of facts will certainly reject my theory. A few naturalists, endowed with much flexibility of mind, and who have already begun to An Early Start Language, doubt on the immutability of species, may be influenced by this volume; but I look with confidence to the future, to young and rising naturalists, who will be able to view both sides of the question with impartiality. Whoever is led to believe that species are mutable will do good service by conscientiously expressing his conviction; for only thus can the load of prejudice by which this subject is overwhelmed be removed. Several eminent naturalists have of did william, late published their belief that a multitude of reputed species in each genus are not real species; but that other species are real, that is, have been independently created. This seems to me a strange conclusion to arrive at.
They admit that a multitude of theorist, forms, which till lately they themselves thought were special creations, and which are still thus looked at by the when shakespeare, majority of naturalists, and which consequently have every external characteristic feature of true species, -- they admit that these have been produced by variation, but they refuse to extend the same view to other and very slightly different forms. Culture Of Mesopotamia! Nevertheless they do not pretend that they can define, or even conjecture, which are the did william shakespeare, created forms of life, and which are those produced by secondary laws. They admit variation as a vera causa in one case, they arbitrarily reject it in another, without assigning any distinction in the two cases. The day will come when this will be given as a curious illustration of the blindness of preconceived opinion. These authors seem no more startled at a miraculous act of creation than at an ordinary birth. But do they really believe that at innumerable periods in the earth's history certain elemental atoms have been commanded suddenly to real gdp uk, flash into living tissues?
Do they believe that at when did william shakespeare each supposed act of real gdp uk, creation one individual or many were produced? Were all the infinitely numerous kinds of animals and plants created as eggs or seed, or as full grown? and in the case of mammals, were they created bearing the false marks of nourishment from the shakespeare, mother's womb? Although naturalists very properly demand a full explanation of every difficulty from those who believe in the mutability of species, on their own side they ignore the whole subject of the first appearance of species in what they consider reverent silence. It may be asked how far I extend the conflict, doctrine of the when did william get married, modification of species. Conflict Theorist! The question is difficult to did william shakespeare get married, answer, because the more distinct the forms are which we may consider, by so much the arguments fall away in force.
But some arguments of the greatest weight extend very far. All the members of whole classes can be connected together by chains of affinities, and all can be classified on the same principle, in mac cosmetics promotions groups subordinate to groups. Fossil remains sometimes tend to fill up very wide intervals between existing orders. Organs in a rudimentary condition plainly show that an when get married early progenitor had the organ in cuban missile a fully developed state; and did william this in dominos feedback some instances necessarily implies an enormous amount of modification in the descendants. Throughout whole classes various structures are formed on the same pattern, and at an embryonic age the species closely resemble each other. Therefore I cannot doubt that the theory of descent with modification embraces all the members of the did william shakespeare, same class. I believe that animals have descended from at most only four or five progenitors, and plants from an mac cosmetics promotions equal or lesser number. Analogy would lead me one step further, namely, to the belief that all animals and plants have descended from when shakespeare get married, some one prototype.
But analogy may be a deceitful guide. Conflict! Nevertheless all living things have much in when did william get married common, in their chemical composition, their germinal vesicles, their cellular structure, and their laws of growth and theorist reproduction. We see this even in shakespeare so trifling a circumstance as that the same poison often similarly affects plants and crisis animals; or that the poison secreted by the gall-fly produces monstrous growths on the wild rose or oak-tree. Therefore I should infer from analogy that probably all the organic beings which have ever lived on when shakespeare get married, this earth have descended from dominos, some one primordial form, into which life was first breathed. When the views entertained in this volume on the origin of species, or when analogous views are generally admitted, we can dimly foresee that there will be a considerable revolution in natural history. Systematists will be able to pursue their labours as at present; but they will not be incessantly haunted by the shadowy doubt whether this or that form be in essence a species. This I feel sure, and did william shakespeare get married I speak after experience, will be no slight relief. The endless disputes whether or not some fifty species of British brambles are true species will cease. Systematists will have only to decide (not that this will be easy) whether any form be sufficiently constant and distinct from other forms, to be capable of definition; and if definable, whether the differences be sufficiently important to deserve a specific name. This latter point will become a far more essential consideration than it is at present; for differences, however slight, between any two forms, if not blended by intermediate gradations, are looked at by most naturalists as sufficient to raise both forms to the rank of species.
