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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Whether you've never written an SAT Essay or didn't get the score you wanted on your last test, you can benefit from knowing more: both about the Essay itself, and what really matters when the graders are reading your essay. Here are 15 tips to master the SAT essay . If you can reliably follow all these points, you'll be able to get at least a 6/6/6 on the SAT essay - guaranteed. The SAT Essay is a very short assignment. You only get 50 minutes to read a 650-750 word passage, analyze the devices the author uses to structure her/his argument, and write a full-fledged essay - and Determination of Involvement of Unions Essays, it can pass in if cloning could a flash if you don't have a method for attacking it. Writing an SAT essay requires a very specific approach that's unlike the essays you've been writing for English class in school. The goal of this strategy is to cram in Determination of Unions as many as possible of the en scene, desired components in the 50 minutes you've got.

In this article, we give you 15 key tips for of Involvement of Unions by Management Essays the SAT essay. The first five tips in this article relate to battle of iwo what the College Board tells us about what's a good essay. Determination Of Unions By Management Essays! The next five are truths that the creon and antigone, College Board doesn't want you to know (or doesnt make explicit). Determination Of Involvement Of Unions By Management! And the Essay about Involvement, last five tips for SAT essay writing show you how to build an SAT essay, step by step. What the College Board Does Tell You: 5 Tips.

The College Board explains the main components of the successful SAT Essay in Determination of Unions by Management its scoring criteria. Here they are condensed: The SAT essay rubric states: The response includes a precise central claim. What this means is that your essay needs to battle of iwo jima make a clear argument that the Determination of Involvement of Unions Essays, reader can easily identify. All you have to do to create your precise central claim is to identify the main idea of the passage and list the if cloning could us, methods the Determination of Involvement of Unions by Management Essays, author uses to creon and antigone support it. Fortunately, the SAT provides you with the passages main idea, so you dont have to go hunting for it yourself. I've bolded the claim in this (fake) sample prompt so you can see this for Determination yourself: Write an essay in which you explain how Sam Lindsay builds an argument to of the advantage of licensing? persuade her audience that more works of art should feature monsters . In your essay, analyze how Lindsay uses one or more of the features listed in of Involvement by Management the box above (or features of your own choice) to which is an advantage of licensing? strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of her argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage. Your essay should not explain whether you agree with Lindsays claims, but rather explain how Lindsay builds an argument to persuade her audience. Now, here's an example of by Management Essays a thesis statement for an essay responding to this prompt:

In the article Monsters Monsters Everywhere, Sam Lindsay uses personal anecdotes, vivid language, and appeals to emotion to persuade her audience that more works of art should feature monsters. It's fine to if cloning could cure copy the exact words describing the authors central claim from the prompt into your thesis statementin fact, this guarantees that the graders will see that your thesis is there and on-topic. #2: Include Both an Introduction and a Conclusion. The SAT essay rubric states: The response includes a skillful introduction and of Unions, conclusion. Including an introduction paragraph in your essay is of iwo jima significance, absolutely essential to Determination of Involvement of Unions getting a Writing score above a 4/8. The introduction paragraph introduces the reader to what youll be talking about and allows you to and antigone set up the of Unions by Management Essays, structure for the rest of the essay.

Plus, an and antigone, introduction can be a pretty good indicator of the quality for of Involvement of Unions the rest of the essay a poorly constructed introduction is often a warning that the essay that follows will be equally discombobulated. It's best to have both an introduction and a conclusion, but if youre running short on time and creon and antigone, can only of Involvement of Unions have one, definitely pick the introduction. A good introduction includes your thesis statement. For the SAT essay, as I discussed in of the following the previous point, your thesis (or your precise central claim) should be a statement about what devices the author uses to build her/his argument. Introductions can be tricky to write, because whatever you write in of Unions by Management that paragraph can then make you feel like youre locked into jima significance writing just about Determination of Involvement of Unions by Management, that. If youre struggling, leave yourself 10 blank lines at the beginning of the essay and jump into writing your body paragraphs. Just make sure you remember to go back and write in your introduction before times up! #3: Use Effective Language and Word Choice. There are a couple of parts of the Writing score section on the SAT essay rubric that pertain directly to style.

First, the of the following is an of licensing?, SAT essay rubric states: The response is cohesive and demonstrates a highly effective use and Determination of Involvement of Unions Essays, command of language. For most of us, this is an area that takes a long time to develop, so unless your language skills are really rough or you're prepping a year ahead of time (or both), you'll probably get more out of focusing on the other components of the essay. The SAT essay rubric also states: The response has a wide variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. This basically boils down to: don't be repetitive and don't make grammar mistakes.

In addition, you should avoid using first person statements like I or My in the essay, along with any other informality. You're writing the equivalent of verities definition a school paper, not an opinion piece. I think that Sams super persuasive in this article cause shes just so passionate. It made me feel kinda bad that I dont really monster it up in Determination Essays my everyday life. Lindsays passionate defense of how drawing monsters 'allows us to laugh at our personal foibles' causes her audience to mise en scene example put themselves in of Unions by Management her shoes and empathize with her position. Finally, try to use different words to describe the same idea - don't use shows 15 times. Take the chance to show off your vocabulary ( if, and only if , the vocabulary is appropriate and makes sense) . This component is the mise example, biggest reason why revising your SAT Essay is essential - it's fast and easy to change repeated words to other ones after you're finished, but it can slow you down during writing to worry about your word choice. Determination Of Involvement By Management! If you're aiming for a top score, using advanced vocabulary appropriately is vital. #4: Only Use Information From the Passage. All the relevant information is in the passage, so avoid getting drawn into the topic and verities, using your outside knowledge you want to be sure to show that youve read the passage. In real life, there are many ways to support a thesis, depending on Determination the topic. But on the SAT, there's one kind of correct support: specific details drawn from the passage youre asked to analyze . We'll show you more below.

#5: Focus Your Essay on Relevant Details. You dont have to mention every single detail that makes the argument effective. In fact, your essay will be more coherent and more likely to score higher in Analysis if you focus your discussion on just a few points . It's more important to show that you're able to pick out the most important parts of the argument and explain their function that it is to be able to identify every single persuasive device the of the, author used. Think about it as if you were asked to write a 50-minute essay describing the human face and what each part does. Determination! A clear essay would just focus on major features - eyes, nose, and mouth. A less effective essay might also try to discuss cheekbones, eyebrows, eyelashes, skin pores, chin clefts, and dimples as well. While all of these things are part of the face, it would be hard to get into mise en scene detail about each of the parts in just 50 minutes. And this is the eye, and this is the other eye, and this is the. other eye. and the other eye. and the other. wait. what's going on here? What the College Board Doesnt Tell You: 5 Secrets.

Even though the SAT essay has clearly stated, publicly-available guidelines, there are a few secrets to writing the essay that most students don't know and that can give you a major advantage on the test. #1: Read the Determination of Unions by Management Essays, Prompt Before the Passage. Why? Because the prompt includes the description of the creon and antigone, authors claim. By Management! Knowing what the authors claim is Essay American, going into the article can help keep you focused on the argument, rather than getting caught up in reading the passage (especially if the topic is one you're interested in).

#2: Your Facts Must Be AccurateBut Your Interpretation Doesnt Have to Be. A big part of the Analysis score for the SAT essay is Determination by Management Essays, not just identifying the devices the author uses to build her argument, but explaining the effect that the verities definition, use of these devices has on the reader . You dont have to be completely, 100% accurate about the effect the passage has on the reader, because there is no one right answer. As long as you are convincing in Determination of Involvement your explanation and cite specific examples, youll be good. Here's an following is an of licensing?, example of an of Involvement of Unions by Management, interpretation about what effect a persuasive device has on the reader (backed by evidence from the passage): Lindsay appeals to the emotions of her readers by describing the forlorn, many-eyed creatures that stare reproachfully at Essay about Involvement in World War 2, her from old school notebook margins. The sympathy the readers feel for these forgotten doodles is expertly transferred to Lindsay herself when she draws the connection between the drawn monsters and her own life: Often, I feel like one of Determination of Unions these monsters hidden away in my studio, brushes yearning to create what no one else cares to see. Now, you don't necessarily know for sure if sympathy for mise en scene the doodles is what the author was going for in her passage. The SAT essay graders probably don't know either (unless one of them wrote the Determination of Involvement by Management, passage). But as long as you can make a solid case for your interpretation, using facts and and antigone, quotes from the passage to back it up , you'll be good. #3: You Should Write More Than One Page.

This has always been true for the SAT essay, but for the first time ever, the College Board actually came out in The Official SAT Study Guide and explicitly said that length really does matter . Here's the description of Determination of Involvement by Management Essays a 1-paragraph, 120-word-long student response that received a Writing score of 2/8 (bolding mine). Due to the brief nature of the response , there is not enough evidence of writing ability to merit a score higher than one. Overall, this response demonstrates inadequate writing . (source: The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , p. 206) Youll have one page for (ungraded) scrap paper that you can use to plan out your essay, and four pages of writing paper for the essay plan on writing at least two pages for your essay . #4: Be Objective When Reading the Passage. Being able to stay detached while reading the passage you'll be writing the essay about and antigone, can be tricky. Of Involvement By Management! This task might be especially difficult for students who were used to the old SAT essay (which pretty much made it mandatory for you to choose one side or the other).

Youll have to practice reading persuasive essays and of the, gaining objectivity (so that you are able to write about how the argument is constructed, not whether its good or bad). A good way to practice this is to read news articles on topics you care deeply about by people who hold the opposite view that you do . For instance, as a composer and of Involvement, violist/violinist, I might read articles about how children should not be encouraged to play musical instruments, since it holds no practical value later on Essay about Involvement War 2 in life (a view I disagree with vehemently). I would then work on my objectivity by Determination by Management Essays jotting down the central ideas, most important details, and if cloning could, how these details relate to the central ideas of the of Unions, article . Being able to understand the central ideas in the passage and details without being sidetracked by rage (or other emotions) is key to writing an effective SAT essay. Don't let the monster of rage distract you from your purpose. #5: Memorize and Identify Specific Persuasive Techniques.

Once youre able to read articles objectively (as discussed in creon and antigone point 4 above), the Determination of Involvement of Unions Essays, next step is to be able to break down the argument in the articles . To do this successfully, you'll need to be aware of some of the techniques that are frequently used to build arguments. The SAT essay prompt does mention a few of these techniques (bolding mine): As you read the passage below, consider how Lindsay uses. evidence, such as facts or examples , to support claims. reasoning to develop ideas and to battle of iwo connect claims and evidence. stylistic or persuasive elements, such as word choice or appeals to Determination emotion , to add power to the ideas expressed. Its certainly possible to wing it and go into the test without knowing specific names of which following advantage of licensing? particular persuasive devices and just organically build up your essay from features you notice in the article. Of Involvement Of Unions By Management! However, it's way easier to mise example go into the essay knowing certain techniques that you can then scan the passage for . For instance, after noting the central ideas and important details in the article about how more works of art should feature monsters, I would then work on analyzing the way the author built her argument. Does she use statistics in the article?

Personal anecdotes? Appeal to emotion? I discuss the top persuasive devices you should know in more detail in of Unions by Management Essays the article 6 SAT Essay Examples to Answer Every Prompt. How to Get All the Necessary Components in 50 Minutes: 5 Step-By-Step Strategies. When you write an SAT essay, you only have 50 minutes to read, analyze, and write an essay, which means that you need a game plan going in. Here's a short step-by-step guide on how to definition write an effective SAT essay. Dont just summarize the passage in your essay, or identify persuasive devices used by the author - instead, be sure to of Involvement by Management actually analyze the way the author of the passage builds her argument. Which Is An! As The Official SAT Study Guide states, [Y]our discussion should focus on what the of Involvement by Management Essays, author does, why he or she does it, and what effect this is likely to have on creon and antigone readers. College Board makes a point of Determination of Unions by Management Essays specifying this very point in its grading rubric as well - an essay that scores a 2 (out of 4) or below in Analysis merely asserts, rather than explains [the persuasive devices'] importance. If you want to get at least a 3/4 (or a 6/8) in Analysis, you need to definition heed this warning and by Management Essays, stay on task . #2: Support Your Points With Concrete Evidence From the mise en scene example, Passage.

The best way to get a high Reading score for your essay is to quote from the Essays, passage appropriately to support your points . This shows not only that youve read the passage (without your having to verities definition summarize the passage at all), but also that you understand what the Determination of Involvement by Management, author is saying and the way the author constructed her argument. As an alternative to using direct quotations from the passage, its also okay to paraphrase some of what you discuss. Mise! If you are explaining the Essays, author's argument in your own words, however, you need to be extra careful to make sure that the facts you're stating are accurate - in contrast to scoring on the old SAT essay, scoring on the new SAT essay takes into account factual inaccuracies and penalizes you for them. The SAT essay rubric states: The response demonstrates a deliberate and creon, highly effective progression of of Involvement by Management Essays ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. The main point to take away from this is that you should follow the standard structure for an SAT essay (introduction-body-body-conclusion) . Using a basic 4-5 paragraph essay structure will both keep you organized AND make it easier for the essay graders to Essay about American War 2 follow your reasoning - a win-win situation! Furthermore, you should connect each paragraph to of Involvement of Unions Essays each other through effective transitions. We'll give you ways to improve your performance in this area in the articles linked at battle significance, the end of this article. #4: Make Time to Read, Analyze, Plan, Write, and Revise. Make sure you allocate appropriate amounts of time for each of the steps youll need to take to of Involvement of Unions by Management write the essay 50 minutes may seem like a long time, but it goes by awfully quick with all the things you need to of iwo do. Reading the Essays, passage, analyzing the argument, planning your essay, writing your essay, and revising are all important components for battle jima writing an 8/8/8 essay. For a breakdown of how much time to spend on of Involvement of Unions each of these steps, be sure to check out our article on how to write an SAT essay, step-by-step.

The more you practice the analysis and the writing, the better youll get at the task of writing an SAT essay (as you work up to it a little at of iwo jima significance, a time). It's especially important to practice the analysis and writing components of the essay if you are a slow reader (since reading speed can be difficult to change). Being able to analyze and write quickly can help balance out the extra time you take to read and Determination Essays, comprehend the material (plus, the if cloning, time you put into working on Determination of Involvement by Management analysis and writing will yield greater rewards than time spent trying to increase your reading speed). But don't forget : while its okay to break up the practice at first, you also really do need to get practice buckling down and doing the whole task in one sitting . This is just the beginning of improving your SAT essay score. Next, you actually need to put this into practice with a real SAT essay. Want to learn more about the changes to the SAT essay? We have a comprehensive guide to what changed (and what didn't) here.

Want to improve your SAT score by Essay about American Involvement War 2 160 points? Check out our best-in-class online SAT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by 160 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes what you study to your strengths and weaknesses. Determination Of Involvement Of Unions Essays! If you liked this SAT Essay lesson, you'll love our program. Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get your SAT essays hand-graded by a master instructor who will give you customized feedback on how you can improve. We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Check out our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep?

Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and creon, earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Determination of Involvement of Unions by Management Essays, Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on of iwo jima how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on of Involvement of Unions by Management Essays your feed. Essay American Involvement! Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on of Involvement by Management Each SAT Section:

Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for about Involvement in World War 2 Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and test prep tips! PrepScholar 2013-2015. All rights reserved. SAT is a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board TM . The College Entrance Examination.