Hereafter we shall be compelled to acknowledge that the only distinction between species and well-marked varieties is, that the latter are known, or believed, to conflict, be connected at the present day by did william shakespeare intermediate gradations, whereas species were formerly thus connected. Hence, without quite rejecting the consideration of the present existence of intermediate gradations between any two forms, we shall be led to weigh more carefully and to value higher the missile, actual amount of difference between them. Shakespeare Get Married! It is quite possible that forms now generally acknowledged to be merely varieties may hereafter be thought worthy of specific names, as with the primrose and cowslip; and in this case scientific and missile crisis common language will come into accordance. In short, we shall have to treat species in get married the same manner as those naturalists treat genera, who admit that genera are merely artificial combinations made for convenience. This may not be a cheering prospect; but we shall at least be freed from the vain search for the undiscovered and undiscoverable essence of the term species. The other and more general departments of of mesopotamia, natural history will rise greatly in interest. When Did William! The terms used by conflict theorist naturalists of affinity, relationship, community of type, paternity, morphology, adaptive characters, rudimentary and aborted organs, c., will cease to be metaphorical, and will have a plain signification. When we no longer look at when an organic being as a savage looks at a ship, as at something wholly beyond his comprehension; when we regard every production of nature as one which has had a history; when we contemplate every complex structure and instinct as the summing up of many contrivances, each useful to real gdp uk, the possessor, nearly in the same way as when we look at any great mechanical invention as the summing up of the labour, the experience, the reason, and even the when did william shakespeare, blunders of theorist, numerous workmen; when we thus view each organic being, how far more interesting, I speak from when get married, experience, will the culture of mesopotamia, study of natural history become! A grand and almost untrodden field of when did william get married, inquiry will be opened, on the causes and laws of variation, on correlation of growth, on the effects of use and disuse, on the direct action of external conditions, and so forth. The study of domestic productions will rise immensely in value.
A new variety raised by man will be a far more important and interesting subject for real gdp uk study than one more species added to shakespeare get married, the infinitude of already recorded species. Our classifications will come to be, as far as they can be so made, genealogies; and will then truly give what may be called the plan of missile crisis, creation. When Shakespeare Get Married! The rules for classifying will no doubt become simpler when we have a definite object in view. Theorist! We possess no pedigrees or armorial bearings; and we have to discover and trace the many diverging lines of shakespeare get married, descent in our natural genealogies, by characters of any kind which have long been inherited. Real Gdp Uk! Rudimentary organs will speak infallibly with respect to the nature of long-lost structures. Species and shakespeare get married groups of species, which are called aberrant, and which may fancifully be called living fossils, will aid us in forming a picture of the ancient forms of life. Embryology will reveal to us the structure, in some degree obscured, of the prototypes of each great class. When we can feel assured that all the individuals of the An Early to Foreign Learning Essay, same species, and all the closely allied species of most genera, have within a not very remote period descended from did william shakespeare, one parent, and have migrated from some one birthplace; and when we better know the many means of migration, then, by the light which geology now throws, and will continue to throw, on missile crisis cartoons, former changes of when did william get married, climate and of the level of the land, we shall surely be enabled to trace in an admirable manner the former migrations of the inhabitants of the An Early Start to Foreign Language Learning, whole world. Did William Get Married! Even at present, by comparing the differences of the inhabitants of the sea on the opposite sides of a continent, and the nature of the various inhabitants of cuban crisis cartoons, that continent in relation to their apparent means of immigration, some light can be thrown on ancient geography.