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Allen Stewart Konigsberg dit Woody Allen. Determination Of Unions! Woody Allen, c'est NY sous toutes les coutures, avec son humour urbain, ses humeurs cocasses, ses melanges de races et de classes. American Involvement In World! Qu'on est loin de la barbarie barbue ! J'ai trouve la reaction de Woody Allen tres saine et raisonnable.Loin de fustiger les gens a se hair, s'exprimant de la plus simple facon sur le conflit israelo-palestinien (alors qu'en tant que juif il lui serait tres facile d'etre pro Determination by Management Essays israelien, je trouve cet homme tres juste. Definition! Je le savais deja tres talentueux dans son art mais il est double d'une personalite tres grande. By Management Essays! Cela change de certaines reactions stupides que l'on peut trouver ici ou la. Enfin concernant les attentats il est plus que probable que les auteurs en sont bien les barbus defendu par un des visiteurs. Battle Of Iwo! [quote]Woody Allen s'est malgre tout declare optimiste, pour le moment.

Le president Bush, que j'ai beaucoup critique, a compris la complexite du probleme, a-t-il dit. Essays! Il a exprime l'espoir que l'option militaire serait le dernier recours.[/quote] [quote]Concernant l'evolution de l'industrie cinematographique aux Etats-Unis, le point positif pour le cineaste est que les spectateurs seront debarrasses de ces films debiles et violents, bourres d'effets speciaux. Creon And Antigone! Il a cependant estime qu'il etait tout a fait possible de creer des films et des oeuvres d'art inspires de ce type de sujet. Determination Of Involvement Of Unions! Tout depend de celui qui cree.[/quote] Avec le recul sept ans apres on significance, peut rire en lisant les espoirs de Woody. C'est pas vraiment ce qui s'est passe. Determination Of Involvement Of Unions Essays! Woody, c'est un DIEU. Battle Significance! C'est qui lui. Determination Of Involvement Of Unions Essays! ca ne serait pas un vieux realisateur ennuyeux qui pense avoir de l'humour. Which Of The Following Is An Of Licensing?! j'aime pas j'aime pas j'aime pas.

Un des meilleurs bien evidemment. Determination Of Involvement Of Unions! Ses films sont dotes d'un humour tres british et de dialogues intellectuels qui fait sa marque de fabrique. If Cloning! Woody Allen ? Il est . Of Involvement By Management Essays! Exceptionnel ! Alors lui je ne l'aime pas comme homme, son passe obscure me degoute, c'est pour cela qu'il a fait aux USA, puis il est vite parti vivre en Suisse et non je ne saurais aimer un type comme ca. Vous aimez Woody Allen ? Alors vous aimerez sans doute BING BING, un (tres) court metrage slapstick de 2 min. About American In World War 2! 20 ! Tapez Festival Nikon dans Google, puis cherchez le film Bing Bing. Determination Essays! Cliquez ensuite sur la 5eme etoile ! Et accessoirement, regardez le film et laissez un commentaire. Creon And Antigone! Un vote par jour par ordinateur est autorise jusqu'au 14 janvier 2013. Of Involvement! Merci d'avance ! Excellent realisateur, connue pour ses films tres British. @Jean-Pol Cardin, excusez-moi mais je pense que vous confondez avec Polanski (?) (a ce jour) 20 Prix et 78 nominations . Creon And Antigone! ha quand meme ! dommage que ses films tournent un peu trop a la romance ( ( a mon gout bien sur! ). Of Involvement Of Unions Essays! C'est tres snob d'aimer W.A., pour moi ca sarrete la, son talent n'est pas a la hauteur de son image. Example! Une carriere atypique pour un homme atypique.

Il n'ira pas aux Golden Globes 2014 pour chercher son prix, Diane Keaton ira a sa place ! Excellent com' vu les accusations porte par la fille adoptive de WW aujourd'hui. Determination By Management! L'un des plus beau et prolifique couple du cinema ! Pour ma part bien mieux que celui qu'il a fait avec Mia Farrow. Creon And Antigone! Mais en effet, il enchaine les films a un rythme affolant et hallucinant et malgre quelques films plus ou moins bien, il y a toujours un minimum de qualite ! Annie Hall, Interieur, Manhattan Match Point sont pour moi ses meilleurs realisations dans ce que j'ai vu. Determination Of Involvement! Ou bien sa femme, . If Cloning! euuh sa fille . Determination Of Involvement By Management! oups. Definition! Je n'ai pas bien compris, pouvez-vous m'eclairer ? C'est encore plus snob de juger des millions de gens qu'on ne connait pas simplement parcequ'ils apprecient un realisateur. By Management Essays! Faut savoir tu connais ou tu connais pas ? Hormis le fait que ce soit un homme detestable, ses films sont d'une niaiserie ec?urante. Ils sont bourres de cliches et de facilites. Battle Of Iwo! Sans compter ses castings qui sont surtout des choix de facilite. Determination Of Unions Essays! et c'est stupide de dire que c'est snobe d'aimer woody. Verities! tu le connais ? vous avez bu un coup ensemble ? Commentaire puerile et stupide. Of Unions! Voila un jugement bien extreme ! En quoi est il detestable ? Tu ne le connais pas et tu n'as vraiment rien a dire de constructif.

Et bien Woody Allen a epouser sa fille adoptive. Vous avez tres bien compris. Essay American Involvement! Peut etre le viol sur sa fille qui caracterise des mecs comme lui, ou dans une autre affaire, Polanski. Determination Of Involvement Of Unions By Management! Comment vous pouvez admirer des mecs pareils? Mais on Essay about Involvement in World, ne sais meme pas si c'est vrai cette histoire. Essays! Y a t il eu un proces ? A t il ete declare coupable ? Si il n'y a pas de preuves de sa culpabilite, il est innocent. And Antigone! C'est la loi et c'est tout.

Si on Determination, commence a faire des suppositions et a tenir compte des rumeurs, on mise en scene, a pas fini. Of Unions By Management Essays! Je comprend pas cet engouement pour Woody Allen, je sais qu'on a pas. Cure! tous les meme gouts mais jpense aussi que c'est bcp de flanflan pour. Determination! rien, au final on mise example, est decu, apparement Match Point est son meilleur film. Of Unions By Management! c'est lui-meme qui le dit et moi jtrouve ca pas mal sans + pas de quoi. foueter un chat. Battle Significance! Le realisateur va realiser sa premiere serie TV ! malheureusement pour une entreprise qui echappe agressivement aux taxes et donc tue le cinema et les budgets culturels des pays ou elle sevit. Of Involvement Of Unions By Management! c'est triste que mon Woody tombe dans leurs griffes. Verities Definition! elle n'a jamais ete sa fille adoptive legalement et officiellement. Determination Of Unions! Elle avait 22 ans quand ils sont tombes amoureux. Verities Definition! Ils sont ensemble depuis plus de 20 ans. Of Involvement Of Unions By Management! je paye toutes mes places de cinema et j'ai un budget reduit (et diminuant, comme presque tout le monde qui travaille. Mise Example! ) donc si je n'aimais pas, je le dirais, ou n'irai pas: c'est donc tout le contraire du snobisme. J'aime (la plupart de) ses films sincerement et de maniere honnete, donc non-snob. Determination Of Involvement Of Unions By Management Essays! un film par an! quel ethique du vrai travail! cherissons ces tresors vivants du cinema tant qu'ils sont la! il est toute cette semaine sur Radio France Culture dans emission Grande Traversee ( Creon And Antigone! ce genie est raconte toute cette semaine sur Radio France Culture dans l'emission Grande Traversee ( Of Unions! supers portraits de lui toute cette semaine sur Radio France Culture ( American Involvement In World War 2! il est analyse a la radio toute cette semaine sur Radio France Culture dans l'emission Grande Traversee ( Determination By Management! si t'aimes Woody comme moi, y'a de bons podcasts a rattraper de Radio France Culture qui fait toute sa bio toute cette semaine dans emission Grande Traversee ( Donner mon avis sur le site | Qui sommes-nous | Recrutement | Contact | Publicite | CGU | Charte | AlloCine. Example! Retrouvez tous les horaires et infos de votre cinema sur le numero AlloCine : 0 892 892 892 (0,34/minute) En poursuivant votre navigation sur AlloCine, vous acceptez l#039;utilisation de cookies.

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cool resume names Q84: Several sources ask: With rising temperatures are we seeing cockroaches flying more? The increased gliding flight of of Involvement of Unions by Management Essays, pest cockroaches might be expected in a hot NYC because they have a preferred temperature range which is between 75F and 86F. Below that temperature they will move to a warmer one if they can find it. American. Above 86F they will try to find a cooler temperature. So, in a hot NYC the roaches will be climbing and gliding down to find that cooler temperature. In addition, in a drought they will be looking for Determination by Management Essays water, particularly because above 86F their cuticle lipids allow water to evaporate from their body much faster and they will dehydrate unless they find water.

Hot temperatures and lack of water will keep the roaches jumping or they will die. That is why they have survived since they evolved 250 million years ago. Example. Unfortunately they have staying power. Q83: Christopher Idoy asks: Where do cockroach's bodies go after their lifespan? In nature, wild cockroaches that die of old age are usually on Determination by Management the forest floor under some leaf liter or under some loose bark. Which Following Is An Advantage Of Licensing?. There the omnipresent bacteria and by Management, molds will degrade them relatively quickly and thus they are recycled. Most cockroaches do not die of old age.

Most are eaten by verities definition a predator such as a mouse or shrew or spider. The household pest cockroach may more likely die of old age and will likely dry up and grow some mold if not vacuumed up in the routine cleaning of the living spaces. If they die in Determination of Involvement by Management a partition, their dried up bodies may accumulate if not eaten by a beetle larva such as a carpet beetle or silverfish or another cockroach. Eventually they will be recycled also. More important is the question of where do their cuticles go when they molt and creon and antigone, also when they die. If not eaten by the newly molted individual, the shed cuticle may crumble or be ground into Determination by Management Essays the dust of a room. Mise Example. That cuticle contains the antigen that causes childhood asthma. That is one good reason to vacuum up the dust from carpets and floors so that the level of the cockroach antigen is kept low enough not to irritate the immature immune systems of children. Determination Of Unions By Management Essays. It seems that the immature immune system can be hyper sensitized by the cockroach antigen and other household dust borne items such as dust mites. And Antigone. That is to be avoided. Everytime there's a Cockroach in my house, and I'm about to kill it.

I sometimes shiver in fear, and they start following me, as if they had some kind of censorial mechanism to of Involvement of Unions by Management attack me. In one of the cases, one flew towards me. Can Cockroaches sense fear from, transmitted from, human bodies? Your characterization of cockroaches goes beyond their capabilities as they are currently understood. As presented in my FAQ the cockroach is presented as fairly dumb.

Their basic instincts are to seek our environmental cues in an established order: thirst hunger sex. Temperature of their environment fits somewhere in there. If Cloning Cure. If their water needs are not satisfied their primary goal would be to Determination of Involvement by Management find water which they can sense in a directional way. They can follow humidity up a gradient to a water source. When their water need is solved they would next seek out food, and so on of the advantage . Sensing your fear is way beyond their capacity. If you are sweating due to fear, perhaps they could be sensing the water coming from your sweat and approach you to get water. The 'sensorial mechanism' in Determination of Involvement of Unions Essays this case would be activated based on their water thirst. Cockroaches do have their own pheromones which are hormones for communication between organisms.

A fear hormone is Involvement in World, talked about for mammals including humans but it would be a real stretch at this point to accept your characterization of the cockroach behavior you report as a sensing of your fear. I would eliminate the primal cockroach sensations as possible causes before I jumped to an as yet unknown sensory mechanism for by Management cockroaches. That said, there are other proposed sensory capabilities of cockroaches that are not yet proven in a rigorous scientific way. One such is their possible ability to sense an earthquake before it happens. This ability if understood could be very beneficial to early warnings in rural or even cosmopolitan situations if it out-performs or is cheaper than conventional detectors. Similarly, a cockroach fear-sensor could be very useful if it could be calibrated and validated to reliably detect fear.

An hypothesis such as you make needs to be tested rigorously by pointed experiments before it is accepted as 'truth' (i.e. not rejected). I recently went to open my refrigerator door and about Involvement, sure enough, there was a roach inside on the refrigerator shelf. Determination Of Unions By Management Essays. It got away, unfortunately, but made me wonder . How? Most refrigerators chill food to. What are the contents of could cure, a cockroach brain that makes it a possible antibiotic against MRSA and Escherichia coli ? The brain is a very important organ in of Involvement of Unions by Management Essays an animals life and survival. It fights all sorts of attacks from invading organisms and also anything that might disrupt its function. All living organisms fight against microorganisms using whatever they are able to significance discover through the Determination of Involvement evolutionary filter of verities, survival of the fittest. By Management Essays. Ergo, we find an anti-cancer drug from the en scene example Yew tree's bark. There is not enough Yew tree bark to Determination provide the amount of its anti-cancer substance needed.

We have learned how to synthesize this drug without killing Yew trees. For some reason, the cockroach brain has developed a unique general approach to antibiotics about which you seem to creon and antigone have heard. Insects do not have the highly-targeted immune response that we have, i.e. Determination By Management. IgG, IgA, IgM, t-cells, etc. They have general responses to verities definition fighting against microbes. The cockroach brain factors are perhaps a new type of antibiotic which has not yet been identified and studied extensively.

I have only read about it in news reports and the discoverers are keeping the of Involvement of Unions Essays details that they know somewhat close to their vest perhaps because they are in the process of discovery that is needed to apply for a patent. Also the criteria for publishing in a peer-reviewed journal are more stringent that those for reporting phenomena at a conference. They are perhaps playing the if cloning could cure wise strategy of giving a little bit of info to the public to Determination of Involvement of Unions stimulate interest and perhaps private/public investment until they have enough info to publish in a professional journal or patent the technique. I am not sure what the British patent law is Involvement, like vs the USA law. In Europe one can not patent a life-saving protocol. Determination By Management. In America you can. In America you need to patent a protocol soon after you make the details public in a journal or you lose the if cloning us right to patent. The most profitable approach would be to Determination of Involvement Essays keep quiet about technical details until you to get a USA patent on the protocol/substance. For that reason we may not know the example details of this story until the financial issues are settled. There are many such discoveries that never pan out.

However, if it is actually one or several new ways of fighting bacteria then understanding them could lead to new families of antibiotics that could be new treatments for the growing number of antibiotic-resistant-bacterial-strains such as MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) which no longer are controlled by their previously effective antibiotic. We bought two female cockroaches about seven months ago, and . one . has recently given birth. They are both . female, and she gave birth about six months after we got her, which is too long for her to have gotten pregnant in the (pet) shop isn't it?! Even stranger is Determination of Involvement by Management Essays, that she has given birth twice now (we think) but only to about three cockroaches each time. Cockroaches need to mate only once to produce up to 3 or more sequential batches (oothecae) of verities definition, fertilized eggs. They store the sperm in an internal storage location and use it as needed. Sometimes the last batches of hatching embryos are small in number because the sperm was running out. Of Involvement Of Unions By Management. Also the paired ovaries are made up of ovarioles which are strings of maturing oocytes. Only the terminal oocyte of an ovariole gets ovulated and fertilized to participates in a current ootheca.

Sometimes the ovarioles develop tumors which then inactivates that ovariole from participating in a current or future ootheca. Sometimes if the definition female is of Involvement of Unions, not well fed and well supplied with water an embryo will die before hatching. Several phenomena contribute to how many offspring you will have. The female hissing cockroaches you bought may have been quite old adults when you purchased them. They do not show their age externally. With fresh larvae hatched to following rear, you can control their health and by Management, growth by how well you treat them. The males usually metamorphose to the adult stage first, sometimes an instar earlier than the females.

Feed the larval males and could us, females well with a low nitrogen diet. Mix ground dog biskit with corn starch to dilute the of Involvement amount of Essay, protein nitrogen, moisten it with a bit of of Involvement by Management Essays, water and bake it into your own custom roach biskits. Creon. Too much nitrogen will give the cockroaches a form of gout, excess uric acid in their waste and their fat bodies. Of Unions By Management Essays. This gout can lead to an early death of your pet cockroaches. They are healthier if you feed them something like 10-15% dog biskit with 85-90% cornstarch. Give them a banana or carrot slice occasionally. Keep their container relatively clean and look at their fecal pellets to see if they have too much uric acid in them. They will be white if they have too much uric acid.

A healthy first parturition female Gromphadorhina portentosa can have 40-60 live offspring at each birth as you have read. Good luck. PS: Virgin births (parthenogenesis) is mise en scene, known among cockroaches! I . Determination Essays. wonder if you might help me with (a) hypothetical: Say someone had found a cockroach that had been living near water and food contaminated by verities runoff from a golf course. It appears normal accept that it's roughly the Determination of Unions by Management size of a shoebox. Essay American In World War 2. How might you go about trying to explain such a thing? In your section on Determination of Involvement of Unions by Management Essays the Roach's size being regulated by battle of iwo jima significance its respiratory system and wondered if the two things might be connected?` The possibility that a local phenomenon, pollution runoff at Determination by Management a golf course, could be the basis for and antigone the appearance of a 'hopeful monster' is an unlikely outcome. The concept of a 'hopeful monster', your 'shoebox sized cockroach', is Determination of Involvement by Management Essays, not new and you can read about such phenomena, which was most recently described by the late Stephen Jay Gould. Find out verities about this phenomenon by googling 'hopeful monster'.

What other insects or arachnids are related to the cockroach? Are scorpions or lobsters? Cockroaches are in the insect order Dictyoptera, which, to some, is a super order of the Determination of Involvement of Unions by Management cockroaches, termites and preying mantids. In my mind, this is a firmly established group based on molecular as well as morphological and physiological evidence. I myself have published immunological evidence that the Involvement termites are like another family of cockroaches with the preying mantids being more distant from both termites and cockroaches. The termites can be considered social-cockroaches (they have a king and queen, workers and soldiers) and the preying mantids are anti-social-cockroaches (the bride eats the groom after mating!). Bjoern M. von Reumont, Ronald A. Jenner, Matthew A. Wills, Emiliano Dell'Ampio, Gunther Pass, Ingo Ebersberger, Benjamin Meyer, Stefan Koenemann, Thomas M. Iliffe, Alexandros Stamatakis, Oliver Niehuis, Karen Meusemann, and Bernhard Misof. Determination By Management. (2012). Pancrustacean Phylogeny in the Light of New Phylogenomic Data: Support for Remipedia as the Possible Sister Group of Hexapoda. Mol. Biol. Evol.

29(3):1031-1045. . In one of (your) FAQs, someone asked about roaches making sounds, and you replied that to the best of your knowledge the (pest species) didn't communicate through sounds. However, one thing I noted at one point when my home was suffering a rather bad infestation of American roaches is and antigone, that at of Involvement of Unions by Management night I would hear a clicking sound, very similar to en scene the sound made when a person snaps a fingernail and thumbnail together. If I made this snapping noise with my fingernails, I'd get a chorus of Determination of Involvement of Unions by Management Essays, replies. When I eliminated the roaches, the clicking noises also were eliminated. So although the of the is an evidence is Determination, a bit circumstantial, I believe that the American roach actually communicates via this clicking sound, perhaps a mating call? Good observation! That sound might fall within the en scene example realm of stridulation which I mentioned about Determination of Unions Essays some species of cockroach.

One might ask how stridulation developed evolutionarily and definition, it might have started with a few clicks of the of Involvement by Management Essays roach wings or limbs against one another. Your experiment with inducing them to click is particularly telling. I would think that rather than mating, which has been studied fairly thoroughly, that the clicking might be a warning that is transmitted through the verities roach world. In certain species of the closely related termites the large headed soldiers do head-knocking behavior in their wooden galleries, banging their little heads against the wooden walls which sends an alarm signal to the rest of the colony. Alarm-signal evidence in cockroaches would be an important finding. It would be further evidence of of Involvement, a social structure beyond mating much as white-tailed deer flash their tails or turkeys gobble a warning to fellow turkeys when danger arises. You may not be willing to recreate the and antigone environment in which the roaches were clicking and could respond to your nail-snaps but that would be necessary in order to design experiments to test your 'communication hypothesis'. Someone may read this in Determination by Management Essays my FAQ and do just that. Battle Of Iwo Jima Significance. In fact, we may need my readership to do the experiment you just described since once a person rids their home of cockroaches there is no desire to go back. Before you readers decimate the roach population in your home, please do the interesting experiment described above!

We are the producers of a commonly used household item. My question is this, we distribute product to off sight clearing houses (shipping consolidators). Recently we delivered a job to such a facility and they in Essays turn got the verities definition product to Determination of Unions Essays the ultimate customer the next day. When the customer started opening the 20 some boxes he started finding cockroaches. By the time he had emptied the boxes he had found and killed ten roaches. We use common cardboard boxes as packing material, comparable to a sealed box of verities definition, canned goods you would find in a grocery store.

If we delivered to an infested site how long would it take the little buggers to get in the boxes? I know this particular job did not sit on of Involvement Essays their dock for more than 12 hours. Cockroaches are active for the four hours after the normal 'lights out' in a building. Your shipment was presumably packed in the evening and sat in about American Involvement in World the dark, perhaps still somewhat open, at the end of of Involvement of Unions, business. If Cloning Cure Us. The cockroaches became active and Determination of Involvement of Unions by Management Essays, then after their four hours of activity they sought a hiding place for the coming day. Some hid in your packages and then were found upon eventual delivery the next day. Growing up, my room was the definition only room in by Management my parents house that cockroaches completely infested. I was and still AM a very clean person so I don't attribute their infesting to food or uncleanliness. Battle. I've had cockroaches drop on me in the middle of the of Involvement of Unions Essays night countless times, fly directly at me, fall on me in the shower, crawl underneath my pillow/couch cushion sit on and antigone my purse strap or inside my purse, crawl in my shoes/clothes, crawl in my drawers, etc. . Determination Of Unions. (Are) cockroaches . attracted to my scent, is that possible? In 2005 scientists at Cornell and NC State, including my good colleague Coby Schal, identified the elusive hormone that attracts the male of Blattella germanica to verities the female.

A news release of that discovery can be viewed at URL: Q73: Liz Jeavans asks: I would like to know how cockroaches walk up walls. I heard that they have statically charged feet, but is this true? Liz, The feet of of Involvement of Unions Essays, insects including cockroaches are made up of a brush like pile which reacts with a surface like myriad weak suction cups. The weak forces involve adding together thousands of such individual adhering pillus ends and result in a strong enough force to suspend the body of a fly, a roach or even larger non-insectal critters such as lizards. To step the cockroach must remove the Essay Involvement in World pilli individually in Determination of Involvement of Unions by Management Essays a wave, like ripping off some cellophane or an adhesive bandage. If you tried ripping off a bandage whole at one time it would not come off but if you rip it off from one edge it comes of easily. So the insects and lizards had invented reusable tape long before humans.

Here is creon and antigone, a detailed URL on the topic: Q72: Arlette Koiiman asks: I saw one cockroach with an ootheca when I caught it to throw it out. My question is, where are the Determination cockroaches most likely to place the creon and antigone ootheca?? Would they chose a specific location, or would they just loose the ootheca whenever the time is right? Is it likely they would choose a spot in by Management Essays a frequently used airconditioned room?

Would they climb into en scene the drawers or closet and Determination of Involvement by Management, chose to place it between your clothes. Blattella germanica the creon German cockroach is the commonest small pest roach and carries its egg case until it hatches in about 18 days at 30C. Determination By Management Essays. At hatching the ootheca is on the female or dropped at random wherever she is at the time. Periplaneta americana or Blatta orientalis are the commonest large pest roaches. They carry their egg case for a few days and significance, then deposit it in a corner or crevice, cementing it there with local debris and Determination of Unions by Management, saliva. A favorite place is in the corrugations of verities definition, corrugated cardboard. They chew a hole into the cardboard and use the chewings to of Unions by Management paste together over battle significance the ootheca that they have placed into the hole they have made in Determination by Management the cardboard. They would not typically burrow into cure clothing in a drawer to do it. They might chose the corner of the drawer and use some of the lint available to glue together over the deposited ootheca. Cockroaches prefer warm temperatures and it depends what temperature of air conditioning is imposed on the room they find themselves.

Cockroaches prefer temperatures between 25 and 30C. They will move from a cooler spot to the warmer spot as long as it satisfies their basic drives: thirst, hunger and sex. Does Cockroach like to be touched on all its sides? What is the word for it? Thigmotropic. Determination Of Involvement Of Unions. [Greek thigma , touch; as in thigmotaxis + -tropism.] This is battle of iwo jima, a word used often in the plant world where a plant entwines itself about another object such as a vine climbing another vine or a tree or a string. Cockroaches are thigmotropic in of Involvement Essays the sense that they like to conform to a hiding place during the day, conforming to a curve or having something touching them on top and bottom such as in a crevice.

Q70: Merilliza Chan asks: Is it true that a cockroach can lay eggs without mating. In World War 2. how is that possible? o_o. There are three issues here, egg laying, fertile egg laying and virgin birth: 1) Cockroaches and many other animals can lay eggs (infertile) without mating. A cockroach and Determination of Unions by Management Essays, most other organisms must begin maturing their eggs (oocytes) in their ovary considerably before mating (humans too). The egg is ovulated on a schedule that is determined by whether it has developed in the ovary to a point when it is ready for ovulation. 2) After ovulation, there may or may not be sperm to fertilize the egg that is ovulated. In cockroaches, if there are no sperm to fertilize the if cloning could cure us egg, the ootheca that covers the eggs is often thinner.

The cockroach's physiology knows not to waste the protein on Determination of Unions by Management producing a thick oothecal covering and very often the of the following female will eat the Determination of Unions Essays infertile eggs regaining the battle of iwo stored yolk protein lest it be wasted from the cockroach's nutritional economy. 3) Parthenogenesis is the process of of Unions by Management Essays, producing fertile eggs without male participation. Some species of cockroach use parthenogenesis as a rule (there are no males, or very rare males in such species). The American cockroach is said to mise be able to produce parthenogenetic offspring under severe conditions when no males are available. Why is Determination of Involvement by Management, there not a single photo of cockroach eggs on the net? Well ok I saw 2 photos on google image but they were drawn or cr___y! Cockroach eggs do not occur in nature singly, they come in batches called oothecae. I have several images of cockroach eggs in an ootheca often extruding from the rear end of the female. Try the verities following links. Two families of Determination by Management Essays, cockroaches (Blattinae and Blattellidae) extrude the mise example ootheca and hold onto it for a few day until they deposit it in Determination of Involvement of Unions a safe place to hatch about a month later.

One genus of about Involvement War 2, Blattellinae, Blattella , including our favorite Blattella germanica , the Determination of Involvement of Unions by Management German cockroach, holds onto the ootheca extruding from its rear end until it hatches: The entire Blaberidae family of tropical cockroaches incubate their ootheca covered eggs internally and you never see their ootheca unless you are someone like me who rears them and you see the ootheca during the extrusion phase after which they take it back into the uterus and of iwo significance, incubate it until hatching/birth. Probably more than you ever wanted to know about the visibility of Determination of Involvement by Management, cockroach eggs. Finally, you would have seen more cockroach egg pictures on the internet if you had searched Google Image for 'ootheca' rather than 'cockroach egg' What color are cockroaches most atrackted to? Cockroaches (and most other insects) have two light receptors, one sensitive in definition the ultraviolet range and one in Determination Essays the green range. Many insects also have a third light receptor peaking in the blue.

Most pest cockroaches are not attracted to light. They are active at night and if anything they might avoid light. However, if you have a patio that is lit you might be asking what type of light should you have in your patio lighting scheme. The yellow 'bug' lights would be least visible to any of the wild cockroaches that can see light and fly and often are attracted to of iwo significance porch and patio lights. A fluorescent light has ultraviolet in its spectrum and thus could attract insects. A normal incandescent light will have the usual blue and of Involvement by Management, green light in its spectrum and thus attracts insects that see that light.

The actual question of whether they are attracted to the light is another issue. Battle Jima. Insects attracted to porch lights are often exhibiting the moth to a flame attraction phenomenon. Insects flying at night are often orienting to a light they interpret as the moon. If you are trying to fly in of Involvement of Unions by Management Essays a straight line you might chose to keep the moon at a constant angle in your front line of sight. Since the moon is so far away, that keeps you going in a straight line.

However if you mistake a porch light for the moon and keep a constant angle to of iwo it, you are likely to Determination Essays spiral into the light - like a moth into a flame. Insects, in that instance, are not attracted to the light but are using it for navigation. Q67: Mike Delozier asks: We wanted to determine just how big a cockroach could get. Of The Following Of Licensing?. Would the physiology and structure of the insect allow it to be as big as a dog or cat?

We had heard if a spider got that big they would suffocate because the Determination of Unions by Management Essays physiological structure couldn't support it. Is there any similar restrictions with the of the following advantage roach? That is a classic question in insect physiology. Insects are usually thought to be limited by Determination of Unions the free diffusion in air of if cloning could cure us, oxygen into their innermost tissues and free diffusion of CO 2 out. Insects supply their tissues with oxygen using their segmental spiracular openings and the tracheal tubes that divide and subdivide until they reach the size of tracheoles which are small tubes that directly tangent the cell surface and by Management Essays, gases exchange. This subdivision is such that the and antigone cross sectional area of the tube does not change at each subdivision.

If the cross-sectional area of each tracheole at the cellular level does not change, it necessarily follows that as the insect volume increases, the size of the outermost tracheal trunk will needs be get larger in proportion to tissue volume. Of Involvement Of Unions By Management Essays. Given the properties of surface to volume, there is an upper limit to the size of an insect if the principles outlined are held constant. Extrapolated, the cross- sectional area of the battle significance spiracular openings would need to be larger than the available insect outer surface. These limits might be overcome if in Determination of Involvement of Unions by Management the larger insects a tidal lung function was developed. In some of the larger cockroaches there is a sort of tidal rhythm that occurs through the action of body wall muscles contracting and relaxing. Which Of The Following Is An Advantage. This might extend the size of of Unions Essays, a cockroach by compensating for jima the need to Determination of Involvement maintain a constant crossectional area from the smallest to the biggest tracheae. A tidal 'lung' function would get more air into definition the large tracheal trunks, but would not solve the basic problem of the size of the general tracheal system. Determination Of Involvement Of Unions By Management Essays. I doubt that a single level of tidal 'lung' would allow the cockroach to get much larger than the current tropical cockroaches like Blaberus giganteus but it would be nice for someone to put a firmer theoretical basis on that limit. Good luck!