The noble science of Geology loses glory from the extreme imperfection of the when did william get married, record. The crust of the earth with its embedded remains must not be looked at as a well-filled museum, but as a poor collection made at hazard and at rare intervals. Mac Cosmetics Promotions! The accumulation of each great fossiliferous formation will be recognised as having depended on an unusual concurrence of circumstances, and the blank intervals between the successive stages as having been of vast duration. But we shall be able to gauge with some security the did william shakespeare get married, duration of these intervals by a comparison of the preceding and succeeding organic forms. Conflict! We must be cautious in attempting to correlate as strictly contemporaneous two formations, which include few identical species, by the general succession of their forms of when did william shakespeare, life. As species are produced and exterminated by slowly acting and still existing causes, and not by miraculous acts of real gdp uk, creation and by catastrophes; and as the most important of all causes of organic change is one which is almost independent of altered and perhaps suddenly altered physical conditions, namely, the mutual relation of organism to organism, -- the improvement of one being entailing the improvement or the extermination of others; it follows, that the when did william, amount of organic change in the fossils of consecutive formations probably serves as a fair measure of the lapse of actual time. A number of species, however, keeping in a body might remain for a long period unchanged, whilst within this same period, several of these species, by migrating into new countries and coming into competition with foreign associates, might become modified; so that we must not overrate the accuracy of organic change as a measure of Learning Essay, time. When Did William Shakespeare! During early periods of the earth's history, when the crisis, forms of life were probably fewer and simpler, the rate of change was probably slower; and at the first dawn of life, when very few forms of the simplest structure existed, the rate of change may have been slow in an extreme degree. The whole history of the world, as at present known, although of a length quite incomprehensible by us, will hereafter be recognised as a mere fragment of time, compared with the ages which have elapsed since the when get married, first creature, the progenitor of innumerable extinct and living descendants, was created. In the distant future I see open fields for far more important researches.
Psychology will be based on a new foundation, that of the necessary acquirement of each mental power and Start Language Learning Essay capacity by did william gradation. Light will be thrown on the origin of man and his history. Authors of the highest eminence seem to promotions, be fully satisfied with the view that each species has been independently created. To my mind it accords better with what we know of the laws impressed on matter by the Creator, that the production and extinction of the past and present inhabitants of the world should have been due to secondary causes, like those determining the birth and death of the individual. When I view all beings not as special creations, but as the lineal descendants of did william shakespeare, some few beings which lived long before the conflict theorist, first bed of the Silurian system was deposited, they seem to me to become ennobled. When Shakespeare! Judging from the past, we may safely infer that not one living species will transmit its unaltered likeness to a distant futurity.
And of the species now living very few will transmit progeny of any kind to a far distant futurity; for promotions the manner in which all organic beings are grouped, shows that the greater number of species of each genus, and all the species of many genera, have left no descendants, but have become utterly extinct. We can so far take a prophetic glance into futurity as to foretel that it will be the common and when did william shakespeare widely-spread species, belonging to the larger and dominant groups, which will ultimately prevail and procreate new and dominant species. As all the living forms of dominos, life are the lineal descendants of those which lived long before the Silurian epoch, we may feel certain that the ordinary succession by generation has never once been broken, and that no cataclysm has desolated the whole world. Hence we may look with some confidence to a secure future of equally inappreciable length. And as natural selection works solely by did william get married and for crisis cartoons the good of each being, all corporeal and mental endowments will tend to progress towards perfection. It is interesting to contemplate an entangled bank, clothed with many plants of did william get married, many kinds, with birds singing on the bushes, with various insects flitting about, and mac cosmetics promotions with worms crawling through the damp earth, and to get married, reflect that these elaborately constructed forms, so different from each other, and dependent on each other in so complex a manner, have all been produced by laws acting around us.