Q66: Wallace Anderson asks: . I was kinda worried because it (the leaf roach) seemed to have been injured a little when I swiped it from jima significance, my hair where it had landed unexpectedly. . Will it heal? Good question! Actually I did my Ph.D. dissertation on that very topic. Cockroach regeneration of limbs. By Management Essays. I wrote a chapter in a book on cockroaches on the topic: Q65: Mariele Pellecer ask: I . wanted to of the following advantage know how do you sex them ( Blattella germanica ) before they molt to Determination of Involvement Essays adults? Since this is an important issue for cockroach biologists I constructed a page to explain it as I understand it from Mary Ross and Don Cochran, and have used this technique for decades. It is almost fool-proof:

Q64: Karna and Izzy and Sarah ask: . we are moving. And we have a problem with big huge roaches in of licensing? our house, mainly kitchen and bathroom. I am VERY worried that during packing and moving the of Involvement Essays roaches will jump into my suitcases and nest in Essay about American Involvement in World my clothes. What can I tell you? Cockroach larvae will hide anywhere they can.

Moving with migrating human populations is exactly how pest roaches have gotten around the world. I have no magic solution. Kill the roaches any way you can before you reach your new home. If you have roaches you can see, you need to do a general extermination to Determination of Involvement get them all, visible and invisible. Fumigate the moving van? I am not an of the following is an advantage of licensing? exterminator and have no special expertise in that respect.

After cooking pizza in of Unions Essays my microwave, I opened the microwave . and discovered a small roach . still alive. Verities. . is it possible that it was in the microwave . and . survived? This experiment has been done often. The microwave oven is amazingly non-uniform in its heating. That is why most of them have carousels to keep the of Involvement by Management food moving through the verities definition focus of the power. The roach you found was clearly not at by Management Essays the focus of the microwaves, otherwise it would have exploded under the heating regime at the focus. I wonder if you know of any roaches that have spiny protrusions extending from a slightly elongated abdomen that they upend and essentially point at each other when fighting. The cockroach species, Diploptera punctata , is mise en scene, found in Hawaii. It has cerci protruding from the tip of of Involvement of Unions, its abdomen and it will spray an acrid fluid from its upturned abdomen at attackers, usually not at each other but some small rodent intent on creon and antigone eating them. Here is a picture of of Involvement by Management, a Diploptera family, (counter-clockwise) 2 adults, 3 larval stages, a late embryo and packet of eggs. Of course, your description sounds like a scorpion, which is not a cockroach but is a household pest in the US southwest. It also sounds like an earwig which has pincer like protrusions from the verities definition tip of Determination by Management, their abdomen with teeth that are reared up in the air when they are disturbed.

You may be mistaken about the fighting. Mating male cockroaches extend their abdomen and point it at the female offering her a taste of a secretion on and antigone his abdomen. If the female feeds on of Involvement of Unions by Management Essays this gland it stimulates the male to continue the mating process, eventually copulating and transferring a package of sperm to the female which then uses it for the next month or two fertilizing eggs. What is the little brown sac that falls out of some roaches when they are dying? That is a sac of eggs, called an ootheca. See the creon and antigone pictures at URLs: The females carry the ootheca protruding from of Unions by Management Essays, their bursa which is at battle jima significance their tail end until, depending on the species, it hatches, they hide it somewhere or until they retract it into their uterus to incubate it until the eggs hatch. The German cockroach carries it around until it hatches and of Involvement Essays, might be the culprit you are specifically asking about. The American cockroach carries it around for a day or two until it hardens and darkens and then hides it in a crevasse covered with some camouflage they glue in place with saliva. The ootheca is creon and antigone, only gently held in the bursa and could easily fall off when the roach is roughly handled or dying.

Q60: Elizabeth Palmer asks: How much weight can a cockroach carry? For instance, an ant can carry it's own weight. That saying about the Determination of Involvement by Management ant sounds just as offhand as what I might give for the cockroach, but for an important difference: The ant is which of the following is an, a forager which is Determination by Management, designed to find and mise example, carry objects back to its colony nest. Carrying things has a meaning for ants based on their innate behavior.

The cockroach does not move things more than a few millimeters when it lifts things that it is nibbling while eating or tasting. Therefore the by Management Essays carrying question is meaningless in most situations. Cockroaches were not designed to American Involvement in World War 2 carry foreign objects around. The ant can probably carry things twice its weight. Determination Of Unions. . This is a perfect question for definition an undergraduate lab, but not particularly interesting to an insect physiologist. It would engage the student in Determination of Unions by Management Essays trying to get the cockroach and ant to verities carry something. The student would hopefully learn that the Determination of Unions by Management ant instinctively carries things off and verities, the cockroach does not. This exercise would teach that the Determination by Management posing of a logical experimental question is an important step in doing research. A close relative of the cockroach is the preying mantis which catches and jima significance, lifts other insects to eat them. The females will even catch and eat the male after she mates with him.

The male in mating with the female, jumps on its back and is carried around during the mating process. Determination Of Involvement Of Unions. The male weighs a bit less than the female but you could say that the female mantis can lift its own weight (or that of a mate). In this case the Essay American in World War 2 female does carry the male on her back while mating, then she grabs him and eats him on the spot, usually without carrying him any further. Similarly the Determination of Unions by Management other close relative of the cockroach, the termite, is battle of iwo jima significance, a social insect which lives in a nest but it does not go foraging and bring back large objects the way that an Determination of Involvement by Management Essays ant does. Creon And Antigone. The termite can forage for bits of wood and does lift bits of wet saliva soaked wood in Determination order to of the is an extend its nest, often building huge structures in Africa, or, more close to home, tunnels from house siding across foundation to ground. Carrying of this building material is Determination of Involvement by Management, essential to verities definition survival for Essays these termites. The cockroach female does not carry the male on her back during the mating process as the mantid and many other insects do, they mate tail to tail with no carrying involved. So, you need to create a question about cockroaches that has meaning. A carrying question about a cockroach is not meaningful, unless you could create a situation in which it needs to carry something.

When a group of cockroaches is very hungry I have observed them competing for advantage food. Occasionally I have seen a cockroach drag a piece of Determination Essays, food off to nibble on it without being harassed by close neighbors. This is the only situation I have observed in which a cockroach does anything close to carry an object. Then a good question might be: When a group of cockroaches has been starved, how much food could an individual cockroach lift and carry off in that situation? I do not know the answer. Reader Janis Innis (july 11, 2009) notes: I observed a roach running with a large chunk of and antigone, dog food. It was running across the kitchen, but when I entered the Determination of Involvement by Management Essays room, it turned and which following, ran back towards the other side of the room. I would estimate it covered six feet while I was watching it. Determination. I would guess the dry dog food chunk weighed much more than the roach. . Q59: Jennifer Manley asks:

I have an insect that I believe to if cloning cure be a Blaberus colloseus , just judging by the one picture I could find on the internet. Can you tell me where to of Involvement find out anything about this guy? I'm not having any luck on the internet. Ans: Jennifer, My experience with Blaberus species is limited to B. giganteus, B. discoidalis , and B. cranifer . Now that other species of Blaberus are becoming attractive as pets and creon, feeder cultures worldwide, our poor understanding and literature about the diversity of species in this and most other cockroach genera is becoming obvious. The three species I mentioned were the first to be cultured in research labs and by hobbyists. Determination Of Involvement Of Unions. There is a reasonable scientific literature on their use as lab animals. We actually know little about about American Involvement in World their natural ecology and Determination by Management Essays, behavior except where experimentalists and hobbyists have taken the time to describe it. I have no information and could find no information at PubMed or Web-of-Science on Blaberus colloseus the Ecuador roach or Blaberus colossus , the about American in World more likely spelling. It is also possible that this name is a synonym or a mistake that you have run across on Determination of Unions by Management the internet on the many hobbyist pages dealing with cockroaches.

One note of caution, many Blaberus species look alike and battle of iwo significance, if you have collected your Blaberus species in the wilds of the of Involvement by Management Essays southern USA, it is about Involvement, most likely B. Determination Of Unions By Management Essays. discoidalis or B. giganteus which can be found in the wild on our southern USA coast. I'm a freelance editor on deadline trying to edit a story on American in World roaches for a reading textbook . (T)here is so much conflicting information on the web. . (C)ould you clear up the Determination by Management Essays following . questions for me? Ans: That number is not the verities usual number quoted and is ( 40 x 5-6) = 200-240. In my substantial experience using B. germanica in my lab, a single female can produce at max about 5-6 egg cases during her lifetime, each about a month apart after her own approximate 35 day juvenile phase. The timing depends on temperature and they develop most quickly at 30C. Each egg case has approximately 40 eggs so that means a single female will only produce 240 primary offspring. Determination By Management. However most people like to scare you with the calculation of total progeny. That means understanding that only could us, half the 240 primary offspring are females who could each also have 240 offspring half of which are females. Depending on the temperature one needs to calculate the larger number of offspring that a female can produce in a year, which is the usual number that is of Involvement of Unions Essays, quoted.

Ans: The American cockroach produces 1 ootheca per 2.5-3 days with each ootheca bearing about 12 offspring. The number of ootheca in the adult life of an American roach is probably somewhere in the literature. The egg cases start being less frequent as the and antigone female gets older and some of the ovarioles become inactive such that an ootheca might only contain 6-8 eggs in later life. I presume an adult female might continue the output for of Involvement of Unions by Management 6 months (although that is a guess) so resulting in example 60 ootheca x 12 = 720 offspring. Of Involvement Of Unions. The variance about this average might be quite high so I would not be surprised by actual counts of females producing 500-1400 offspring in her lifetime. I see that you've mentioned that cockroaches are connected to asthma in kids. Please could you explain this to me? Why do they cause atshma? A: Rochelle, You ask a good question. About American Involvement In World War 2. Why do we develop asthma from interaction with some object we might experience particularly as a child (i.e. childhood asthma)?

Asthma is an Determination of Involvement of Unions by Management over-reaction of our body to if cloning cure us a foreign antigen we find in our environment. We have special antibodies in our serum, immunoglobulin E, that are associated with allergic reactions. When we develop an allergy to something in our environment that allergic reaction sometimes takes directions that are dangerous to the individual. A severe reaction is of Involvement of Unions Essays, anaphylactic shock which can kill you. A milder reaction includes various levels of asthma. Why do children develop asthma by verities definition growing up in a cockroach infested home? Young children crawl around on the floors and carpets which may have the Determination of Unions by Management Essays parts and proteins of cockroaches imbedded in them. The same goes for pet dander and allergies to dogs and cat dander. Creon. When an allergy test is given to those asthmatic individuals they find the of Involvement Essays children react perhaps to cockroach antigen and could cure, perhaps to dog or cat dander antigen. Only certain children develop the allergies and the asthmatic reaction to those conditions.

This seems to be partly an inherited tendency, so, allergic parents may pass on the tendency to become allergic to of Involvement of Unions by Management their children. Here is an authoritative link to discussions of the verities relation between allergies and asthma. How fast are cockroaches? A: Glesne, Cockroaches are fast enough. Of Unions Essays. They have giant fibers in their ventral nerve cord that transmit the creon and antigone sensory info from of Involvement of Unions by Management, their cerci, which sense air currents, directly to their thoracic ganglia which control their leg muscles. This is a reflex circuit which does not need any decision by the cockroach brain. It is fast enough to detect the air wave in front of a predator and allows the cockroach to scuttle away, avoiding capture. If you want to know how fast in cm/sec you will have to Essay American Involvement War 2 do your own experiment. Each species would have its own behavioral and mechanical limits of speed. You might make your measurement of speed in terms of body lengths per second which might allow you to compare species of cockroaches. What would be your measuring conditions?

Starting from a full stop and measure speed after 0.1 or 0.2 seconds? You have some thinking to do before you can decide how to measure the cockroach speed. How long can a cockroach maintain its top speed? How long does it take to accelerate to its top speed? Q55: Justin Winstead asks: I had a debate with my brother and his wife over of Involvement by Management whether or not cockroaches live in organized groups. I said that they do live in organized groups and they acted like I was crazy. Can you set us straight please?

A: Justin, Social structure in the cockroach pest species is next to invisible. However there are a few indications of cure us, group organization. Most such behavior would not be considered social: 1) Many cockroaches care for Determination by Management Essays their eggs until they hatch, including the German cockroach which carries the battle of iwo jima eggs externally until they hatch. A whole Family of cockroaches, the Blaberidae with subfamilies Blaberinae, Zetoborinae, Epilamprinae Diplopterinae and Pycnoscelinae among others, carry the Determination of Involvement of Unions by Management Essays eggs internally until they hatch. Cure. One Blaberid species, Diploptera sp. Of Unions Essays. , provides nutrition to the embryos which actually molt in utero several times such that they need only molt three times after they are born to battle of iwo jima become adults, URL: D_punctata-devel-2864.JPG.

2) There is a so-called group-effect among the young of German cockroaches. If they are alone they develop very slowly. If there are at least two larvae in a defined space they accelerate their development to become adults. This later behavior is a mechanism that increases the probability that two adults will be present by of Unions Essays the time adulthood is reached. Battle. Unfortunately, this effect is sex-neutral so the two adults could be both males or both females with a probability of 50%. 3) The termites are a group of Determination of Involvement Essays, insects that have approximately the same level evolutionary relationship as Families of cockroaches. This group is highly social and could be considered the of the is an advantage social branch of the cockroach evolutionary tree. Any suspected social organization of your pest species is more likely a misunderstanding when one finds them all hiding together during their quiet period which is during our daytime. Of Unions By Management Essays. Hiding spaces are at a premium and a good hiding space will be used by many cockroaches. Definition. Is sleeping-together living in of Unions by Management Essays organized groups?

Do they aggregate during their quiet phase to activate the group effect, which may insure they are able to American Involvement in World War 2 reproduce effectively? Q54: Laurie Betts asks: Are there Australian cockroaches in the USA? A: Laurie, There is a pest cockroach, Periplaneta australasiae , which is common outdoors in the southern USA. It is commonly called the Australian cockroach. It is found worldwide as a pest and also called the greenhouse cockroach because of its predilection for Determination by Management establishing itself as a pest in the warmth of greenhouses at all latitudes. Definition. It is of Unions Essays, also found in and antigone western Australia.

I am not sure of the by Management Essays etymology of the common name, 'Australian cockroach'. The actual geographic origin of American Involvement War 2, pest species is not easy to of Unions determine. North Africa seems to be the major focus of the battle of iwo jima significance wild species of the genus Periplaneta , thus Periplaneta americana is thought to of Unions by Management originate in North Africa despite its common name, the creon and antigone American cockroach. It is thought that the pest species of cockroaches have dispersed around the world with the, relatively recent, early human migrations, explorations and trading activity. Determination Of Unions. The 1400's - 1600's would be considered relatively recent relative to the 250 myr history of cockroach evolution. The scientific name is P. australasiae , which translates to Periplaneta of southern ( austral -) asia. The 'austral' of the which is an advantage scientific name does not necessarily indicate that it is from Determination of Involvement by Management Essays, Australia but more correctly from southern Asia. Of The. The '-asiae' is the Latin genitive of possession, suggesting 'this Periplaneta belongs to southern Asia'. 'Australia' is generally thought of as the 'southern continent' not 'southern Asia'. The scientific, Latin names of insects and their common names, if common names exist, are often applied for local or mistaken reasons.

Somehow, the common name 'Australian' was applied at some point in time to P. australasiae . See URL: There is of Unions by Management Essays, another answer to your question. The cockroach Family group, Polyzosterinae, is almost entirely found in Australia, thus it could be thought of as a group of Australian cockroaches. It has hundreds of described species, most if not all wingless as adults. There is one species of this Family in which advantage of licensing? the USA, Eurycotis floridana . It is thought that E. floridana reached the USA prehistorically when Australia was part of the by Management plates that made up the super-continent Pangaea. During the separation of Australia from South America, about War 2 50 myr ago, it is thought that the then nuclear Family of which Eurycotis was a member split, sending one or a few representatives up into South American landmass and Determination of Involvement of Unions by Management Essays, the remainder in the future Australian landmass.

The Eurycotis genus is thought to have reached the USA across the Central American land-bridge. Eurycotis floridana is the only surviving species of the Polyzosterinae in the USA while the us Polyzosterinae blossomed in Australia. So you can say that there is at least one Australian cockroach in the USA, E. floridana . Determination Of Unions Essays. . or two if you include P. australasiae . Q53: Kian Hwee (Singapore) asks: . can you share with me a few examples of battle of iwo significance, cockroaches that evolved some kind of symbiotic relationship with other living organisms? Thank you. A: Kian Hwee, Cockroaches in general have one very important symbiotic relationship with bacteroids living in special cells, mycetocytes, in their fat body tissue. The bacteroids are passed from of Involvement of Unions Essays, generation to generation as a thin coating on their eggs, between the chorion and Essay American in World, the oocyte cell membrane. Determination Of Involvement Of Unions By Management. During embryology these bacteroids invest in the female future ovary and could, the developing fat body tissue. The bacteroids produce all the vitamins needed by the cockroach with the exception of choline and cholesterol which remain as the Determination of Involvement of Unions by Management Essays only essential vitamins of the cockroach. Which Of The Advantage Of Licensing?. The close relatives, termites and preying mantids have lost or never gained this type of Determination of Involvement of Unions by Management, symbiont. They must get their vitamins, like Vit A and D, in their food. This is a true symbiotic relationship since the cockroaches have protected the bacteroids over the millions of years of their association and which of the, probably these bacteria-like organisms have been protected from Determination by Management Essays, changes forced on and antigone their strains by mating with other bacterial strains and Determination, have remained true to their type since they accepted the cloistered life they enjoy in the cockroach fat body.

As long as the mise cockroach survives, these bacteroids will survive. They have hung their survival on a pretty sure bet. Determination Of Involvement Essays. How is that for a symbiotic benefit? The cockroach makes out pretty well also since due to the vitamins supplied by the bacteroids, the cockroach can eat almost anything organic without thinking of whether it has vitamins and of the of licensing?, essential amino acids, which we all need to Determination by Management Essays get via our diet or a vitamin pill! How would we know a cockroach was still alive if it does not move? My son would like to perform the experiment of cutting off a roaches head. I looked through the questions already posted, but did not see how we would know it was still alive if it doesn't move.

A: Mendriks, The headless cockroach will move if stimulated with a feather or a toothpick. Creon. The cockroach will sense an Determination by Management irritation on its leg or back and move to avoid it if it is still alive. The way to do the experiment with the greatest chance of battle jima significance, success is to take some old-fashion dental floss, the type made up of very fine filaments and make a simple loop knot that is of Unions by Management, put over the cockroaches head and drawn tight around its neck. You can also use a fine silk thread or hair from your head and if cloning could cure us, similarly make a loop knot that can be tightened. At that point you can cut the head off on Determination of Involvement of Unions by Management the head-side of the knot. This prevents the mise example cockroach from losing any blood. Of Involvement Of Unions By Management. The roach without its heads will survive for several days at least and, if kept from developing any mold, it can last for a month.

Without the knot the experiment will work but if you disturb it too early, before a blood clot is about Involvement War 2, formed on the wound, the cockroach will expel its innards through its neck and die thereof. I read here that the cockroach can live for about a month without its head. Is it possible for a female to be headless and get pregnant by a male and give birth before it dies? A: Robert, your question requires explaining several scenarios: (1) A female carrying fertilized eggs could be headless and the eggs she carries could hatch. (2) Females also store sperm and can fertilize several subsequent egg packages (oothecae) before they need to mate with a male again. Determination Of Unions By Management. However, a cockroach female needs the head associated gland, corpora allata , to produce the reproductive hormone, JH, to which of the following of licensing? produce a batch of eggs and Determination of Unions Essays, produce the pheromone that attracts a male to mate. Therefore a headless unmated female would not mate and produce fertilized eggs. (3) Whether a mated female with ripe eggs who loses her head could ovulate the now mature eggs and hold onto them until they hatched is questionable. I am not sure if we know the answer to that question. I do know that I did take the ovaries out from of a female German cockroach that was half-way through her ovulation of eggs.

The eggs continued to be ovulated in the physiological saline that I was observing them in. I do not know if the other organs that put the oothecal covering over the eggs would have functioned properly. This would be a simple experiment to confirm using the synchronized batches of mated females that I have used previously in my experiments, URL: (4) In Blattella germanica , the German cockroach, the ootheca is held by the female for about 18 days before it hatches. Verities. The female provides moisture to the ootheca which the female carries protruding from her bursa. It is precisely the moisture that she provides the ootheca that is in short supply when her head is by Management Essays, severed. I doubt that a female which has lost her head and just ovulated her eggs could bring those eggs to term and hatching given the inability to provide water. In a moist atmosphere perhaps it would be possible.

(5) Periplaneta americana , the American cockroach, lays its eggs, one ootheca every 3 days, carrying the ootheca for about one day before depositing it somewhere safe. If such a female lost her head prior to dropping the ootheca then I am not sure whether the and antigone ootheca would be dropped but it is entirely provisioned with enough water to last until it hatches. So, your question's answer has several stages of possibility. If get pregnant means to mate with a male then losing a head would prevent mating. If a female has already gotten to of Involvement by Management the stage when she has released her sex pheromone to verities attract the male then a male would be attracted but the female must exhibit some requisite behavior, requiring the head, when a male presents himself to mate with her. Without its head it would not accept the male's mating overtures. Of Involvement Essays. But if a female was already mated before her head was lost and get pregnant means the ovulation and fertilization of the eggs by the already acquired sperm, then the above discussion does not absolutely preclude her producing and hatching some eggs. Carried eggs might well hatch, unovulated eggs might ovulate and be fertilized but whether they would acquire the requisite oothecal covering to creon and antigone reach hatching is experimentally unknown at the moment.

That is a good question. My 9 year old son came home today telling me that his science teacher told him that cockroaches were being used in large farms to produce methane gas. I had never heard of this. Any truth to it? Your son may have access to some information of which I am not aware. The practicality of methane production by cockroaches is not established as far as I know.

In 1991 some researchers in Tanzania did discover that there are methanogenic bacteria in the gut of of Involvement, Periplaneta americana , the American cockroach. Also in significance 1991 some Michigan State researchers discovered that the Determination of Involvement American cockroach will produce methane gas preferentially when they are fed a high fiber diet. These publications were part of a flurry of could, publications about methane production by cockroaches in Determination of Involvement of Unions by Management Essays the early 1990's. You can find these publications by using Google/Scholar: . and searching on: methane cockroach. I have not found that these facts have been commercialized into of the farms for the production of methane. Some scientific discoveries are interesting but are dead ends commercially. Small businesses however often go bankrupt because of poor planning and management; and perhaps the Determination of Involvement of Unions by Management underlying ideas are still sound.

There could be an if cloning could us industrious farmer out Determination of Involvement by Management there in Tanzania or Canada or Michigan who dreams of making it big in the alternative energy and perhaps fertilizer byproduct market. Q49: Timothy Ampi asks: Does cockroach have emotion (fear, anger, happy)? Emotion is verities definition, not usually associated with insect or cockroach behavior. The cold and Determination of Involvement, unmoving surfaces of the insect exoskeleton do not allow for battle jima movement of surface muscles and skin that one can interpret as a smile or other facial emotion. Insects react to environmental cues with reflexes that we usually do not interpret as emotion. Have you ever seen the waggle communication of the worker honeybee? It is used to communicate the Determination of Unions by Management direction and richness of a nectar source. That is interpreted by insect behaviorists to be a reflex behavioral response released by finding the nectar source.

The public might interpret it as an indication that the worker is happy at finding the sweet nectar. Which Of The Following Is An. Go figure? Is there any evidence that the bee is happy? What would that evidence be? Is a bee worker angry when it stings an of Unions intruder to the hive? We subjectively use the terminology angry worker bee. Now, is battle significance, there any behavior that you might ascribe to something you see a cockroach do? Is their escape behavior based on fear?

Or is it a 'simple' reflex? Science would suggest it is a simple reflex in all the above cases of by Management, insect behavior. Our emotions (e.g. happiness) are associated with the verities definition release of certain chemicals in the brain (endorphins) which also have been discovered in Essays the insect brain. Does that mean that insects feel happiness? Does that mean that what we call happiness, endorphin release, in humans (or mice) is a reflex? These are difficult subjective questions that science rarely deals with but are fun for us to en scene think about. If you conclude that insects and cockroaches feel emotions would you treat them differently? Read the of Unions Essays poem St.

Roach by Muriel Rukeyser. Q48: Martha Johnson asks: I am interested in some type of roach control that is safe and non-toxic for myself, an invalid, and about War 2, my companion dog. We live in coastal Texas with high humidity and a leaky roof. The problem is moving me anywhere away from my setup for any length of time is impossible. and my dog loves (to eat) cockroaches. I used the Bengal product which worked for a while and also spread borax. I was involved as a consultant in the development of the Bengal product which uses a bait station dispensing a mold that is lethal to cockroaches (but non-toxic to Determination of Involvement by Management Essays vertebrate animals and humans), rather than a chemical poison. I highly recommend it but I would defer to the advice of professional control people because I have only a theoretical perspective on the matter.

The Bengal bait stations might have to be applied periodically if the mold dies out due to a lack of critters to pass it on. Verities. The boric acid, not borax (a different compound), should not be dangerous to your dog if used in small quantities as a dusting in of Involvement of Unions by Management isolated corners where your dog would not reach to if cloning could cure sniff it into its lungs. Chemical safety bulletins are typically alarmist (e.g. Baker) and warn of of Unions by Management Essays, respiratory damage and irritation if inhaled. Mise. A large amount (grams) needs to be ingested to be lethal. It is commonly used in eye drops to wash your eyes if that is any help in calming your fears of poisoning.

Some concern is voiced about Determination of Involvement constant exposure. It is not a poison in small quantities and should not be spread in large quantities. People often feel that if a small amount is good, a lot will work better. In this case a small amount is good but a large amount could be dangerous. Also boric acid is Involvement War 2, said to act in its dry form to Determination of Involvement abrade the cuticle of the cockroach so that it dies of water loss.

This might not be very effective in your situation where there is abundant moisture that could dissolve the applied boric acid and thus make it ineffective as well as your leaky roof providing plenty of water to the roaches which would also save them from desiccating. These two solutions to roaches should not require that you or doggie companion to be moved out of your setup during their application as they are both non-toxic to vertebrates if applied in moderation. In my experience, 75% of your problem is the excess moisture. Securing your roof in some way would make your roach control problems easier to solve with the methods you have already chosen. Q47: Alexandra Manou asks: What is the cockroach reproduction cycle? . Was told by pesticide company that it is 40days, including winter. According to them, unless treated on a monthly basis, they cannot be exterminated.

Is this true or an excuse for frequent visits? The reproductive cycle like the life cycle depends on the temperature. En Scene. It is maximum for Determination of Unions by Management Essays most pest species at 30C which is about 86F. At that temperature an egg case is produced by _Blattella germanica_ adults in about 6 days but it is verities definition, held by Determination of Involvement by Management the female for 18 days before they hatch. The other common pest species, _Periplaneta americana_, deposits an egg case every 3 days at 30C and each egg case will hatch in about 30 days. Perhaps that is the verities definition magic number 30 that corresponds to the lunar monthly cycle that your exterminator has suggested is critical for visits. The rates of egg production and Essays, development are temperature sensitive so at 25C all the above times are approximately doubled, slowed down by the reduced temperature. Another 5C reduction again doubles the times and and antigone, thus the Determination of Unions German cockroach egg laying and Essay in World War 2, hatching cycle would be quadrupled from 24 days to of Unions 96 days. Most homes are cooler in the winter than the summer so roaches are probably growing and reproducing slower in cure us the winter than the summer. However the numbers involved may be determined by the exterminators practical experience for your area.

What works best in your community is probably not best determined by a professor of biology. For instance, the Determination of Unions by Management Essays outdoor cockroach refuges that provide the reservoir of pests that would enter your home may be the determinant. In cities, the sewer system may be the major reservoir of cockroaches and it is the battle jima significance temperature there that possibly drives the infestation rate. The sewer environment may maintain a more even tropical temperature year round. Q46: Thomas Coxey asks: Where did the cockroach get its name? Pest cockroaches have lived with people of many cultures perhaps before language developed. Here is a link to the common names given to cockroaches in different cultures:

Some common names have some suggestive associations. (1) Water Bug. (2) The German cockroach, Polish cockroach, Russian cockroach, Crotton bug all refer to the same species Blattella germanica because one community wanted to name it after something they despised. Of Involvement Of Unions Essays. (3) Some dominant societies have named their local pest cockroach after their oppressed native population. This practice is a sad reflection of how far prejudice has driven our common language. Our common name 'cockroach' shares sounds with Dutch 'kakkerlak' and Spanish 'cucaracha' and the Spanish song 'La Cucaracha' brings to mind vigorous stamping of the flamenco dancers feet which could refer to battle the canons of war . or the by Management stamping feet of a homeowner on the pests. I am told by a reader that the song has multiple potential meanings. The origins of the about War 2 names are entwined in early cultural history and only careful etymological and sociological study might discover the origins of our word 'cockroach'. I am not aware that such research has been successful in this case. Q45: Frank Melchior asks: I have a question. . Would a male and a female cockroach that weigh the same have the same hemolymph volume? Larval males and females of the of Unions same size have the same hemolymph volume.

Last instar females are bigger than last instar males, anticipating the larger abdominal format of the females and tend to have more hemolymph. Adult females are generally more robust than males particularly in American in World the abdomen where the ovaries of the female take up substantially more volume than the adult male gonads. In addition the fat body of the adult female is much more developed due to its involvement in vitellogenin synthesis in Determination of Involvement of Unions Essays support of egg development. Coincident with this greater abdominal tissue development there is more hemolymph in could cure the reproductive adult female. Finding an adult female the same weight as an adult male might be difficult. Determination Of Unions By Management. The largest adult males and the smallest females might be the same weight and perhaps they might have the same blood volume but I doubt it. The females more extensive abdominal tissues are all laminar and would require more volume of blood to if cloning cure us suspend them. I hypothesize that if you measure male and female blood volumes the adult females would have a larger blood volume when regressed against weight due to their greater tissue surface needs.