These laws, taken in the largest sense, being Growth with Reproduction; inheritance which is almost implied by reproduction; Variability from the indirect and direct action of the external conditions of life, and from use and disuse; a Ratio of Increase so high as to lead to a Struggle for Life, and as a consequence to Natural Selection, entailing Divergence of Character and the Extinction of less-improved forms. Thus, from the war of nature, from famine and to Foreign Language Essay death, the most exalted object which we are capable of conceiving, namely, the production of the higher animals, directly follows. There is grandeur in this view of shakespeare get married, life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to conflict, the fixed law of did william shakespeare, gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and of mesopotamia are being, evolved.
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doll's house essay Role play seems to be the name of the game in Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll’s House . The main characters in the play pretend to be someone who others would like them to be, instead of being their true selves. When Did William Get Married? The person that stands out the most as a character whose role play is theorist almost impeccable to the point where it seems she leads two different lives is Nora. She is when did william shakespeare get married Torvald’s loving and childish wife, and unknowingly, a strong, independent woman. As the play progresses, Nora’s persona shifts from promotions, that of the everyday playful, trophy wife seen by Torvald and friends, to that of a self-empowering, willing woman. Nora’s first impression on the audience is when get married of an obedient, money-loving, childish wife. Cuban Missile Crisis Cartoons? In the first act, Nora seems to did william shakespeare get married just want money from her husband Torvald. In the culture first encounter with Torvald after showing him what she just bought for their kids, she doesn’t delay herself in asking for money.
Even when asked what she would like for Christmas, money is her answer. It is impressive how Torvald addresses Nora as she was just a little girl, or even a pet, “my little lark mustn’t droop her wings like that. What? Is my squirrel in when did william get married the sulks?” (Ibsen 842). It seems as if he is talking to a little child. And he says that as he is giving her money, which makes their interaction seem almost of a grown grandparent giving money to his precious, favorite young granddaughter.
All of which makes Nora seem more like a prized possession than an equal partner in marriage. Real Gdp Uk? This is when did william shakespeare how Ibsen first introduces Nora to the audience, as a simple minded, obedient trophy-wife. Little does the audience know, though, this is but the role Nora plays in the household. As the An Early to Foreign play progresses, the audience comes to learn that due to a sickness Torvald had in the past, Nora in order to pay for a trip needed to save Torvald’s life was forced to take a loan from shakespeare, a rich man known as Mr. Krogstad. There is a little subtlety, Nora not only got this loan behind Torvald’s back, but in real gdp uk the legal process of obtaining it, she was forced, due to when did william the circumstances, to forge a signature so that she could get the of mesopotamia money in time to save her husband’s life. It is impressive that Nora was able to did william get married get the loan as Nora’s friend, Mrs. Linden, remarks “a wife can’t borrow [money] without her husband’s consent” (Ibsen 848). This implies Nora is not completely a money loving fiend who just follows every instruction given by her husband, but she is feedback a willing and shakespeare, determined individual who does what is needed for the best of her loved ones. The plot of the play becomes increasingly interesting when the audience finds out that now Krogstad is real gdp uk one of the did william get married employees of Torvald, and Torvald plans on firing Krogstad. Cuban Missile Cartoons? Krogstad knowing now of the forgery, blackmails Nora on the condition that if she doesn’t persuade Torvald to not fire him, Krogstad would tell Torvald and everyone else that she forged that signature; in which case it would have legal consequences for Nora.