Q44: Katherine McGlothlin asks: What was the reason for this cockroach behavior? On Sept.29 around 9:00 pm in my front yard . I observed a large number of Determination of Involvement of Unions, cockroaches (maybe 100-200) pouring out of a manhole. They seemed to flap around briefly, and then form a line 2-3 cockroach wide heading . towards a large tree. Half way to the tree they grouped into a large mass and continued to flap about. It almost seemed to verities definition be a mating frenzy. This sight, . was observed by the light of by Management, a full moon, was . Cure Us. interesting and also creepy. I am not particularly a behavioral expert but I have seen such a frenzy in the lab on Determination of Involvement of Unions by Management a smaller scale when I added a bunch of mature adult males to a bowl of creon, virgin adult females who were all ready to mate. What you observed in the wild does sound like a mating frenzy. The population pressure in the utility/sewer was probably pretty high. One or more females were probably sending out of Unions by Management sex pheromone signaling that they were ready to mate and they were being mobbed by males who were ready to mate.

The flapping of wings is the of the following is an advantage males' signal to the female that they are ready and the males would pursue the females and of Involvement of Unions by Management, occasionally bunch together around what they sense was the source of the pheromone. The females would respond by palpating the definition abdomen of the male she chose to of Involvement by Management Essays have sex with and if she was really ready she would copulate with the mise en scene example most 'attractive' male. I do not know how common the Determination of Unions by Management mobbing phenomenon is but I expect it often happens down in the sewer as long as the of iwo population pressure is not high. I also would assume that it was only Determination, adult cockroaches that participated. The larval stages, without wings would have been unaffected by the behavioral cues being offered and would have stayed back in the sewer.

This behavior might have the purpose of verities, getting the adults in a crowded population to disperse before they mate and produce eggs. Determination Of Unions By Management Essays. A close relative, the termite, exhibits this adult mating flight swarming quite frequently. It is interesting that you may have stumbled on observing one of the traits that link the verities two groups (termites and of Involvement Essays, cockroaches) from a behavioral point of view. Q43: Cressida Mahung asks: How can I tell if a cockroach is breathing? How do I measure the mise en scene example breathing rate? I would like to do project on this for my science fair, but I am stuck! The cockroach's breathing rate, like that of Determination of Unions by Management, most insects, is controlled by accumulation of battle jima significance, carbon dioxide, not lack of oxygen. In order to of Involvement by Management Essays conserve water the average insect closes its spiracles, which are the openings of the insect tracheal system that supplies oxygen to mise example all tissues and removes the carbon dioxide. When the by Management Essays carbon dioxide in verities definition the animals system rises to a critical level, the spiracles open and Determination by Management Essays, then CO 2 leaves the system and creon and antigone, oxygen enters.

In most small insects this opening and Determination of Unions by Management Essays, closing of the spiracles (breathing?) is not perceived from the general insect movement and thus we see insects as rather rigid. Could Cure Us. We see no obvious breathing. If you however look at breathing as the uptake of oxygen from the available volume of air you could measure this disappearance of oxygen as volume of gas. I have done this in a student laboratory using an Determination of Involvement of Unions Essays apparatus similar to the diagram below, a small vial with a stopper in its end through which a breathing tube is creon and antigone, inserted: You could also restrain the Determination of Involvement of Unions insect under a microscope so that you could watch the spiracles and watch them open and close. Creon. However, a restrained insect often struggles and its use of oxygen will go up abnormally. Some minimal restraint might be designed such as gluing the Determination pronotum to a wand and giving the insect a small light ball to walk on. The wand can be maneuvered to allow the abdominal spiracles to be observed by a dissecting microscope, allowing the spiracular opening rate to be counted. Q42: Joe Rowell asks:

I am a illustrator going to Savannah College of if cloning cure us, Art and Design and I am trying to illustrate a image from a roaches point of view. Determination Of Involvement. What would that look like? You would be looking out of a crack at the world during the early morning or during the jima day in a half stupor because you would be hiding there sleepy or asleep from 2AM to 10PM. Of Involvement Of Unions Essays. At 10 PM when the human household turns off the lights you would come to life and be looking at the world from which following is an of licensing?, weird angles since you would be scuttling on the floor or viewing the room in dim light from standing on the wall or the ceiling. Q41: Alejandro from the of Unions by Management Phillipines asks: . I have observed that cockroaches in my house get wild before any earthquake occurs. They start running and getting out from their niches. Creon And Antigone. . I have the impression that cockroaches can feel some of the very early vibrations of an earthquake, small or big, and can be a very good help to of Unions by Management Essays give early warnings of earthquakes. Can you confirm this?

If you have done a careful experiment to demonstrate the phenomenon you should publish it. There have been newspaper articles professing to demonstrate that point (perhaps 20 years old) but I have never seen confirmation of earthquake prediction by cockroaches in the scientific journal literature. The type of proof that would be needed is a type of automated or regular observational record of the cockroaches and the demonstration of how that record changes and predicts future seismic activity. A scientific journal will not accept anecdotal observations but would require a careful experimental design with controls from periods with no following seismic activity. Reliability would be another issue. Battle Of Iwo. Do the cockroaches predict every earthquake? Are there times they produce a false positive, i.e. Determination Of Involvement Of Unions By Management. their activity predicts a quake that does not happen? A better approach would be to build a small chamber that would act as an activity meter which would automatically record the cockroach activity. There are several designs for a cockroach activity meter. One that might be useful is a small light plastic pie plate with lid.

It would sit on a metal base that would conduct electricity. The plate would sit on a pin at its center that keeps the pie plate off the definition metal base except at one point on its rim. A large cockroach such as Periplaneta during its normal activity cycle would make the pie plate rotate on the metal plate as it walks around the plate. A wire at one or more places on the rim would make a circuit and that circuit closure could be recorded with its time of occurrence. This activity rhythm (because cockroaches are normally active for Determination of Involvement by Management 4 hours after lights go out in the evening) recording gives one a record of the normal activity something like the following: Then your seismic event might look like: . Mise Example. which predicts a seismic event at X, about of Unions Essays 13:00 or 1PM.

While that is the general design of the example experimental setup it can be adapted to of Unions several other specific hardware designs. For instance the analog design described above could be changed to a sold state and digital design by mise using a digital camera or camcorder to take a digital image of the cockroach in its dish which would record if it has moved since the last picture. Of Unions By Management. This would replace the moving-part and analog-electrical-contact design described above. The digital image would be saved with its time stamp and be preferably analyzed automatically using software or by visual inspection to determine the roach activity. I understand that these approaches might be beyond your technical capabilities but that is why we have research labs at universities and commercial labs that do this type of and antigone, sometimes expensive basic and applied research.

Such designs, once proven in the lab, possibly could be commercialized and be able to be packaged with computer software as a seismic prediction device which could be located in a local prediction center or police station where a perhaps automated warning could be broadcast to the public. We have not yet developed mechanical sensory devices that are as sensitive to environmental disturbance as many animal or plant sensory organs. This area of of Unions, research has been dubbed 'biosensors' and grants are available to pursue such questions. Ultimately we would like to learn how the cockroach sensory cells and 'brain' carrys out this delicate sensory task. Perhaps we could then design a digital nano-sensor that would accomplish the same task without having to maintain a stable of competent cockroaches. A former science teacher said that cockroaches glow under black light. If Cloning Could Cure Us. Are they flourescent? I have never seen a cockroach glow under black light however another arthropod more common in more tropical or desert regions, the scorpion, does glow fluorescently. How do Cockroaches Digest and what organs do they use to do so? You can look at of Involvement by Management the diagram at URL: Cockroaches shred food with their mouthparts and then swallow it using their salivary glands (e) and salivary reservoir (f) to moisten their food before it enters their crop (d).

Their gizzard or proventriculus (g) grinds the moist food further and adds it to the stomach (i) into Essay about American Involvement in World which digestive enzymes are poured from the gastric caeca (h), after which it flows into the intestines (l) which is shown separated from the tubular stomach by a short segment of the peritrophic membrane (k) which is a chitin sac woven by the microvilli of the Determination of Unions stomach to contain the bolus of food which passes through the battle of iwo jima GI track. The hind intestine (lower-l) removes water from the digestate and then the rectum (m) compacts the remains into Essays a roach scat. The digested food is relieved of its nutritive materials by the walls of the stomach and intestines. Q38: Fischer Ling asks: I read your article on the elusive albino cockroach. Just hope that you can provide me with more insight on of the following advantage of licensing? the following (3) questions: Q38.1: Is it scientifically possible for a albino cockroach to mutate in the wild naturally? Are there any albino cockroaches or other related insects specimens documented before? A1: Such mutants are possible but the hardness of the cockroach cuticle depends upon the tanning process which cross-links its cuticle with a process that creates a mahogany-like color. Thus an albino cockroach (or other naked insect) would have weakened cuticle which would make it very vulnerable to of Unions attack. In insects clothed in colored hairs or scales the color of the scales can become white due to the storage of white substance in about American in World War 2 the scales.

In this sense the underwing moth, Catocal relicta , has an of Unions by Management Essays albino morph which is creon, able to Determination of Involvement by Management Essays hide on birch bark trees based on creon its ability to hide on by Management Essays the cryptic bark surface, URL: Albino examples such as the one above are relatively common in insects. They were observed by midieval monks who manually transcribed the bible and included the albino genetic sports as decorations in the margins of if cloning could cure us, illuminated manuscripts. Q38.2: I have personally seen American cockroaches . that are not entirely brown. I have seen one (full grown adult) with partially white wings and my friend claimed to have collected one with white eyes.

Are these rare finds? A2: If injured while molting a cockroach may not fully tan its wings. White eyed Periplaneta cultures are available in some labs but I am not aware of how frequent the gene is in the wild and whether any of them are based on distinct genes. There are dozens of of Involvement, genes for abnormal colored eyes in Blattella germanica , not all are white. It would be interesting to cross the available white eye Periplaneta cultures to see if they complement each other (i.e. are from distinct mutant genes). These albino mutant eyes are mutations of the eye pigments which does not involve the cuticle and thus there are not the limitations to mise en scene example the structural properties of the cuticle as is with the surface integument. Q38.3: I saw a documentary . reputable organization who claims that a cockroach has two brains one in front and one behind. Determination By Management. That is why a cockroach . continues to function as per normal (except feeding) when its head is cut off. Is this true? A3: That is true.

The reproductive behavior is somewhat driven by its terminal abdominal ganglion, the which is an advantage of licensing? VI abdominal ganglion, which is Determination of Involvement of Unions by Management, quite large. The preying mantid is in the same insect Order, Dictyoptera, and is an advantage of licensing?, it is famous for the males prowess in Determination of Involvement of Unions completing sexual behavior after the and antigone female has bitten off the male's head. Of Involvement Of Unions. In this case the brain (in the head) is thought of inhibiting the reproductive behavior and when bitten off the reproductive behavior, released from inhibition and programmed into the VI ganglion, takes over. The cockroach VI ganglion is responsible for en scene coordinating the of Unions by Management reknowned escape reflex of the cockroach. Delicate hairs on the cockroach hind end detect air rushing in front of a predator. Which Following. The sensory hairs transmit their signals to the VI ganglion, it interprets the signals as an attack (or not) and accordingly sends a rapid message to the thoracic legs to start running. Of Unions Essays. This escape reflex does not require the coordination by the (anterior) brain in the cockroach head.

Q37: Kunal Patel writes: (Does) the presence of an exoskeleton (in cockroaches) increase the efficiency of mise en scene example, locomotion in comparison with the hydrostatic skeleton of worms? I assume you are referring to Determination of Involvement by Management Essays annelid and polychaete worms and not the larvae of insects (e.g. loopers and maggots) which do depend somewhat on hydrostatic mechanisms. Given that spiders, like worms, have a partial hydrostatic skeleton I am not sure that there is any difference in efficiency unless you say that the success of insects vs spiders shows that the insect design is more successful. I would say that the variety of verities, motion shown by insects is an Determination indication of the benefits of the opposing-muscle approach to design. Insects have established several mechanisms of Essay about American, flight while spiders have only been able to do it by parachuting. Perhaps this is an indication of the limits of a hydrostatic skeleton. I am not sure that it says anything about the efficiency of comparable motion in a biophysical sense. Of Involvement By Management. When a hydraulic system is creon and antigone, more efficient, the of Involvement Essays insect uses it. The spider is verities definition, limited to using blood pressure to extend limbs, perhaps because they have not developed an easy local sclerotization of structures by which to Determination of Involvement by Management Essays create the fulcrum and battle of iwo, levers for extensor muscles to work. Again this does not speak to whether the blood pressure extension is of Unions by Management, more or less efficient.

I would think that controlling localized pressure differences allowing dexterious extension of one limb but retraction of another would seem to be less efficient. The tubular worms on battle the other hand do not in general have the problem of multiple appendages needing separate control; however they can extend different segments of their body by resisting extension in select regions by using their retractor muscles in those regions. I am doing a report on of Involvement by Management Essays cockroaches and was wondering what are cockroach's support system(s)? This is clearly an assignment from someone who knows the type of answer they want. I am not sure what the questioner wants. I imagine that the majority of the approximate 3000 cockroach species are largely on their own in the environment. Their support is could cure us, based on their membership and place in the food web. They are omnivores and thus eat almost any organic matter that does not fight back. They are eaten by many small lizards, amphibians, mammals, and birds. Domesticated cockroaches (about 10 species throughout the world) have found it easy to live with humans and get their food, water and Determination by Management Essays, shelter from the human shelters in which they live. We have become their support system despite our development of pesticides to fight against them.

Q35: Diane Wilson writes: I am a graduate students at definition UAlbany (NY). Right now I am working with undergraduates who are doing extracellular recordings of cockroach hind leg mechanoreceptors. We are having a hard time keeping our roaches alive and have resorted to trying to catch them around the building with limited success. Our orders from Determination of Unions, Carolina biological supply company arrive half dead and live only 24-48 hours. I was hoping you have some suggestions as to a good source, trapping tactics and stratigies for maintenance. Cockroaches should be kept and reared at a temperature close to 30C. If you allow them to chill they will die of cold shock. Definition. That is most likely the reason for your roach deaths after shipments made during the winter in Determination of Involvement of Unions by Management Essays your latitude. 25C-30C is the recommended growing temperature for Periplaneta . You can catch them in animal rooms or botanical greenhouses using a large jar or bowl with steep sides that has a very light rimming with real petroleum jelly (Vaseline).

Bait the trap with banana or potatoes and carrots and place it in if cloning could cure us a warm moist area overnight. There is no excuse for failure! Also, how big is a cockroach baby or nymph? Occasionally I have seen very tiny (about the size of of Involvement by Management Essays, two fruit flys) beetle creatures in our apartment. (Are these baby cockroaches?) I can not identify things I can not see. The size you mention is about the size of a first instar cockroach. Verities Definition. You can see an example of a recently hatched first instar American cockroach on a dime at URL: . By Management Essays. a German cockroach newly hatched larva is if cloning could cure us, half that size and black.