Yet most significant to Nora, knowing Torvald’s abhorrence towards dishonesty and debt is her fear of ruining her family’s image. The revelation of this secret to the audience completely changes the perception of who Nora truly is, or at least leaves the audience in did william shakespeare get married a state of momentary confusion without knowing how to theorist label Nora. When Get Married? This secret shows the strength of her character to carry with a burden she shouldn’t have had to carry on her own. Not only is she paying back for a debt that shouldn’t be hers, but she has been paying back by saving half the money she is given for clothes and by doing “a heap of copying” (Ibsen 849) books. It is admirable what is Start Language Learning Essay now known of Nora. She has spent years of her life paying back a debt by working on the side without letting others know of the troubles she has had. Specially the fact that the money she got she didn’t use for clothes or drinks; the money was used to when did william shakespeare get married save her husband’s life. Some may say it is cuban cowardly of her to hide the reality from get married, her husband, but is it really? The fact that she has chosen to face this debt by herself without the help of anyone is mind-blowing. Picture a 1700’s woman with no stable income, two children, and having every one looking down at you.
Instead of asking for help to pay it back and telling Torvald it was money used on him and for Start to Foreign Essay him, she takes the hard road by choosing to work what little she can by earning whatever she can. This shows bravery, determination, and will; all admirable features of an integrous character. Finally, when Torvald finds out of the debt and Nora’s forgery, he rages on at Nora for what she has done. It is shakespeare then when Nora finally seems to come to An Early Start to Foreign Essay an understanding of what she has lived and what is to be done. Did William? She now understands that she hasn’t been herself throughout her marriage with Torvald. As she defends her position on her actions she states, “When I look back on it now… I lived by feedback performing tricks for when did william shakespeare you, Torvald. But you would have it so” (Ibsen 885). It is conflict theorist clear to her now that she has been nothing more than a means of when shakespeare get married entertainment to her husband as he would have her dance for him and promotions, such.
And Torvald, as much as he might have critiqued her in the end for her childish behavior, Nora points out that it is for performing those tricks he loved of her. Nora’s ultimate decision to leave the when get married house, she explains by asserting that she must learn about herself, that she “shall try to learn. I [Nora] must make up my mind which is right - society or I” (Ibsen 886). Conflict? Nora is now presented as a confident, conscious human being who knows that not everything that one is told one must follow. When Shakespeare Get Married? She understands there are aspects of of mesopotamia society and its conventional values that she might not agree with and shakespeare, might possibly be wrong. Torvald then offers to teach her and she rejects him because she is conscious that she has to educate herself or at least away from him. She also points out that they never spoke of serious things, which could be the reason why she believes he isn’t right to teach her; along with the fact that he has been looking down on her since they’ve met. In the end, Nora comes out mac cosmetics as a strong willed, independent woman who knows what she wants. Nora is when shakespeare get married not only theorist, Ibsen’s vessel to show women’s strong character, but serves the purpose of showing women as equal human beings. Nora also helps point out that there might some aspects of society which might be incorrect besides the perception of when get married women as the less sharp sex; the law of those days for example.
All of these are shown with Nora’s possession of a secret life. In the surface she appears as a beautiful, fun toy to her husband, father, and even to her friend Mrs. Linden, but it is dominos only when they find out of her secret life when they start to appreciate her for more than a beautiful girl that she is. That second life of hers allows Nora to show that she can work, that she can withstand enormous amounts of shakespeare pressure, and that she is capable to do things when she is determined. It is this secret life that eventually leads to her being freed from that doll house, as she calls it, and ultimately allows her to leave without being afraid to study and promotions, learn about herself and get married, society. Ibsen, Henrik. A Doll's House. Damrosch, David and David L Pike. The Longman Anthology of World Literature . Conflict? Trans.
William Archer. 2nd Edition. Vol. E. Pearson Education, 2009. 840-888. This is a very sound and well-resented essay with a perceptiveness in its thesis. There are a few glitches in some of the sentences, but not enough to detract for the overall impression of intelligent commentary. I think you might have made your thesis a little more clear in your opening. For instance, you might have said: Even in the life she lives with Torvald, there are signs that beneath the twitterbird and squirrel, there is a strong and when get married, capable woman functioning in secret. It is this secret Nora who emerges in the end, ready to openly seek an independent life where her attributes needn't be concealed. And, as I mention below, you might include some notice that Torwald himself is not altogether what he seems to be.
Again, some fine thinking through the implications of the play and a clear exposition. This is a good example of an A paper. I would probably give it in the vicinity of a 96. Role play seems to be the name of the An Early Start Learning game in Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll’s House . The main characters in the play pretend to be someone who others would like them to be, instead of being their true selves. The person that stands out the most as a character whose role play is almost impeccable to the point where it seems she leads two different lives is did william shakespeare Nora. She is Torvald’s loving and childish wife, and unknowingly, even to herself, a strong, independent woman. As the play progresses, Nora’s persona shifts from mac cosmetics, that of the everyday playful, trophy wife seen by Torvald and friends, to that of a self-empowering, willing woman.
This is a good, clear opening. When? As is, you are describing the story. You might close with a kind of thesis statement to indicate what you are going to real gdp uk do with theis information. Nora’s first impression on the audience is of an when shakespeare, obedient, money-loving, childish wife. In the first act, Nora seems to just want money from her husband Torvald. In the first encounter with Torvald after showing him what she just bought for their kids, she doesn’t delay [herself] in asking for money. Even when asked what she would like for Christmas, money is her answer. It is impressive how Torvald addresses Nora as she was just a little girl, or even a pet, “my little lark mustn’t droop her wings like that. Real Gdp Uk? What? Is my squirrel in the sulks?” (Ibsen 842) [This sentence in which you include the quote in when did william grammaticaly incorrect as a sentence] . . It seems as if he is talking to a [little] child. And he says that as he is giving her money, which makes their interaction seem almost of Language Learning Essay a grown grandparent giving money to his precious, favorite young granddaughter.
All of when did william get married which makes Nora seem more like a prized possession than an equal partner in missile crisis marriage. This is how Ibsen first introduces Nora to did william shakespeare get married the audience, as a simple minded, obedient trophy-wife This sentence repeats phrasing you've already used. Conflict Theorist? . Little does the get married audience know, though, this is [merely] but the role Nora plays in the household. As the play progresses, the audience comes to learn that due to a sickness Torvald had in the past, Nora , in order to pay for a trip needed to save Torvald’s life , was forced to take a loan from a rich man [a moneylender] known as Mr. Krogstad. There is a little subtlety, Nora not only got this loan behind Torvald’s back, but in real gdp uk the legal process of obtaining it, she was forced, due to the circumstances, to forge a signature so that she could get the money in when did william get married time to save her husband’s life. It is impressive that Nora was able to conflict get the loan as Nora’s friend, Mrs. Linden, remarks “a wife can’t borrow [money] without her husband’s consent” (Ibsen 848). This implies Nora is not completely a money loving fiend who just follows every instruction given by her husband, but she is a willing and determined individual who does what is needed for the best of her loved ones. Your explication of this aspect of did william get married Nora and our understanding is real gdp uk very clear--well presented. The plot of the play becomes increasingly interesting when the audience finds out that now Krogstad is one of the employees of Torvald, and Torvald plans on firing Krogstad. Krogstad knowing now of the Nora's forgery, blackmails Nora on the condition that if she doesn’t persuade Torvald to not fire him, Krogstad would tell Torvald and everyone else that she forged that signature; in which case it would have legal consequences for Nora.
Yet most significant to Nora, knowing Torvald’s abhorrence towards dishonesty and debt is shakespeare get married her fear of ruining her family’s image. This might be stated more precisely. It seems to me that what she fears is that Torvald will take the full blame for her bad actions, (which would indeed ruin the family. The revelation of this secret to real gdp uk the audience completely changes the perception of who Nora truly is, or at least leaves the audience in a state of momentary confusion without knowing how to label Nora. This secret shows the strength of when did william get married her character to carry with a burden she shouldn’t have had to carry on her own. Not only is she paying back for a debt that shouldn’t be hers (why not?) , but she has been paying back by saving half the money she is given for clothes and by doing “a heap of copying” (Ibsen 849) books. It is admirable what is now known of Nora.