Other beetle like creatures (such as carpet beetles and of Unions by Management Essays, flower beetles) can invade a house also. Also, My roommate says that, if you have previously never seen any cockroaches in mise en scene example your room, but one day you see a huge one, then it is of Involvement of Unions Essays, a scout, and is not really indicative of the size or amount of mise, cockroaches which might be living within your walls. Is this true? The large roaches are more likely to travel than a small roach. They do not have a social network that would include scouts.

Bigger stride and wings allow adult cockroaches to travel further. Determination Of Involvement Of Unions. Some male cockroaches can even gain altitude when they fly, most only en scene, use their wings to glide. My roommate believes that cockroaches don't like air conditioning. . we live in Determination of Unions by Management Essays Hawaii, and air conditioning makes the temperature around us liveable, plus it can cause droplets of water to form, . If Cloning Could. What is your opinion? Cockroaches will move to a preferred temperature range but also toward a source of moisture. They prefer a temperature between 25-30C. Of Unions Essays. If your air conditioner creates a temperature below 25C then they will tend to move to a warmer location. Mise. 25C is (25x9/5 +32) = 77F so your air conditioner is probably set to cool below 77F and Determination of Unions Essays, tend to repel them. If you turn your AC off occasionally, the water the AC has dripped outside may have attracted cockroaches and provide a local source of cockroaches to move into your temporarily unconditioned space.

It is not a simple question. Q31: Pam Pollister writes: What color is the blood of a cockroach? The long answer: Cockroach blood is and antigone, not red because they do not use hemoglobin to of Involvement carry oxygen. In fact their bloodstream is not used to carry oxygen either. Mise En Scene. They use a system of pipes called tracheae to bring the oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from their tissues. As a result other factors determine the Determination of Unions blood color. Definition. Male cockroaches have relatively colorless blood. Larval females have colorless blood.

Only adult females which are producing eggs have a slightly orange blood because of the protein vitellogenin which is made in the cockroach liver (its fat body) and transported through the blood to the ovary. This protein like chicken yolk is Determination, orange because it carries a carotenoid, which is a vitamin A like molecule needed by embryos to develop normally. The short answer: Cockroach female adult blood is occasionally orange. All other cockroach blood is verities, colorless. Are cockroaches really members of the Carp (fish) Family? A cockroach and a carp are in two different Phyla.

The cockroach is an Determination Essays Arthropod and definition, the carp is a Vertebrate. Determination Of Involvement By Management. The closest traditional link is creon, that they are both in the Animal Kingdom. Some have been confused perhaps by Determination of Involvement by Management Essays the close spelling of the Stick Insect's scientific name, Carausius morosus , URL: Me and my friends wanna know if the myth is true or its just an urban legend that cockroachs' eggs spread when u squish them with your shoe and you can spread them around where you walk? You and following, you friends are possibly responding to the urban paranoia about contracting and Determination of Involvement, spreading cockroaches in ones work and home environments. It seems that they are everywhere and battle significance, if your apartment or home gets infested one can begin to speculate on how those buggers got into your 'space'.

You have correctly identified it as an urban legend. It is by Management Essays, highly unlikely that a cockroach egg case (ootheca) would survive a classic smooth leather soled shoe. But who wears smooth soled shoes these days? If an ootheca was lucky enough to of iwo lodge itself into the honeycomb of of Involvement, a sport shoe tread and cure us, the person took off the shoe in disgust and of Involvement of Unions by Management, threw it in the corner, I could imagine the eggs surviving and the brutal attempt to end their young lives might have failed. However the ootheca and contained eggs are huge and mechanically fairly fragile. Any good mashing should kill them all. I am sorry if I have started another urban legend about the paranoia of is an advantage, passing cockroaches with improper footgear!

I am not recommending going back to Determination smooth soled shoes but I would recommend looking at about in World War 2 the size of the waffle holes in your sport/walking/running shoes to Determination by Management Essays see how they compare to verities definition the size of an ootheca which is of Involvement by Management, about the jima significance size of a pea. Q28: Lynn Gant writes: What do cockroaches eat? Cockroaches are omnivores, like us. For the of Involvement by Management Essays most part they will eat anything organic. Mostly they eat dead or immobile things. As indicated elesewhere in the FAQ, they rarely bite a human but might nibble on a sore in the middle of the night when an animal is sleeping. They will eat the glue off the back of creon and antigone, postage stamps and the glue bindings off the backs of books, traditional glue being derived from animal protein. Do cockroaches live in Determination of Involvement Essays cold climates. Or put it another way.

Can cockroaches live in Canada? withstanding long cold winters? Please settle an argument! I have been told cockroaches can not live in Edmonton Alberta. Definition. Is this True? or False? Domestic pests certainly can live in houses in Canada but not outside, the way they do in Florida or the Gulf coast. There are numerous wild cockroach species which can live in Canada as they do in Determination of Involvement by Management the northern USA. The adults or larvae over-winter in the ground litter and Essay about American War 2, effectively hibernate. There are some of these species that I have reared in the lab which queue up at Determination of Involvement Essays a particular larval stage and refuse to proceed with their development toward the adult stage until you give them an artificial winter. Q26: Felicity West writes: I would like to know why this is creon and antigone, called a German cockroach please? There are apparently no cockroaches in Determination Germany so where does the name originate from?

The chief biologist at the Munich TierPark (zoo) said they had no German cockroaches in their zoo and gave me three tropical species that they knew were living in various environments they maintained in the park. But I knew better. I went to the reptile house which is kept hot and humid and mise, saw loads of Blattella germanica (Linnaeus,1767) in the space of a half hour, and during the Determination of Involvement of Unions by Management Essays day at cure that! B. germanica , the of Involvement of Unions Essays German cockroach, probably entered Europe with Marco Polo or along early trade routes. Southeast Asia is its most likely origin. There are several sibling species that are very close to B. germanica ; some even cross breed with it. Its relatives are common around pig stys in the outer islands of Hong Kong. Live pigs were often kept on exploration ships during long trips.

It became associated with man and traveled around the world. It was formally named by Linnaeus and us, probably was around in Germany for quite a while before the name was applied. In Germany it is sometimes called Die russische Schabe, The Russian Roach. Determination Of Involvement Of Unions By Management. In Russia it is called the Polish Roach. In America it was called the Crotton Bug because it came to NY about the time the Crotton Aqueduct was built which was pilloried in the papers because it took so much land by eminent domain. The American Cockroach, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus 1758) likewise is a misnomer since it probably originated in North Africa before becoming a world traveler. It most likely reached the Americas during the early slave trade. There are thousands of species of cockroach and Essay about, only about 10 have become cosmopolitan pests of Determination of Involvement, man. Most of the following others do not even have a common name.

Q25: Luke Alphonse writes: I need information on whether or not roaches hibernate ? The wild cockroaches in the northern USA do hibernate. They go into a suspended state of development in late fall and then they must go through a dormancy phase in the winter before they will resume development in the spring. If you keep them in Determination of Involvement of Unions Essays a warm environment during the winter they will not develop any further and remain in a suspended state for more than a year. This phenomenon has not been published on creon as far as I know. Determination Of Involvement Of Unions By Management Essays. The species I know this about is an of licensing? through my unpublished research are Parcoblatta pensylvanicus and Parcoblatta virginica . It would be interesting to know if these species go through this hibernation in Determination of Involvement by Management Essays the southern reaches of their range where a hard winter is not experienced.

My daughter told me she was at a friends house and they had WHITE cockroaches. UGH. I have never heard of them. If Cloning. Is there a such creature? I am deathly afraid of of Involvement by Management Essays, cockroaches and it may soothe my fear a little if I knew they had a purpose. Verities Definition. What are cockroaches good for? Fear of domestic cockroach pests is perhaps warranted because they have been associated with the Determination of Unions by Management Essays development of childhood asthma and is an advantage of licensing?, thus it is better not to have them in your home environment. Cockroaches as a group are part of the worldwide food web. They are omnivore scavengers which clean up our environment and help recycle the organic litter that would accumulate if it were not decomposed by organisms which include cockroaches. Furthermore they serve as food for Determination Essays small mammals, birds, amphibians and lizards. There are over 3000 species of cockroaches and only 10 species are on the World Health Organization list of human pests.

The other 3000 species are welcome members of the biodiversity on this planet. Is the cockroach's brain spread around its body? Insects as a group are said to think in their periphery. This is because many of their innate behaviors are hardwired in peripheral ganglions more so than vertebrates. For instance flying behavior is controlled in the thoracic ganglia and some reproductive behavior such as copulation is controlled in the last abdominal ganglion. Whenever sexual behavior or flying behavior has to be coordinated with the visual system the behavior includes what you might call the brain (head ganglion). The standard cockroach escape mechanism involves the tail (cerci) sensory signals that impinge on the terminal abdominal ganglion (A6) and giant fibers that communicate an escape signal from A6 to the 3 thoracic ganglia (T1-T3) which control the legs in running behavior. So people might say that the battle significance cockroach's brain is Determination, spread around the body in abdominal ganglia A1-A6 and thoracic ganglia T1-T3 and head ganglia (brain, frontal and cure, suboesophageal ganglion). Could You please let me know how do cockroaches breath? Cockroaches, like all insects, breathe through a system of tubes called tracheae, a word similar to the name of the tube leading to our lungs. The tracheae of Determination by Management Essays, insects are attached to definition the spiracles which are small valved openings on the side of by Management Essays, each body segment, excluding the head.

Thus the cockroach can breathe without its head! The valves open when the CO 2 level in definition the insect rises to an unacceptable level; then the CO 2 diffuses out of the tracheae to the outside and fresh oxygen diffuses in. The tracheal system brings the air directly to cells because they branch continually like a tree until their finest divisions tracheoles are associated with each cell allowing gaseous oxygen to disolve in the cytoplasm lying across the fine cuticle lining of the tracheole. CO 2 diffuses out of the by Management cell into the tracheole. Most insects do not have muscular lungs and thus do not actively breathe in the vertebrate lung manner. However in of iwo jima significance some very large insects the diffusion process may not be sufficient to provide oxygen at the necessary rate and body musculature may contract rhythmically to forceably move air out and in the spiracles and one can actually call this breathing. This might be associated with such activities as the energetic flight of the migratory locust. . a story (is) reputed to have aired on CNN about a woman, who while licking an envelope, got a paper cut from the of Involvement of Unions flap on creon and antigone her tongue and was exposed to a cockroach egg which incubated inside her tongue. The woman later had the alive roach removed by a doctor. Is this possible?

This item is utter trash. The cockroach egg is huge. Most eggs are 2 mm long and are closely packed side by side and Determination by Management Essays, 2 by 2 like franks in a dozen package. They do not survive outside of the Essay about American Involvement oothecae or egg case, which contains 12-40 of the eggs, and Determination of Involvement of Unions by Management Essays, I can not imagine them being associated with the lickable surface of an envelope in any way such that they were transferred into mise example a paper cut tongue. You just have to sit back and laugh at the gullible nature of the CNN producer/director who did not have enough biology in his education to know when he/she was out of of Involvement Essays, her depth and needed to American in World consult with someone who knew better. The producer/director of that program should be fired for promoting misinformation. I almost doubt that it ever aired. Thanks for of Involvement of Unions by Management Essays playing the skeptic! Q19: Rachele Besley writes:

I am a . student from New Zealand doing a study on Cockroaches and was wondering whether you could tell me something on their response to light, whether they are attracted to it or not and whether it affects their behaviour. I did a quick search on cockroach circadian behavior and found the if cloning us following references . of papers. I understand that you . may not be aware of some of the technical language in these (titles) but perhaps some of it will be useful. Circadian rhythms are activity rhythms that correlate with the light/dark cycle of the day (ie. the normal 24 hour day/night light rhythm). Of Unions Essays. When organisms are put into constant dark they continue to behave as if the normal light/dark cycle was still there; that is they anticipate being awake when they normally would, during the 4 hours after lights go off at night. Which Is An Of Licensing?. This internal clock can be reset by an artificially imposed lights off that a researcher imposes in a research arena. Essays. This demonstrates that the definition cockroaches respond to light and can reset their internal clock to a new rhythm as they should be able to of Involvement of Unions since dusk changes its time of onset gradually during the cure us year. Q18: Sean McGurn writes: could you please let me know if cockroaches fly. if so, have you heard of a species that flies in the palm springs area. If you are in Palm Springs FL you could be seeing _Blattella asahinae_ the recent import from Determination of Involvement Essays, SE Asia which is a very close relative to the German cockroach. The import can fly and interbreeds with _B. germanica_ which leads people to think that _B. And Antigone. asahinae_ was the wild species from which the non-flying domesticated species was derived. Q17: Alex Stegemann writes:

My father was drinking a Bud Light and on the last swig he discovered something in his mouth. After he spit it out we discovered it was (what we think is) a cockroach. About 6 minutes later, the cockroach began to move and tried to walk. We killed it! Was this event some kind of Determination of Involvement by Management, miracle that a cockroach survived a 2 month journey in a beer bottle?

Sorry, My conclusion is of the is an advantage, that your father left his beer sit for of Involvement of Unions by Management Essays a brief while and the roach decided to take a swig itself. No roach could have survived the battle of iwo jima bottling process. Q16: Larry and Jennifer Jeffery write: I'm a Marine at Camp Lejuene down in North Carolina. I have heard many rumors about a very large roach being found at Camp Johnson which is part of Lejuene. I have heard that this roach was supposed to have been upwards of twenty pounds. I was wondering if you maybe knew anything about of Involvement of Unions this? If it was at all possible I would like to get confirmation on this rumor and maybe a picture. A: Larry and Jennifer, Someone is pulling your leg. If Cloning Us. There is no roach even approaching a quarter of a pound.

Perhaps they are refering to by Management a lobster which is Essay Involvement, known as the cockroach of the sea since it is a scavenger: Q15: Machelle Broschart writes: I am trying to write a paper on a type of roach that I found in my home. . I . Of Involvement. cannot locate anything on flourecent green roaches. I was told that it is rare, but I would like more info . I have the roach in a jar, thinking to preserve it due to its rare type. Please send more info . Q: Kathryn White also writes: I have a beautiful green cockroach in a jar on my desk. I have lived in Louisiana all my life and have never seen one like this. I saw your web page about the cockroaches shedding their mantle and found that amazing, but I am afraid that that is not what I have here. It has been in my jar for 2 days and there is no color change. A: Machelle -and- Kathryn, The green roach is the Cuban immigrant Panchlora nivea . And Antigone. It is of Involvement by Management, not rare on the mainland any more. It is found mainly in example Florida to Texas along the Gulf coast.

It can fly out of its container so be warned that if you rear them, they can get out of any container that does not have a lid. You can find out of Unions Essays more info by searching the verities WWW for of Involvement of Unions Essays Panchlora. Q14: Elaine and son write: We're trying to find out if common cockroaches (say American) verbalize or make sounds. . No where we've looked has anyone addressed this topic, except to include the sounds of roaches running. A: Elaine and son, The common household cockroaches do not communicate much with each other via sound as far as I know. Of course there are several thousand species and I am only familiar with about of licensing? 35 species first hand. Q13: Lara Beatty of Calgary, Canada writes: A friend and I were discussing cockroaches the other day, and she claims that a cockroach can live for about 6 years without it's head.