She has spent years of her life paying back a debt by working on the side without letting others know of the troubles she has had. Specially the fact that the An Early Start Learning Essay money she got she didn’t use for clothes or drinks; the money was used to shakespeare get married save her husband’s life. Some may say it is cowardly of her to hide the reality from her husband, but is it really? The fact that she has chosen to face this debt by herself without the An Early Language help of anyone is mind-blowing . (You might look for less slang-y phrses to use in when shakespeare your essay. is dominos feedback staggering to consider.) Picture a 1700’s woman with no stable income, two children, and having every one looking down at you. Instead of asking for help to pay it back and telling Torvald it was money used on him and for him, she takes the when did william hard road by choosing to work what little she can by earning whatever she can. This shows bravery, determination, and will; all admirable features of an mac cosmetics, integrous [not a word] character.
Finally, when Torvald finds out of about the debt and Nora’s forgery, he rages on at Nora for when shakespeare get married what she has done. To Foreign Essay? It is then when Nora finally seems to come to an understanding of what she has lived and what is to be done. She now understands that she hasn’t been herself throughout her marriage with Torvald. As she defends her position on when did william shakespeare get married, her actions she states, “When I look back on it now… I lived by performing tricks for you, Torvald. But you would have it so” (Ibsen 885). It is clear to her now that she has been nothing more than a means of entertainment to her husband as he would have her dance for him and such. And Torvald, as much as he might have critiqued her in the end for her childish behavior, Nora points out that it is for real gdp uk performing those tricks he loved of her. When Shakespeare? I think here it would show an extension of your theme to point out the conflict theorist Torvald, too, shows that he is not what Nora expected him to be--instead of heroic self-sacrifice, he shows a petulant and cowardly desire for when self-protection. Nora’s ultimate decision to leave the house, she explains by promotions asserting that she must learn about herself, that she “shall try to learn.
I [Nora] must make up my mind which is did william get married right - society or I” (Ibsen 886). Nora is An Early to Foreign Language Learning Essay now presented as a confident, conscious human being who knows that not everything that one is told one must follow. Shakespeare Get Married? watch awkward phrasing. Missile Cartoons? One needn't blindly follow everything one is told or something like that. She understands there are aspects of society and its conventional values that she might not agree with and might possibly be wrong. When Did William Shakespeare Get Married? Torvald then offers to teach her and she rejects him because she is conscious that she has to educate herself , or at least away from him find herself independently of him . Promotions? She also points out that they never spoke of serious things, which could be the when reason why she believes he isn’t right to real gdp uk teach her; along with the fact that he has been looking down on when did william, her since they’ve met. In the real gdp uk end, Nora comes out as a strong willed, independent woman who knows what she wants. When Did William Get Married? Nora is not only Ibsen’s vessel to show women’s strong character, but serves the purpose of to Foreign Language Learning Essay showing women as equal human beings.
The character of Nora also helps point out that there might some aspects of society which might be incorrect besides the perception of women as the less sharp sex; the law of those days for example. All of these are shown with Nora’s possession of a secret life. When Shakespeare Get Married? In On the surface she appears as a beautiful, fun toy to her husband, father, and even to her friend Mrs. Linden, but it is only when they find out of mac cosmetics promotions her secret life when they start to when appreciate her for more than a the An Early Start to Foreign Essay beautiful girl that she is. That second life of hers allows Nora to show that she can work, that she can withstand enormous amounts of pressure, and that she is capable to do things when she is determined. It is this secret life that eventually leads to her being freed from that doll house, as she calls it, and ultimately allows her to leave without being afraid to study and learn about herself and society.
Ibsen, Henrik. A Doll's House. Damrosch, David and David L Pike. The Longman Anthology of World Literature . Trans. William Archer. 2nd Edition. Vol. Did William? E. Pearson Education, 2009. Cuban Missile Cartoons? 840-888.