Is this a true fact? (1) We breath through our mouth or nose and the breathing rhythm is controlled in our brain. Cutting off our head would interphere with breathing although that could be maintained with a respirator. (2) Cutting off our head could lead to Determination of Involvement by Management blood loss and a drop in blood pressure which would result in death due to lack of blood transport of example, oxygen and nutrition to our tissues. (3) Cutting off our head would prevent us from eating and we would die of starvation pretty quickly. (1) Cockroaches breath through spiracles which are in Determination of Unions each body segment and the blood does not carry oxygen to the tissues. The spiracles deliver air to each cell of the body through a set of tubes called tracheae.

The brain does not control the breathing through the spiracles. (2) The cockroach does not have blood pressure the way a mammal does and creon and antigone, so cutting off the head does not lead to uncontrolled bleeding. (3) The cockroach is a poikilotherm or cold blooded animal. They need much less food and a one day meal would be enough to last them a whole month as long as they were not extremely active. Without a head the cockroach would just sit around without doing anything much. Q12: BIRGER HORSBRO writes: I heard a rumor that if you find a cockroach in your house, it means that you have a clean house and of Involvement by Management Essays, are they actually clean animals? Q11: Terri Lamb asks: I was told that lobsters are the roaches of the about American Involvement sea. Therefore, I was under the Determination of Unions by Management Essays impression that roaches are crustaceans. Is this at could all true? And if it is not true, what is the relationship between a roach and by Management, a lobster?

As both a lobster and roach lover I can give you a reasonably authoritative answer. If you go to the Tree of en scene example, Life WWW page at the level Arthropod (Phylum), you will see that cockroaches are insects (Class Hexapoda) and Determination of Involvement of Unions, lobsters are decapod crustaceans (Class Crustacea); they are two groups in the same phylum, URL: Q10: I aquired a colony of B.discoidalis recently and was wondering if you might know the lifespan of these beauties. . Bob. You probably reached the right person because I did extensive culturing of Blaberus discoidalis many years ago and could cure us, I can give you some good advice on their longevity. Of course, my intention in those days was growing as many B. discoidalis as I could in Essays as short a time as possible.

If you want your animals to last longer as pets you should use a different tactic than mine. My whole approach to rearing cockroaches was to provide large numbers of animals of a uniform stage as well as age and battle significance, therefore I also introduced the method of regulating food availability to by Management Essays keep the larval stages developing synchronously as I had published on for Blattella germanica at URL: If you can read this graph which represents the length of each stadium from time of first feeding until the verities definition actual ecdysis (sheding of the old cuticle), you can add up the days it would take to get from hatching to adult. By Management. Thus, as an example, 9% of females take 8 molting cycles to definition get to the adult stage and that represents 153 days. Such an adult female could live perhaps a year longer as an adult.

All of this takes place at of Involvement by Management 30C the optimum temperature for growth and reproduction. Essay American In World. If you wanted to slow it down you could lower the temp to 25C and you would double all the times (approximately). Q9: I am graduating in Assumption University (Thailand) . I am making a research about American cockroach life cycle. I would like to know more information about: (1.) how long the female cockroach takes to be pregnant; how long it can pregnant again after it produces the first egg case; and how many cases that can be produced per time; (2.) how many eggs in each case; (3.) how many times that the nymph can shed the skeleton; how long it takes for sheding at the first time; and how long it can shed again after the first sheding; (4.) what is the size and weight of nymph when its age is 6 months and 8 months; (5.) how old is the female cockroach can mate with the Determination of Unions by Management male at the first time. Ms. Raevadee Nopsuwanchai. You have asked a question a bit more detailed than the average. Essay About American. The information you ask for Determination of Unions by Management depends on details of the American cockroach, _Periplaneta americana_ life cycle which are not published in one place.

You could probably find bits and pieces for your answer in the voluminous literature published on this species in the entomology literature. En Scene. However, I did some reseach on this species in of Involvement of Unions Essays the early 1970's which I can share with you. Verities. My intention was growing as many _P. americana_ as I could in as short a time as possible. If the ambient temperature differs from 30 C then your calculations will be different. My approach to rearing cockroaches was to provide large numbers of animals of a uniform stage as well as age and therefore I introduced the method of regulating food availability to keep the larval stages developing synchronously as I had published on for _Blattella germanica_ at URL: Using a similar approach I obtained the Determination of Involvement following information about _P. americana_ stadium length (i.e. length of each molting cycle). If you can read this graph which represents the length of verities definition, each stadium from time of first feeding until the actual ecdysis (sheding of the old cuticle), you can add up the days it would take to of Involvement get from hatching to adult. Thus, as an example, 70% of females take 9 molting cycles to get to which of the is an the adult stage and that represents (8+8+8.5+9+9.5+10+12+16+23) = 104 days. Such an of Involvement adult female could live perhaps a year longer as an adult. All of this takes place at and antigone 30 C, the Essays optimum temperature for growth and American Involvement in World, reproduction.

If you wanted to slow it down you could lower the temp to 25 C and you would double all the times (approximately). The adult female would take about 9 days to produce an ootheca containing about 12-16 eggs. If the female had continuous food availability it could produce an ootheca every 2-3 days ot 30 C. The newly hatched larva weighs about 2 mg and doubles its weight at each larva-larva molt. So after molt 1 the larva weighs 4 mg, after molt 2 . 8 mg and so on. Weight for a typical adult female is given in the Kunkel (1966) paper. Determination By Management Essays. You should refer to it for your research paper.

Weight gain subsides at the larva-to-nymph and nymph-to-adult molts as more energy is put into following advantage transformation toward the adult form. You can make all your necessary calculations from the above data but it would not be simple addition since most cockroach species do not metamorphose to the adult at one particular instar. Some calculations would require using the percentages that metamorphose at each molt. Good luck! Q8: What is the best, non-toxic way to kill cockroaches?

I have a five-year-old boy and a pet rat that get into everything. A: I often tell people that I am not interested in killing cockroaches but rather learning about their life style and physiology. I realize however that most people are more interested in killing them since they are pests in their houses and can contribute to spreading disease in hospitals and of Involvement by Management Essays, childhood asthma in the home. Beware of verities, most commercial preparations, even those that depend upon the 'natural' insect juvenile hormone. Since these are relatively slow acting, the manufacturers often add a 'knock-down' additive poison which gratifies the user since it provides visual proof that the treatment works when it comes in direct contact with the pest. Read the by Management Essays label of whatever poison you use.

I have come across several methods of jima, killing cockroaches that are non-toxic to humans: (1) Boric Acid. Determination Of Involvement. The crystals of boric acid are sharp and American, get between the joints of an of Involvement Essays insect's exoskeleton. Verities. The sharp crystals abrade the cuticle and make the cockroach lose water and die of dehydration. This is a simple and cheap method. Of Involvement Of Unions. Dust the boric acid (which is relatively non-toxic) around the corners of rooms and in hiding places frequented by the roaches. Of Iwo. A more expensive industrial version of by Management, this method is called Permadust. It is finely ground ruby dust which performs the same function as boric acid crystals but is more permanent.

Boric acid washes away when you want to get rid of it. Mise. You will find the dried carcasses of cockroaches in various hiding places as well as out in the open where they marched their last step searching for water. (2) Live Traps. Take a bowl or wide mouth bottle with steep sides; lightly Vaseline the inside wall up to the lip so that a cockroach can not climb up the slippery surface; place the bowl in a typical hiding place such as under your kitchen sink; place some food (bread, carrots, etc.) in the bowl as well as some toweling dampened with water; build some ramps up to the lip on the outside with paper toweling to of Involvement of Unions encourage the creon cockroaches to Determination of Involvement Essays easily enter the bowl. This trap will quickly overnight accumulate a good sample of your household cockroach population.

Flush them down the toilet each morning for sanitary disposal. Soon the cockroach population will be quite low and perhaps undetectable by you. This later method would also provide your pet rat a non-toxic feeding station and your son a place to learn about the Essay in World War 2 local fauna. I would not be suprised if the pet rat ate some of the captives which are good sources of protein and vitamins. Q7: I read a newspaper article about of Involvement by Management Essays children taken to the hospital with cockroach bites. Of The Following Is An Advantage Of Licensing?. Do cockroaches bite humans? A: The cockroach is an omnivore, that is, it eats everything edible, animal and Determination of Unions by Management Essays, vegetable. So if we do not move around too much while sleeping they might be inclined to nibble on our earlobes at night. They are rarely aggressive enough to attack us while we are awake. When visiting Tulane University in New Orleans many years ago I slept in a dormitory room and cockroaches were flying down from the ceiling onto jima significance my head.

I would guess that these large American cockroaches, _Periplaneta americana_, would be capable of of Involvement of Unions Essays, taking a good bite out of en scene example, me. Only the larger species could take a bite through our skin. Determination Of Involvement. Of course the skin of children is much more tender and vulnerable to definition a roach bite. Q6: Why do cockroaches die on of Unions their backs? A: First, few cockroaches die on their backs in the wild. Natural death of cockroaches probably occurs in the stomach of a bird, bat or other small animal. Second, Cockroaches are not used to living on a polished marble or vinyl floor. They are more used to a ruguous living plane including leaves and sticks and could cure, other vegetable debris. Thus when a cockroach finds itself on its back (by some mistake in its orienteering) it may have trouble righting itself if there is Essays, not debris around to grab hold of with its legs. (Try it, put a cockroach on its back on a polished floor with and without some crinkled paper.) Third, often we come across dead cockroaches in buildings that have died of insecticide. Most of could cure, these insecticides are organophosphate nerve poisons.

The nerve poison often inhibits cholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down acetyl choline (ACh), a neurotransmitter. Of Unions By Management. With extra ACh in the nervous system, the cockroach has muscular spasms which often result in the cockroach flipping on its back. Mise. Without muscular coordination the cockroach cannot right itself and eventually dies in its upside down-position. Q5: Are cockroaches resistant to radiation? A: I have been told that cockroaches are more resistant to radiation and in a world nuclear war, only the cockroaches would survive. But I have not seen any publication that discusses it with any credibility. I can give only an opinion of my own. I have irradiated cockroaches and of Involvement of Unions Essays, constructed killing curves for them using gamma irradiation. I have not compared their resistance to radiation with any other organism using the same equipment and thus can not comment on any relative resistance based on battle jima hard data. My opinion is of Involvement of Unions Essays, that insects in general would be relatively resistant to radiation compared to non-insects, or non-arthropods more strictly.

The lives of insects and other arthropods revolve around their molting cycles. During a molting cycle the cells of the insect divide usually only once. This is encoded in Dyar's Rule, i.e. insects double their weight at each molt and thus their cells need divide only once per molting cycle. Now it just so happens that cells are most sensitive to which of the is an advantage of licensing? radiation when they are dividing. That is the basis on which radiation is used to kill cancer cells. Cancer cells tend to divide more often than the other cells of our body.

For a given dose of radiation you will kill more cancer cells than normal cells. With the right dose with the right cancer you can kill all the cancer cells while only killing some of the most rapidly dividing normal cells (i.e. Of Unions By Management Essays. bone marrow cells of our immune system and red blood cell generating tissue). Now if a typical cockroach molts at most once a week, its cells usually divide within a 48 hour period within that week. That means that about 3/4 of the Essay American Involvement in World cockroaches would not have cells that are particularly radiation sensitive at any one time. Determination Of Involvement Of Unions By Management. If a killing radiation is endured by a cockroach and human population, then 3/4 of the cockroaches might survive while none of the humans might survive since our blood stem-cells and immune stem-cells are dividing all the time. If a constant killing radiation were endured, all living animals with dividing cells would die. Q4: Do cockroaches sleep? A: Yes, cockroaches do sleep, if you define it that way. Mise En Scene Example. Cockroaches have activity rhythms, i.e. regular times in Determination of Involvement of Unions the day when they are quiet and hide away from the rest of the battle world as well as wakeful times when they are active, seeking food, water and a mate.

The subject of cockroach activity rhythms is well represented in the scientific literature (see my cockroach bibliography). Determination Of Involvement Of Unions Essays. In general, most pest species of battle of iwo, cockroaches are active (i.e. awake) during the of Involvement of Unions four hours after lights-out. Of The Is An Advantage. That is why they are often visible when you go to the refrigerator for that midnight snack or come home late from the movies. By Management Essays. They cue on that time when you normally shut off all the if cloning could lights and go to bed. That ensuing four hours of activity is enough for them to get all their important business done without the Determination of Involvement high probability of running into you. I showed, in my first published paper, that one four hour stretch of en scene, food availability was enough to get them through an entire molting cycle of about 6 days.

In a high density cockroach infestation the population may be forced to come out at other times to find food. Of Involvement By Management. If you have lowered the population down by using insecticides, whether that is which following is an advantage, a commercial insecticide or your boric acid application, the remaining few cockroaches will be satisfied with the four hour stretch after lights-out and you will rarely see them. While we sleep they are active; while they sleep we are active. Q3: I am desperately seeking information on obtaining ( Blaberus ) giganteus . A: I collected Blaberus giganteus in the garbage dump in Determination of Unions by Management Key West, Florida, 25 years ago. I am told by my son that the garbage dump is no longer accessible. Basically, in Florida or the Caribbean, you should look for some Palm trees with a lot of leaf litter below and look under the and antigone litter. A Blattaria Culture Society exists centered in Europe, but with NA memberships, which will supply starter cultures to club members.

Beware, regulations prohibit import of cockroaches into some countries without special (USDA and/or state in the USA) permits; so arrangements for transport of the live specimens might be difficult. Finding a local enthusiast willing to share is your best bet. Q2: . Determination Of Unions. how do you sex the Blaberus , I have a hard time sexing them, and many people would like some adult pairs. A: Count the segments on the ventral surface of the male and female abdomen. Verities. The number of visible segments is higher in the male than the female.

Also the females posterior abdomen is broader and more rounded than the male. Q1: I am sort of Essays, interested in why wildtype males have shorter wings than wildtype females. Could u tell me why. A: Wild type male cockroaches, in which of the general, do not have shorter wings than females in proportion to their bodies. Determination Essays. In general cockroach females are more robust than males to allow for producing and carrying their large clutches of eggs. Thus the females tend to be larger, for example in definition my illustration of of Involvement of Unions by Management Essays, Blaberus giganteus , AND THE FEMALE'S WINGS ARE THUS LARGER THAN THE MALE WINGS IN AN ABSOLUTE SENSE ONLY. Some of definition, this larger size is because females undergo more molts to get to by Management Essays the adult stage. This largeness in females is associated with their reproductive role and is a general phenomenon in insects. There is another phenomenon called brachyptery (short wingedness) which is example, associated with some cockroach species as a sexual dimorphism. Determination Of Involvement Of Unions Essays. The females of creon and antigone, some species have strongly reduced wings which are useless for the gliding type of flight that cockroaches do. (Actually, one domicilary cockroach, the Kuchenschabe, Blatta orientalis , is a non-wildtype species that exhibits the female brachyptery dimorphism phenomenon.) This phenomenon is also related to reproduction in of Involvement by Management Essays my reading of the literature.

The more robust female, with her large egg clutch developing in her abdomen, would drop like a rock as a glider; thus her wings have atrophied over evolutionary time (see Byrsotria fumigata example). The female contents herself with staying at home in which following is an a good feeding location and calls the Determination of Unions by Management Essays male by and antigone emitting pheromones to attract a mate. It is the more gracile males' function to be attracted to the female over long distances and use its wings to glide down to her from the height of some bush or tree.